GIT-ADD(1)                (08/17/2021)                 GIT-ADD(1)

          git-add - Add file contents to the index

          git add [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
                    [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
                    [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--renormalize]
                    [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]]
                    [--] [<pathspec>...]

          This command updates the index using the current content
          found in the working tree, to prepare the content staged for
          the next commit. It typically adds the current content of
          existing paths as a whole, but with some options it can also
          be used to add content with only part of the changes made to
          the working tree files applied, or remove paths that do not
          exist in the working tree anymore.

          The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the working
          tree, and it is this snapshot that is taken as the contents
          of the next commit. Thus after making any changes to the
          working tree, and before running the commit command, you
          must use the add command to add any new or modified files to
          the index.

          This command can be performed multiple times before a
          commit. It only adds the content of the specified file(s) at
          the time the add command is run; if you want subsequent
          changes included in the next commit, then you must run git
          add again to add the new content to the index.

          The git status command can be used to obtain a summary of
          which files have changes that are staged for the next

          The git add command will not add ignored files by default.
          If any ignored files were explicitly specified on the
          command line, git add will fail with a list of ignored
          files. Ignored files reached by directory recursion or
          filename globbing performed by Git (quote your globs before
          the shell) will be silently ignored. The git add command can
          be used to add ignored files with the -f (force) option.

          Please see git-commit(1) for alternative ways to add content
          to a commit.


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              Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g.  *.c) can be
              given to add all matching files. Also a leading
              directory name (e.g.  dir to add dir/file1 and
              dir/file2) can be given to update the index to match the
              current state of the directory as a whole (e.g.
              specifying dir will record not just a file dir/file1
              modified in the working tree, a file dir/file2 added to
              the working tree, but also a file dir/file3 removed from
              the working tree). Note that older versions of Git used
              to ignore removed files; use --no-all option if you want
              to add modified or new files but ignore removed ones.

              For more details about the <pathspec> syntax, see the
              pathspec entry in gitglossary(7).

          -n, --dry-run
              Doncqt actually add the file(s), just show if they exist
              and/or will be ignored.

          -v, --verbose
              Be verbose.

          -f, --force
              Allow adding otherwise ignored files.

          -i, --interactive
              Add modified contents in the working tree interactively
              to the index. Optional path arguments may be supplied to
              limit operation to a subset of the working tree. See
              lqInteractive moderq for details.

          -p, --patch
              Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index
              and the work tree and add them to the index. This gives
              the user a chance to review the difference before adding
              modified contents to the index.

              This effectively runs add --interactive, but bypasses
              the initial command menu and directly jumps to the patch
              subcommand. See lqInteractive moderq for details.

          -e, --edit
              Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the
              user edit it. After the editor was closed, adjust the
              hunk headers and apply the patch to the index.

              The intent of this option is to pick and choose lines of
              the patch to apply, or even to modify the contents of
              lines to be staged. This can be quicker and more
              flexible than using the interactive hunk selector.
              However, it is easy to confuse oneself and create a
              patch that does not apply to the index. See EDITING

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              PATCHES below.

          -u, --update
              Update the index just where it already has an entry
              matching <pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies
              index entries to match the working tree, but adds no new

              If no <pathspec> is given when -u option is used, all
              tracked files in the entire working tree are updated
              (old versions of Git used to limit the update to the
              current directory and its subdirectories).

          -A, --all, --no-ignore-removal
              Update the index not only where the working tree has a
              file matching <pathspec> but also where the index
              already has an entry. This adds, modifies, and removes
              index entries to match the working tree.

              If no <pathspec> is given when -A option is used, all
              files in the entire working tree are updated (old
              versions of Git used to limit the update to the current
              directory and its subdirectories).

          --no-all, --ignore-removal
              Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to
              the index and files modified in the working tree, but
              ignore files that have been removed from the working
              tree. This option is a no-op when no <pathspec> is used.

              This option is primarily to help users who are used to
              older versions of Git, whose "git add <pathspec>..." was
              a synonym for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e.
              ignored removed files.

          -N, --intent-to-add
              Record only the fact that the path will be added later.
              An entry for the path is placed in the index with no
              content. This is useful for, among other things, showing
              the unstaged content of such files with git diff and
              committing them with git commit -a.

              Doncqt add the file(s), but only refresh their stat()
              information in the index.

              If some files could not be added because of errors
              indexing them, do not abort the operation, but continue
              adding the others. The command shall still exit with
              non-zero status. The configuration variable
              add.ignoreErrors can be set to true to make this the

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              default behaviour.

              This option can only be used together with --dry-run. By
              using this option the user can check if any of the given
              files would be ignored, no matter if they are already
              present in the work tree or not.

              By default, git add will warn when adding an embedded
              repository to the index without using git submodule add
              to create an entry in .gitmodules. This option will
              suppress the warning (e.g., if you are manually
              performing operations on submodules).

              Apply the "clean" process freshly to all tracked files
              to forcibly add them again to the index. This is useful
              after changing core.autocrlf configuration or the text
              attribute in order to correct files added with wrong
              CRLF/LF line endings. This option implies -u.

              Override the executable bit of the added files. The
              executable bit is only changed in the index, the files
              on disk are left unchanged.

              Pathspec is passed in <file> instead of commandline
              args. If <file> is exactly - then standard input is
              used. Pathspec elements are separated by LF or CR/LF.
              Pathspec elements can be quoted as explained for the
              configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-
              config(1)). See also --pathspec-file-nul and global

              Only meaningful with --pathspec-from-file. Pathspec
              elements are separated with NUL character and all other
              characters are taken literally (including newlines and

              This option can be used to separate command-line options
              from the list of files, (useful when filenames might be
              mistaken for command-line options).

