GIT(1)                    (08/17/2021)                     GIT(1)

          git - the stupid content tracker

          git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
              [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
              [-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
              [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
              [--super-prefix=<path>] [--config-env=<name>=<envvar>]
              <command> [<args>]

          Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system
          with an unusually rich command set that provides both
          high-level operations and full access to internals.

          See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see giteveryday(7)
          for a useful minimum set of commands. The m[blue]Git Usercqs
          Manualm[][1] has a more in-depth introduction.

          After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to
          this page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn
          more about individual Git commands with "git help command".
          gitcli(7) manual page gives you an overview of the
          command-line command syntax.

          A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git
          documentation can be viewed at
          m[blue][] or

              Prints the Git suite version that the git program came

              Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
              commands. If the option --all or -a is given then all
              available commands are printed. If a Git command is
              named this option will bring up the manual page for that

              Other options are available to control how the manual
              page is displayed. See git-help(1) for more information,
              because git --help ...  is converted internally into git
              help ....

          -C <path>

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              Run as if git was started in <path> instead of the
              current working directory. When multiple -C options are
              given, each subsequent non-absolute -C <path> is
              interpreted relative to the preceding -C <path>. If
              <path> is present but empty, e.g.  -C "", then the
              current working directory is left unchanged.

              This option affects options that expect path name like
              --git-dir and --work-tree in that their interpretations
              of the path names would be made relative to the working
              directory caused by the -C option. For example the
              following invocations are equivalent:

                  git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
                  git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status

          -c <name>=<value>
              Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
              given will override values from configuration files. The
              <name> is expected in the same format as listed by git
              config (subkeys separated by dots).

              Note that omitting the = in git -c ...  is
              allowed and sets to the boolean true value (just
              like [foo]bar would in a config file). Including the
              equals but with an empty value (like git -c
              ...) sets to the empty string which git config
              --type=bool will convert to false.

              Like -c <name>=<value>, give configuration variable
              <name> a value, where <envvar> is the name of an
              environment variable from which to retrieve the value.
              Unlike -c there is no shortcut for directly setting the
              value to an empty string, instead the environment
              variable itself must be set to the empty string. It is
              an error if the <envvar> does not exist in the
              environment.  <envvar> may not contain an equals sign to
              avoid ambiguity with <name> containing one.

              This is useful for cases where you want to pass
              transitory configuration options to git, but are doing
              so on OScqs where other processes might be able to read
              your cmdline (e.g.  /proc/self/cmdline), but not your
              environ (e.g.  /proc/self/environ). That behavior is the
              default on Linux, but may not be on your system.

              Note that this might add security for variables such as
              http.extraHeader where the sensitive information is part
              of the value, but not e.g.  url.<base>.insteadOf where
              the sensitive information can be part of the key.

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              Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
              This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
              environment variable. If no path is given, git will
              print the current setting and then exit.

              Print the path, without trailing slash, where Gitcqs HTML
              documentation is installed and exit.

              Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for
              this version of Git and exit.

              Print the path where the Info files documenting this
              version of Git are installed and exit.

          -p, --paginate
              Pipe all output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if
              standard output is a terminal. This overrides the
              pager.<cmd> configuration options (see the
              "Configuration Mechanism" section below).

          -P, --no-pager
              Do not pipe Git output into a pager.

              Set the path to the repository (".git" directory). This
              can also be controlled by setting the GIT_DIR
              environment variable. It can be an absolute path or
              relative path to current working directory.

              Specifying the location of the ".git" directory using
              this option (or GIT_DIR environment variable) turns off
              the repository discovery that tries to find a directory
              with ".git" subdirectory (which is how the repository
              and the top-level of the working tree are discovered),
              and tells Git that you are at the top level of the
              working tree. If you are not at the top-level directory
              of the working tree, you should tell Git where the
              top-level of the working tree is, with the
              --work-tree=<path> option (or GIT_WORK_TREE environment

              If you just want to run git as if it was started in
              <path> then use git -C <path>.

              Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute
              path or a path relative to the current working
              directory. This can also be controlled by setting the

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              GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and the core.worktree
              configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-
              config(1) for a more detailed discussion).

              Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more
              details. Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE
              environment variable.

              Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which
              gives a path from above a repository down to its root.
              One use is to give submodules context about the
              superproject that invoked it.

              Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
              environment is not set, it is set to the current working

              Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
              git-replace(1) for more information.

              Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec
              magic). This is equivalent to setting the
              GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1.

              Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to
              setting the GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to
              1. Disabling globbing on individual pathspecs can be
              done using pathspec magic ":(literal)"

              Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent
              to setting the GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable
              to 1. Enabling globbing on individual pathspecs can be
              done using pathspec magic ":(glob)"

              Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to
              setting the GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS environment variable to

              Do not perform optional operations that require locks.
              This is equivalent to setting the GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS to


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              List commands by group. This is an internal/experimental
              option and may change or be removed in the future.
              Supported groups are: builtins, parseopt (builtin
              commands that use parse-options), main (all commands in
              libexec directory), others (all other commands in $PATH
              that have git- prefix), list-<category> (see categories
              in command-list.txt), nohelpers (exclude helper
              commands), alias and config (retrieve command list from
              config variable completion.commands)

          We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low
          level ("plumbing") commands.

          We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands
          and some ancillary user utilities.

        Main porcelain commands
              Add file contents to the index.

              Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.

              Create an archive of files from a named tree.

              Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a

              List, create, or delete branches.

              Move objects and refs by archive.

              Switch branches or restore working tree files.

              Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.

              Graphical alternative to git-commit.

              Remove untracked files from the working tree.

              Clone a repository into a new directory.

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              Record changes to the repository.

              Give an object a human readable name based on an
              available ref.

              Show changes between commits, commit and working tree,

              Download objects and refs from another repository.

              Prepare patches for e-mail submission.

              Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local

              Print lines matching a pattern.

              A portable graphical interface to Git.

              Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an
              existing one.

              Show commit logs.

              Run tasks to optimize Git repository data.

              Join two or more development histories together.

              Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.

              Add or inspect object notes.

              Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a
              local branch.

              Update remote refs along with associated objects.

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              Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions of a

              Reapply commits on top of another base tip.

              Reset current HEAD to the specified state.

              Restore working tree files.

              Revert some existing commits.

              Remove files from the working tree and from the index.

              Summarize git log output.

              Show various types of objects.

              Initialize and modify the sparse-checkout.

              Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.

              Show the working tree status.

              Initialize, update or inspect submodules.

              Switch branches.

              Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with

              Manage multiple working trees.

              The Git repository browser.

        Ancillary Commands

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              Get and set repository or global options.

              Git data exporter.

              Backend for fast Git data importers.

              Rewrite branches.

              Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge

              Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.

              Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.

              Manage reflog information.

              Manage set of tracked repositories.

              Pack unpacked objects in a repository.

              Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.


              Annotate file lines with commit information.

              Show what revision and author last modified each line of
              a file.

              Collect information for user to file a bug report.

              Count unpacked number of objects and their disk

              Show changes using common diff tools.

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              Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in
              the database.

              Display help information about Git.

              Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.

              Show three-way merge without touching index.

              Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.

              Show branches and their commits.

              Check the GPG signature of commits.

              Check the GPG signature of tags.

              Show logs with difference each commit introduces.

              Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).

        Interacting with Others
          These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with
          other people via patch over e-mail.

              Import a GNU Arch repository into Git.

              Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.

              Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to

              A CVS server emulator for Git.

              Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP

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              Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.

              Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.

              Generates a summary of pending changes.

              Send a collection of patches as emails.

              Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository
              and Git.

        Reset, restore and revert
          There are three commands with similar names: git reset, git
          restore and git revert.

          +o   git-revert(1) is about making a new commit that reverts
              the changes made by other commits.

