GIT-DIFF-TREE(1)          (08/17/2021)           GIT-DIFF-TREE(1)

     NAME
          git-diff-tree - Compares the content and mode of blobs found
          via two tree objects

     SYNOPSIS
          git diff-tree [--stdin] [-m] [-s] [-v] [--no-commit-id] [--pretty]
                        [-t] [-r] [-c | --cc] [--combined-all-paths] [--root] [--merge-base]
                        [<common diff options>] <tree-ish> [<tree-ish>] [<path>...]

     DESCRIPTION
          Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via two
          tree objects.

          If there is only one <tree-ish> given, the commit is
          compared with its parents (see --stdin below).

          Note that git diff-tree can use the tree encapsulated in a
          commit object.

     OPTIONS
          -p, -u, --patch
              Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

          -s, --no-patch
              Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like git show
              that show the patch by default, or to cancel the effect
              of --patch.

          -U<n>, --unified=<n>
              Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the
              usual three. Implies --patch.

          --output=<file>
              Output to a specific file instead of stdout.

          --output-indicator-new=<char>,
          --output-indicator-old=<char>,
          --output-indicator-context=<char>
              Specify the character used to indicate new, old or
              context lines in the generated patch. Normally they are
              +, - and ' ' respectively.

          --raw
              Generate the diff in raw format. This is the default.

          --patch-with-raw
              Synonym for -p --raw.

          --indent-heuristic

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              Enable the heuristic that shifts diff hunk boundaries to
              make patches easier to read. This is the default.

          --no-indent-heuristic
              Disable the indent heuristic.

          --minimal
              Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff
              is produced.

          --patience
              Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

          --histogram
              Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

          --anchored=<text>
              Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.

              This option may be specified more than once.

              If a line exists in both the source and destination,
              exists only once, and starts with this text, this
              algorithm attempts to prevent it from appearing as a
              deletion or addition in the output. It uses the
              "patience diff" algorithm internally.

          --diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}
              Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

              default, myers
                  The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is
                  the default.

              minimal
                  Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
                  diff is produced.

              patience
                  Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating
                  patches.

              histogram
                  This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to
                  "support low-occurrence common elements".

              For instance, if you configured the diff.algorithm
              variable to a non-default value and want to use the
              default one, then you have to use
              --diff-algorithm=default option.

          --stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]

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              Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as
              necessary will be used for the filename part, and the
              rest for the graph part. Maximum width defaults to
              terminal width, or 80 columns if not connected to a
              terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The width of
              the filename part can be limited by giving another width
              <name-width> after a comma. The width of the graph part
              can be limited by using --stat-graph-width=<width>
              (affects all commands generating a stat graph) or by
              setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width> (does not affect git
              format-patch). By giving a third parameter <count>, you
              can limit the output to the first <count> lines,
              followed by ...  if there are more.

              These parameters can also be set individually with
              --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and
              --stat-count=<count>.

          --compact-summary
              Output a condensed summary of extended header
              information such as file creations or deletions ("new"
              or "gone", optionally "+l" if itcqs a symlink) and mode
              changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding or removing executable
              bit respectively) in diffstat. The information is put
              between the filename part and the graph part. Implies
              --stat.

          --numstat
              Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted
              lines in decimal notation and pathname without
              abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
              binary files, outputs two - instead of saying 0 0.

          --shortstat
              Output only the last line of the --stat format
              containing total number of modified files, as well as
              number of added and deleted lines.

          -X[<param1,param2,...>], --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
              Output the distribution of relative amount of changes
              for each sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be
              customized by passing it a comma separated list of
              parameters. The defaults are controlled by the
              diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git-config(1)).
              The following parameters are available:

              changes
                  Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines
                  that have been removed from the source, or added to
                  the destination. This ignores the amount of pure
                  code movements within a file. In other words,
                  rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much

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                  as other changes. This is the default behavior when
                  no parameter is given.

              lines
                  Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular
                  line-based diff analysis, and summing the
                  removed/added line counts. (For binary files, count
                  64-byte chunks instead, since binary files have no
                  natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
                  --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it
                  does count rearranged lines within a file as much as
                  other changes. The resulting output is consistent
                  with what you get from the other --*stat options.

              files
                  Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number
                  of files changed. Each changed file counts equally
                  in the dirstat analysis. This is the computationally
                  cheapest --dirstat behavior, since it does not have
                  to look at the file contents at all.

              cumulative
                  Count changes in a child directory for the parent
                  directory as well. Note that when using cumulative,
                  the sum of the percentages reported may exceed 100%.
                  The default (non-cumulative) behavior can be
                  specified with the noncumulative parameter.

              <limit>
                  An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3%
                  by default). Directories contributing less than this
                  percentage of the changes are not shown in the
                  output.