          +o   Adds content from all *.txt files under Documentation
              directory and its subdirectories:

                  $ git add Documentation/\*.txt

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              Note that the asterisk * is quoted from the shell in
              this example; this lets the command include the files
              from subdirectories of Documentation/ directory.

          +o   Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts:

                  $ git add git-*.sh

              Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk
              (i.e. you are listing the files explicitly), it does not
              consider subdir/

          When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the
          output of the status subcommand, and then goes into its
          interactive command loop.

          The command loop shows the list of subcommands available,
          and gives a prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt
          ends with a single >, you can pick only one of the choices
          given and type return, like this:

                  *** Commands ***
                    1: status       2: update       3: revert       4: add untracked
                    5: patch        6: diff         7: quit         8: help
                  What now> 1

          You also could say s or sta or status above as long as the
          choice is unique.

          The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and

              This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what
              will be committed if you say git commit), and between
              index and working tree files (i.e. what you could stage
              further before git commit using git add) for each path.
              A sample output looks like this:

                                staged     unstaged path
                       1:       binary      nothing foo.png
                       2:     +403/-35        +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl

              It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (but
              that is binary so line count cannot be shown) and there
              is no difference between indexed copy and the working
              tree version (if the working tree version were also
              different, binary would have been shown in place of
              nothing). The other file, git-add--interactive.perl, has
              403 lines added and 35 lines deleted if you commit what

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              is in the index, but working tree file has further
              modifications (one addition and one deletion).

              This shows the status information and issues an
              "Update>>" prompt. When the prompt ends with double >>,
              you can make more than one selection, concatenated with
              whitespace or comma. Also you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5
              7,9" to choose 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the second
              number in a range is omitted, all remaining patches are
              taken. E.g. "7-" to choose 7,8,9 from the list. You can
              say * to choose everything.

              What you chose are then highlighted with *, like this:

                             staged     unstaged path
                    1:       binary      nothing foo.png
                  * 2:     +403/-35        +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl

              To remove selection, prefix the input with - like this:

                  Update>> -2

              After making the selection, answer with an empty line to
              stage the contents of working tree files for selected
              paths in the index.

              This has a very similar UI to update, and the staged
              information for selected paths are reverted to that of
              the HEAD version. Reverting new paths makes them

          add untracked
              This has a very similar UI to update and revert, and
              lets you add untracked paths to the index.

              This lets you choose one path out of a status like
              selection. After choosing the path, it presents the diff
              between the index and the working tree file and asks you
              if you want to stage the change of each hunk. You can
              select one of the following options and type return:

                  y - stage this hunk
                  n - do not stage this hunk
                  q - quit; do not stage this hunk or any of the remaining ones
                  a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file
                  d - do not stage this hunk or any of the later hunks in the file
                  g - select a hunk to go to
                  / - search for a hunk matching the given regex
                  j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk

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                  J - leave this hunk undecided, see next hunk
                  k - leave this hunk undecided, see previous undecided hunk
                  K - leave this hunk undecided, see previous hunk
                  s - split the current hunk into smaller hunks
                  e - manually edit the current hunk
                  ? - print help

              After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any
              hunk that was chosen, the index is updated with the
              selected hunks.

              You can omit having to type return here, by setting the
              configuration variable interactive.singleKey to true.

              This lets you review what will be committed (i.e.
              between HEAD and index).

          Invoking git add -e or selecting e from the interactive hunk
          selector will open a patch in your editor; after the editor
          exits, the result is applied to the index. You are free to
          make arbitrary changes to the patch, but note that some
          changes may have confusing results, or even result in a
          patch that cannot be applied. If you want to abort the
          operation entirely (i.e., stage nothing new in the index),
          simply delete all lines of the patch. The list below
          describes some common things you may see in a patch, and
          which editing operations make sense on them.

          added content
              Added content is represented by lines beginning with
              "+". You can prevent staging any addition lines by
              deleting them.

          removed content
              Removed content is represented by lines beginning with
              "-". You can prevent staging their removal by converting
              the "-" to a " " (space).

          modified content
              Modified content is represented by "-" lines (removing
              the old content) followed by "+" lines (adding the
              replacement content). You can prevent staging the
              modification by converting "-" lines to " ", and
              removing "+" lines. Beware that modifying only half of
              the pair is likely to introduce confusing changes to the

          There are also more complex operations that can be
          performed. But beware that because the patch is applied only
          to the index and not the working tree, the working tree will

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          appear to "undo" the change in the index. For example,
          introducing a new line into the index that is in neither the
          HEAD nor the working tree will stage the new line for
          commit, but the line will appear to be reverted in the
          working tree.

          Avoid using these constructs, or do so with extreme caution.

          removing untouched content
              Content which does not differ between the index and
              working tree may be shown on context lines, beginning
              with a " " (space). You can stage context lines for
              removal by converting the space to a "-". The resulting
              working tree file will appear to re-add the content.

          modifying existing content
              One can also modify context lines by staging them for
              removal (by converting " " to "-") and adding a "+" line
              with the new content. Similarly, one can modify "+"
              lines for existing additions or modifications. In all
              cases, the new modification will appear reverted in the
              working tree.

          new content
              You may also add new content that does not exist in the
              patch; simply add new lines, each starting with "+". The
              addition will appear reverted in the working tree.

          There are also several operations which should be avoided
          entirely, as they will make the patch impossible to apply:

          +o   adding context (" ") or removal ("-") lines

          +o   deleting context or removal lines

          +o   modifying the contents of context or removal lines

          git-status(1) git-rm(1) git-reset(1) git-mv(1) git-commit(1)

          Part of the git(1) suite

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