          +o   git-restore(1) is about restoring files in the working
              tree from either the index or another commit. This
              command does not update your branch. The command can
              also be used to restore files in the index from another

          +o   git-reset(1) is about updating your branch, moving the
              tip in order to add or remove commits from the branch.
              This operation changes the commit history.

              git reset can also be used to restore the index,
              overlapping with git restore.

          Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level
          commands are sufficient to support development of
          alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains might
          start by reading about git-update-index(1) and git-read-

          The interface (input, output, set of options and the
          semantics) to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot
          more stable than Porcelain level commands, because these
          commands are primarily for scripted use. The interface to
          Porcelain commands on the other hand are subject to change
          in order to improve the end user experience.

          The following description divides the low-level commands
          into commands that manipulate objects (in the repository,

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          index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
          compare objects, and commands that move objects and
          references between repositories.

        Manipulation commands
              Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.

              Copy files from the index to the working tree.

              Write and verify Git commit-graph files.

              Create a new commit object.

              Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a

              Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.

              Run a three-way file merge.

              Run a merge for files needing merging.

              Creates a tag object with extra validation.

              Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.

              Write and verify multi-pack-indexes.

              Create a packed archive of objects.

              Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.

              Reads tree information into the index.

              Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.


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              Unpack objects from a packed archive.

              Register file contents in the working tree to the index.

              Update the object name stored in a ref safely.

              Create a tree object from the current index.

        Interrogation commands
              Provide content or type and size information for
              repository objects.

              Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.

              Compares files in the working tree and the index.

              Compare a tree to the working tree or index.

              Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two
              tree objects.

              Output information on each ref.

              Run a Git command on a list of repositories.

              Extract commit ID from an archive created using

              Show information about files in the index and the
              working tree.

              List references in a remote repository.

              List the contents of a tree object.

              Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.

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              Find symbolic names for given revs.

              Find redundant pack files.

              Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.

              Pick out and massage parameters.

              Show packed archive index.

              List references in a local repository.

              Creates a temporary file with a blobcqs contents.

              Show a Git logical variable.

              Validate packed Git archive files.

          In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files
          in the working tree.

        Syncing repositories
              A really simple server for Git repositories.

              Receive missing objects from another repository.

              Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.

              Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.

              Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.

          The following are helper commands used by the above; end
          users typically do not use them directly.

              Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.

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              Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.

              Receive what is pushed into the repository.

              Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.

              Send archive back to git-archive.

              Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.

        Internal helper commands
          These are internal helper commands used by other commands;
          end users typically do not use them directly.

              Display gitattributes information.

              Debug gitignore / exclude files.

              Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.

              Ensures that a reference name is well formed.

              Display data in columns.

              Retrieve and store user credentials.

              Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.

              Helper to store credentials on disk.

              Produce a merge commit message.

              Add or parse structured information in commit messages.

              Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail

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              Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.

              The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.

              Compute unique ID for a patch.

              Gitcqs i18n setup code for shell scripts.

              Common Git shell script setup code.

              Remove unnecessary whitespace.

          The following documentation pages are guides about Git

              Defining attributes per path.

              Git command-line interface and conventions.

              A Git core tutorial for developers.

              Providing usernames and passwords to Git.

              Git for CVS users.

              Tweaking diff output.

              A useful minimum set of commands for Everyday Git.

              Frequently asked questions about using Git.

              A Git Glossary.

              Hooks used by Git.

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              Specifies intentionally untracked files to ignore.

              Map author/committer names and/or E-Mail addresses.

              Defining submodule properties.

              Git namespaces.

              Helper programs to interact with remote repositories.

              Git Repository Layout.

              Specifying revisions and ranges for Git.

              Mounting one repository inside another.

              A tutorial introduction to Git.

              A tutorial introduction to Git: part two.

              An overview of recommended workflows with Git.

          Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that
          are per repository and are per user. Such a configuration
          file may look like this:

              # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.