              Example: The following will count changed files, while
              ignoring directories with less than 10% of the total
              amount of changed files, and accumulating child
              directory counts in the parent directories:
              --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

          --cumulative
              Synonym for --dirstat=cumulative

          --dirstat-by-file[=<param1,param2>...]
              Synonym for --dirstat=files,param1,param2...

          --summary
              Output a condensed summary of extended header
              information such as creations, renames and mode changes.

          --patch-with-stat
              Synonym for -p --stat.

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          -z
              When --raw, --numstat, --name-only or --name-status has
              been given, do not munge pathnames and use NULs as
              output field terminators.

              Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters
              are quoted as explained for the configuration variable
              core.quotePath (see git-config(1)).

          --name-only
              Show only names of changed files. The file names are
              often encoded in UTF-8. For more information see the
              discussion about encoding in the git-log(1) manual page.

          --name-status
              Show only names and status of changed files. See the
              description of the --diff-filter option on what the
              status letters mean. Just like --name-only the file
              names are often encoded in UTF-8.

          --submodule[=<format>]
              Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When
              specifying --submodule=short the short format is used.
              This format just shows the names of the commits at the
              beginning and end of the range. When --submodule or
              --submodule=log is specified, the log format is used.
              This format lists the commits in the range like git-
              submodule(1) summary does. When --submodule=diff is
              specified, the diff format is used. This format shows an
              inline diff of the changes in the submodule contents
              between the commit range. Defaults to diff.submodule or
              the short format if the config option is unset.

          --color[=<when>]
              Show colored diff.  --color (i.e. without =<when>) is
              the same as --color=always.  <when> can be one of
              always, never, or auto.

          --no-color
              Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

          --color-moved[=<mode>]
              Moved lines of code are colored differently. The <mode>
              defaults to no if the option is not given and to zebra
              if the option with no mode is given. The mode must be
              one of:

              no
                  Moved lines are not highlighted.

              default
                  Is a synonym for zebra. This may change to a more

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                  sensible mode in the future.

              plain
                  Any line that is added in one location and was
                  removed in another location will be colored with
                  color.diff.newMoved. Similarly color.diff.oldMoved
                  will be used for removed lines that are added
                  somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any
                  moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to
                  determine if a block of code was moved without
                  permutation.

              blocks
                  Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric
                  characters are detected greedily. The detected
                  blocks are painted using either the
                  color.diff.{old,new}Moved color. Adjacent blocks
                  cannot be told apart.

              zebra
                  Blocks of moved text are detected as in blocks mode.
                  The blocks are painted using either the
                  color.diff.{old,new}Moved color or
                  color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative. The change
                  between the two colors indicates that a new block
                  was detected.

              dimmed-zebra
                  Similar to zebra, but additional dimming of
                  uninteresting parts of moved code is performed. The
                  bordering lines of two adjacent blocks are
                  considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
                  dimmed_zebra is a deprecated synonym.

          --no-color-moved
              Turn off move detection. This can be used to override
              configuration settings. It is the same as
              --color-moved=no.

          --color-moved-ws=<modes>
              This configures how whitespace is ignored when
              performing the move detection for --color-moved. These
              modes can be given as a comma separated list:

              no
                  Do not ignore whitespace when performing move
                  detection.

              ignore-space-at-eol
                  Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

              ignore-space-change

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                  Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores
                  whitespace at line end, and considers all other
                  sequences of one or more whitespace characters to be
                  equivalent.

              ignore-all-space
                  Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
                  differences even if one line has whitespace where
                  the other line has none.

              allow-indentation-change
                  Initially ignore any whitespace in the move
                  detection, then group the moved code blocks only
                  into a block if the change in whitespace is the same
                  per line. This is incompatible with the other modes.

          --no-color-moved-ws
              Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection.
              This can be used to override configuration settings. It
              is the same as --color-moved-ws=no.

          --word-diff[=<mode>]
              Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed
              words. By default, words are delimited by whitespace;
              see --word-diff-regex below. The <mode> defaults to
              plain, and must be one of:

              color
                  Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies
                  --color.

              plain
                  Show words as [-removed-] and {+added+}. Makes no
                  attempts to escape the delimiters if they appear in
                  the input, so the output may be ambiguous.

              porcelain
                  Use a special line-based format intended for script
                  consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are
                  printed in the usual unified diff format, starting
                  with a +/-/` ` character at the beginning of the
                  line and extending to the end of the line. Newlines
                  in the input are represented by a tilde ~ on a line
                  of its own.

              none
                  Disable word diff again.

              Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is
              used to highlight the changed parts in all modes if
              enabled.

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          --word-diff-regex=<regex>
              Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of
              considering runs of non-whitespace to be a word. Also
              implies --word-diff unless it was already enabled.

              Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered
              a word. Anything between these matches is considered
              whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
              differences. You may want to append |[^[:space:]] to
              your regular expression to make sure that it matches all
              non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a
              newline is silently truncated(!) at the newline.

              For example, --word-diff-regex=.  will treat each
              character as a word and, correspondingly, show
              differences character by character.

              The regex can also be set via a diff driver or
              configuration option, see gitattributes(5) or git-
              config(1). Giving it explicitly overrides any diff
              driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers override
              configuration settings.

          --color-words[=<regex>]
              Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was
              specified) --word-diff-regex=<regex>.

          --no-renames
              Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
              file gives the default to do so.

          --[no-]rename-empty
              Whether to use empty blobs as rename source.

          --check
              Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace
              errors. What are considered whitespace errors is
              controlled by core.whitespace configuration. By default,
              trailing whitespaces (including lines that consist
              solely of whitespaces) and a space character that is
              immediately followed by a tab character inside the
              initial indent of the line are considered whitespace
              errors. Exits with non-zero status if problems are
              found. Not compatible with --exit-code.

          --ws-error-highlight=<kind>
              Highlight whitespace errors in the context, old or new
              lines of the diff. Multiple values are separated by
              comma, none resets previous values, default reset the
              list to new and all is a shorthand for old,new,context.
              When this option is not given, and the configuration
              variable diff.wsErrorHighlight is not set, only

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              whitespace errors in new lines are highlighted. The
              whitespace errors are colored with
              color.diff.whitespace.

          --full-index
              Instead of the first handful of characters, show the
              full pre- and post-image blob object names on the
              "index" line when generating patch format output.

          --binary
              In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that
              can be applied with git-apply. Implies --patch.

          --abbrev[=<n>]
              Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
              name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
              lines, show the shortest prefix that is at least <n>
              hexdigits long that uniquely refers the object. In
              diff-patch output format, --full-index takes higher
              precedence, i.e. if --full-index is specified, full blob
              names will be shown regardless of --abbrev. Non default
              number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

          -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
              Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and
              create. This serves two purposes:

              It affects the way a change that amounts to a total
              rewrite of a file not as a series of deletion and
              insertion mixed together with a very few lines that
              happen to match textually as the context, but as a
              single deletion of everything old followed by a single
              insertion of everything new, and the number m controls
              this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70%
              specifies that less than 30% of the original should
              remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
              rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a
              series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
              context lines).

              When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also
              considered as the source of a rename (usually -M only
              considers a file that disappeared as the source of a
              rename), and the number n controls this aspect of the -B
              option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies that a change
              with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of
              the filecqs size are eligible for being picked up as a
              possible source of a rename to another file.

          -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
              Detect renames. If n is specified, it is a threshold on
              the similarity index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions

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              compared to the filecqs size). For example, -M90% means
              Git should consider a delete/add pair to be a rename if
              more than 90% of the file hasncqt changed. Without a %
              sign, the number is to be read as a fraction, with a
              decimal point before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is
              thus the same as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as
              -M5%. To limit detection to exact renames, use -M100%.
              The default similarity index is 50%.

          -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
              Detect copies as well as renames. See also
              --find-copies-harder. If n is specified, it has the same
              meaning as for -M<n>.

          --find-copies-harder
              For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds
              copies only if the original file of the copy was
              modified in the same changeset. This flag makes the
              command inspect unmodified files as candidates for the
              source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
              large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than
              one -C option has the same effect.

          -D, --irreversible-delete
              Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the
              header but not the diff between the preimage and
              /dev/null. The resulting patch is not meant to be
              applied with patch or git apply; this is solely for
              people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
              text after the change. In addition, the output obviously
              lacks enough information to apply such a patch in
              reverse, even manually, hence the name of the option.

              When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in
              the deletion part of a delete/create pair.

          -l<num>
              The -M and -C options involve some preliminary steps
              that can detect subsets of renames/copies cheaply,
              followed by an exhaustive fallback portion that compares
              all remaining unpaired destinations to all relevant
              sources. (For renames, only remaining unpaired sources
              are relevant; for copies, all original sources are
              relevant.) For N sources and destinations, this
              exhaustive check is O(N^2). This option prevents the
              exhaustive portion of rename/copy detection from running
              if the number of source/destination files involved
              exceeds the specified number. Defaults to
              diff.renameLimit. Note that a value of 0 is treated as
              unlimited.

          --diff-filter=[(A|C|D|M|R|T|U|X|B)...[*]]

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              Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C),
              Deleted (D), Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type
              (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, ...) changed
              (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown (X), or have had
              their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of the filter
              characters (including none) can be used. When *
              (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all paths are
              selected if there is any file that matches other
              criteria in the comparison; if there is no file that
              matches other criteria, nothing is selected.

              Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to
              exclude. E.g.  --diff-filter=ad excludes added and
              deleted paths.