              ; core variables
                      ; Don't trust file modes
                      filemode = false

              ; user identity
                      name = "Junio C Hamano"
                      email = ""

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          Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
          their operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list
          and more details about the configuration mechanism.

              Indicates the object name for any type of object.

              Indicates a blob object name.

              Indicates a tree object name.

              Indicates a commit object name.

              Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command
              that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
              operate on a <tree> object but automatically
              dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a

              Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that
              takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
              operate on a <commit> object but automatically
              dereferences <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.

              Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one
              of: blob, tree, commit, or tag.

              Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
              root of the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.

          Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the
          following symbolic notation:

              indicates the head of the current branch.

              a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).

              a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).

          For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see

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          "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).

          Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.

          Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.

          Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional
          information in the $GIT_DIR.

          Please see gitglossary(7).

          Various Git commands use the following environment

        The Git Repository
          These environment variables apply to all core Git commands.
          Nb: it is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by
          SCMS sitting above Git so take care if using a foreign

              This environment allows the specification of an
              alternate index file. If not specified, the default of
              $GIT_DIR/index is used.

              This environment variable allows the specification of an
              index version for new repositories. It woncqt affect
              existing index files. By default index file version 2 or
              3 is used. See git-update-index(1) for more information.

              If the object storage directory is specified via this
              environment variable then the sha1 directories are
              created underneath - otherwise the default
              $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.

              Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects
              can be archived into shared, read-only directories. This
              variable specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";"
              separated) list of Git object directories which can be
              used to search for Git objects. New objects will not be
              written to these directories.

              Entries that begin with " (double-quote) will be
              interpreted as C-style quoted paths, removing leading
              and trailing double-quotes and respecting backslash
              escapes. E.g., the value

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              "path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path has two paths:
              path-with-"-and-:-in-it and vanilla-path.

              If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it
              specifies a path to use instead of the default .git for
              the base of the repository. The --git-dir command-line
              option also sets this value.

              Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can
              also be controlled by the --work-tree command-line
              option and the core.worktree configuration variable.

              Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details.
              The --namespace command-line option also sets this

              This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
              If set, it is a list of directories that Git should not
              chdir up into while looking for a repository directory
              (useful for excluding slow-loading network directories).
              It will not exclude the current working directory or a
              GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
              Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and
              resolve any symlink that might be present in order to
              compare them with the current directory. However, if
              even this access is slow, you can add an empty entry to
              the list to tell Git that the subsequent entries are not
              symlinks and needncqt be resolved; e.g.,

              When run in a directory that does not have ".git"
              repository directory, Git tries to find such a directory
              in the parent directories to find the top of the working
              tree, but by default it does not cross filesystem
              boundaries. This environment variable can be set to true
              to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries. Like
              GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an
              explicit repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the
              command line.

              If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files
              that are normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this
              path instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or
              index are taken from $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-
              layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for details. This variable
              has lower precedence than other path variables such as

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              If this variable is set, the default hash algorithm for
              new repositories will be set to this value. This value
              is currently ignored when cloning; the setting of the
              remote repository is used instead. The default is
              "sha1". THIS VARIABLE IS EXPERIMENTAL! See
              --object-format in git-init(1).

        Git Commits
              The human-readable name used in the author identity when
              creating commit or tag objects, or when writing reflogs.
              Overrides the and configuration

              The email address used in the author identity when
              creating commit or tag objects, or when writing reflogs.
              Overrides the and configuration

              The date used for the author identity when creating
              commit or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. See
              git-commit(1) for valid formats.

              The human-readable name used in the committer identity
              when creating commit or tag objects, or when writing
              reflogs. Overrides the and
              configuration settings.

              The email address used in the author identity when
              creating commit or tag objects, or when writing reflogs.
              Overrides the and
              configuration settings.

              The date used for the committer identity when creating
              commit or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. See
              git-commit(1) for valid formats.

              The email address used in the author and committer
              identities if no other relevant environment variable or
              configuration setting has been set.

        Git Diffs

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              Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set
              the number of context lines shown when a unified diff is
              created. This takes precedence over any "-U" or
              "--unified" option value passed on the Git diff command

              When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set,
              the program named by it is called to generate diffs, and
              Git does not use its builtin diff machinery. For a path
              that is added, removed, or modified, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
              is called with 7 parameters:

                  path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode


              are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents
              of <old|new>,

              are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,

              are the octal representation of the file modes.

              The file parameters can point at the usercqs working file
              (e.g.  new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.
              old-file when a new file is added), or a temporary file
              (e.g.  old-file in the index).  GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should
              not worry about unlinking the temporary file --- it is
              removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.

              For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called
              with 1 parameter, <path>.

              For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two
              environment variables, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and
              GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.

              A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.

              The total number of paths.

              A number controlling the amount of output shown by the
              recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See

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              This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set
              to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not
              launch a pager. See also the core.pager option in git-

              A number controlling how many seconds to delay before
              showing optional progress indicators. Defaults to 2.

              This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL.
              It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive
              mode, an editor is to be launched. See also git-var(1)
              and the core.editor option in git-config(1).

              This environment variable overrides the configured Git
              editor when editing the todo list of an interactive
              rebase. See also git-rebase(1) and the sequence.editor
              option in git-config(1).

              If either of these environment variables is set then git
              fetch and git push will use the specified command
              instead of ssh when they need to connect to a remote
              system. The command-line parameters passed to the
              configured command are determined by the ssh variant.
              See ssh.variant option in git-config(1) for details.

              $GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is
              interpreted by the shell, which allows additional
              arguments to be included.  $GIT_SSH on the other hand
              must be just the path to a program (which can be a
              wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are

              Usually it is easier to configure any desired options
              through your personal .ssh/config file. Please consult
              your ssh documentation for further details.

              If this environment variable is set, it overrides Gitcqs
              autodetection whether
              GIT_SSH/GIT_SSH_COMMAND/core.sshCommand refer to
              OpenSSH, plink or tortoiseplink. This variable overrides
              the config setting ssh.variant that serves the same

              If this environment variable is set, then Git commands
              which need to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for

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              HTTP or IMAP authentication) will call this program with
              a suitable prompt as command-line argument and read the
              password from its STDOUT. See also the core.askPass
              option in git-config(1).

              If this environment variable is set to 0, git will not
              prompt on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP

              Take the configuration from the given files instead from
              global or system-level configuration files. If
              GIT_CONFIG_SYSTEM is set, the system config file defined
              at build time (usually /etc/gitconfig) will not be read.
              Likewise, if GIT_CONFIG_GLOBAL is set, neither
              $HOME/.gitconfig nor $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config will be
              read. Can be set to /dev/null to skip reading
              configuration files of the respective level.

              Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
              $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable
              can be used along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to
              create a predictable environment for a picky script, or
              you can set it temporarily to avoid using a buggy
              /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone with
              sufficient permissions to fix it.

              If this environment variable is set to "1", then
              commands such as git blame (in incremental mode), git
              rev-list, git log, git check-attr and git check-ignore
              will force a flush of the output stream after each
              record have been flushed. If this variable is set to
              "0", the output of these commands will be done using
              completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
              not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented
              flushing based on whether stdout appears to be
              redirected to a file or not.

              Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion,
              built-in command execution and external command

              If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true"
              (comparison is case insensitive), trace messages will be
              printed to stderr.

              If the variable is set to an integer value greater than
              2 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret

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              this value as an open file descriptor and will try to
              write the trace messages into this file descriptor.

              Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute
              path (starting with a / character), Git will interpret
              this as a file path and will try to append the trace
              messages to it.

              Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
              "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.

              Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor
              extension. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output

              Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs.
              For each access, the pack file name and an offset in the
              pack is recorded. This may be helpful for
              troubleshooting some pack-related performance problems.
              See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

              Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out
              of a given program. This can help with debugging object
              negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned
              off at a packet starting with "PACK" (but see
              GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for available
              trace output options.

              Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given
              program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
              verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You
              almost certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
              GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than displaying
              it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.

              Note that this is currently only implemented for the
              client side of clones and fetches.

              Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total
              execution time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for
              available trace output options.

              Enables trace messages for operations on the ref
              database. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output

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              Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree
              and current working directory after Git has completed
              its setup phase. See GIT_TRACE for available trace
              output options.

              Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching
              / cloning of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for
              available trace output options.

              Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and
              outgoing data, including descriptive information, of the
              git transport protocol. This is similar to doing curl
              --trace-ascii on the command line. See GIT_TRACE for
              available trace output options.

              When a curl trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above),
              do not dump data (that is, only dump info lines and

              Enables more detailed trace messages from the "trace2"
              library. Output from GIT_TRACE2 is a simple text-based
              format for human readability.

              If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true"
              (comparison is case insensitive), trace messages will be
              printed to stderr.

              If the variable is set to an integer value greater than
              2 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret
              this value as an open file descriptor and will try to
              write the trace messages into this file descriptor.

              Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute
              path (starting with a / character), Git will interpret
              this as a file path and will try to append the trace
              messages to it. If the path already exists and is a
              directory, the trace messages will be written to files
              (one per process) in that directory, named according to
              the last component of the SID and an optional counter
              (to avoid filename collisions).

              In addition, if the variable is set to
              af_unix:[<socket_type>:]<absolute-pathname>, Git will
              try to open the path as a Unix Domain Socket. The socket
              type can be either stream or dgram.

              Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or

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              "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.

              See m[blue]Trace2 documentationm[][2] for full details.

              This setting writes a JSON-based format that is suited
              for machine interpretation. See GIT_TRACE2 for available
              trace output options and m[blue]Trace2
              documentationm[][2] for full details.

              In addition to the text-based messages available in
              GIT_TRACE2, this setting writes a column-based format
              for understanding nesting regions. See GIT_TRACE2 for
              available trace output options and m[blue]Trace2
              documentationm[][2] for full details.

              By default, when tracing is activated, Git redacts the
              values of cookies, the "Authorization:" header, and the
              "Proxy-Authorization:" header. Set this variable to 0 to
              prevent this redaction.

              Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all
              pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For
              example, running GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log --
              '*.c' will search for commits that touch the path *.c,
              not any paths that the glob *.c matches. You might want
              this if you are feeding literal paths to Git (e.g.,
              paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff
              output, etc).

              Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all
              pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).

              Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all
              pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).

              Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all
              pathspecs as case-insensitive.

              When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to
              keep track of the reason why the ref was updated (which
              is typically the name of the high-level command that
              updated the ref), in addition to the old and new values
              of the ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use
              set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set

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              its name to this variable when it is invoked as the top
              level command by the end user, to be recorded in the
              body of the reflog.

              If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when
              iterating over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted
              repository, this does nothing. However, enabling it may
              help git to detect and abort some operations in the
              presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable
              automatically when performing destructive operations
              like git-prune(1). You should not need to set it
              yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making
              sure an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because
              you are cloning a repository to make a backup).

              If set to a colon-separated list of protocols, behave as
              if protocol.allow is set to never, and each of the
              listed protocols has protocol.<name>.allow set to always
              (overriding any existing configuration). In other words,
              any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
              this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). See the
              description of protocol.allow in git-config(1) for more

              Set to 0 to prevent protocols used by fetch/push/clone
              which are configured to the user state. This is useful
              to restrict recursive submodule initialization from an
              untrusted repository or for programs which feed
              potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See git-
              config(1) for more details.

              For internal use only. Used in handshaking the wire
              protocol. Contains a colon : separated list of keys with
              optional values key[=value]. Presence of unknown keys
              and values must be ignored.

              If set to 0, Git will complete any requested operation
              without performing any optional sub-operations that
              require taking a lock. For example, this will prevent
              git status from refreshing the index as a side effect.
              This is useful for processes running in the background
              which do not want to cause lock contention with other
              operations on the repository. Defaults to 1.

              Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard
              input/output/error handles to paths specified by the

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              environment variables. This is particularly useful in
              multi-threaded applications where the canonical way to
              pass standard handles via CreateProcess() is not an
              option because it would require the handles to be marked
              inheritable (and consequently every spawned process
              would inherit them, possibly blocking regular Git
              operations). The primary intended use case is to use
              named pipes for communication (e.g.

              Two special values are supported: off will simply close
              the corresponding standard handle, and if
              GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR is 2>&1, standard error will be
              redirected to the same handle as standard output.

          GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS (deprecated)
              If set to yes, print an ellipsis following an
              (abbreviated) SHA-1 value. This affects indications of
              detached HEADs (git-checkout(1)) and the raw diff output
              (git-diff(1)). Printing an ellipsis in the cases
              mentioned is no longer considered adequate and support
              for it is likely to be removed in the foreseeable future
              (along with the variable).

          More detail on the following is available from the
          m[blue]Git concepts chapter of the user-manualm[][3] and

          A Git project normally consists of a working directory with
          a ".git" subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory
          contains, among other things, a compressed object database
          representing the complete history of the project, an "index"
          file which links that history to the current contents of the
          working tree, and named pointers into that history such as
          tags and branch heads.

          The object database contains objects of three main types:
          blobs, which hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and
          other trees to build up directory hierarchies; and commits,
          which each reference a single tree and some number of parent

          The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a
          "changeset" or "version", represents a step in the projectcqs
          history, and each parent represents an immediately preceding
          step. Commits with more than one parent represent merges of
          independent lines of development.

          All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents,
          normally written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names
          are globally unique. The entire history leading up to a

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          commit can be vouched for by signing just that commit. A
          fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this purpose.

          When first created, objects are stored in individual files,
          but for efficiency may later be compressed together into
          "pack files".

          Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in
          history. A ref may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or
          the name of another ref. Refs with names beginning ref/head/
          contain the SHA-1 name of the most recent commit (or "head")
          of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of tags of
          interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named
          HEAD contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.

          The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and,
          for each path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The
          blob object represents the contents of the file as of the
          head of the current branch. The attributes (last modified
          time, size, etc.) are taken from the corresponding file in
          the working tree. Subsequent changes to the working tree can
          be found by comparing these attributes. The index may be
          updated with new content, and new commits may be created
          from the content stored in the index.

          The index is also capable of storing multiple entries
          (called "stages") for a given pathname. These stages are
          used to hold the various unmerged version of a file when a
          merge is in progress.

          See the references in the "description" section to get
          started using Git. The following is probably more detail
          than necessary for a first-time user.

          The m[blue]Git concepts chapter of the user-manualm[][3] and
          gitcore-tutorial(7) both provide introductions to the
          underlying Git architecture.

          See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended

          See also the m[blue]howtom[][4] documents for some useful

          The internals are documented in the m[blue]Git API

          Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-


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          Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently
          maintained by Junio C Hamano. Numerous contributions have
          come from the Git mailing list
          gives you a more complete list of contributors.

          If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-
          shortlog(1) and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for
          specific parts of the project.

          Report bugs to the Git mailing list
          <m[blue]git@vger.kernel.orgm[][6]> where the development and
          maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
          subscribed to the list to send a message there. See the list
          archive at m[blue][] for
          previous bug reports and other discussions.

          Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed
          privately to the Git Security mailing list

          gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-
          migration(7), gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7),
          gitcli(7), m[blue]The Git Usercqs Manualm[][1],

          Part of the git(1) suite

           1. Git Usercqs Manual

           2. Trace2 documentation

           3. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual

           4. howto

           5. Git API documentation



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