              Note that not all diffs can feature all types. For
              instance, diffs from the index to the working tree can
              never have Added entries (because the set of paths
              included in the diff is limited by what is in the
              index). Similarly, copied and renamed entries cannot
              appear if detection for those types is disabled.

          -S<string>
              Look for differences that change the number of
              occurrences of the specified string (i.e.
              addition/deletion) in a file. Intended for the
              scriptercqs use.

              It is useful when youcqre looking for an exact block of
              code (like a struct), and want to know the history of
              that block since it first came into being: use the
              feature iteratively to feed the interesting block in the
              preimage back into -S, and keep going until you get the
              very first version of the block.

              Binary files are searched as well.

          -G<regex>
              Look for differences whose patch text contains
              added/removed lines that match <regex>.

              To illustrate the difference between -S<regex>
              --pickaxe-regex and -G<regex>, consider a commit with
              the following diff in the same file:

                  +    return frotz(nitfol, two->ptr, 1, 0);
                  ...
                  -    hit = frotz(nitfol, mf2.ptr, 1, 0);

              While git log -G"frotz\(nitfol" will show this commit,
              git log -S"frotz\(nitfol" --pickaxe-regex will not
              (because the number of occurrences of that string did

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              not change).

              Unless --text is supplied patches of binary files
              without a textconv filter will be ignored.

              See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more
              information.

          --find-object=<object-id>
              Look for differences that change the number of
              occurrences of the specified object. Similar to -S, just
              the argument is different in that it doesncqt search for
              a specific string but for a specific object id.

              The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It
              implies the -t option in git-log to also find trees.

          --pickaxe-all
              When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in
              that changeset, not just the files that contain the
              change in <string>.

          --pickaxe-regex
              Treat the <string> given to -S as an extended POSIX
              regular expression to match.

          -O<orderfile>
              Control the order in which files appear in the output.
              This overrides the diff.orderFile configuration variable
              (see git-config(1)). To cancel diff.orderFile, use
              -O/dev/null.

              The output order is determined by the order of glob
              patterns in <orderfile>. All files with pathnames that
              match the first pattern are output first, all files with
              pathnames that match the second pattern (but not the
              first) are output next, and so on. All files with
              pathnames that do not match any pattern are output last,
              as if there was an implicit match-all pattern at the end
              of the file. If multiple pathnames have the same rank
              (they match the same pattern but no earlier patterns),
              their output order relative to each other is the normal
              order.

              <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

              +o   Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as
                  separators for readability.

              +o   Lines starting with a hash ("#") are ignored, so
                  they can be used for comments. Add a backslash ("\")
                  to the beginning of the pattern if it starts with a

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                  hash.

              +o   Each other line contains a single pattern.

              Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns
              used for fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag,
              except a pathname also matches a pattern if removing any
              number of the final pathname components matches the
              pattern. For example, the pattern "foo*bar" matches
              "fooasdfbar" and "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not "foobarx".

          --skip-to=<file>, --rotate-to=<file>
              Discard the files before the named <file> from the
              output (i.e.  skip to), or move them to the end of the
              output (i.e.  rotate to). These were invented primarily
              for use of the git difftool command, and may not be very
              useful otherwise.

          -R
              Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
              on-disk file to tree contents.

          --relative[=<path>], --no-relative
              When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be
              told to exclude changes outside the directory and show
              pathnames relative to it with this option. When you are
              not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
              can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
              to by giving a <path> as an argument.  --no-relative can
              be used to countermand both diff.relative config option
              and previous --relative.

          -a, --text
              Treat all files as text.

          --ignore-cr-at-eol
              Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a
              comparison.

          --ignore-space-at-eol
              Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

          -b, --ignore-space-change
              Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores
              whitespace at line end, and considers all other
              sequences of one or more whitespace characters to be
              equivalent.

          -w, --ignore-all-space
              Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
              differences even if one line has whitespace where the
              other line has none.

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          --ignore-blank-lines
              Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

          -I<regex>, --ignore-matching-lines=<regex>
              Ignore changes whose all lines match <regex>. This
              option may be specified more than once.

          --inter-hunk-context=<lines>
              Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified
              number of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to
              each other. Defaults to diff.interHunkContext or 0 if
              the config option is unset.

          -W, --function-context
              Show whole function as context lines for each change.
              The function names are determined in the same way as git
              diff works out patch hunk headers (see Defining a custom
              hunk-header in gitattributes(5)).

          --exit-code
              Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1).
              That is, it exits with 1 if there were differences and 0
              means no differences.

          --quiet
              Disable all output of the program. Implies --exit-code.

          --ext-diff
              Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set
              an external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need
              to use this option with git-log(1) and friends.

          --no-ext-diff
              Disallow external diff drivers.

          --textconv, --no-textconv
              Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to
              be run when comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5)
              for details. Because textconv filters are typically a
              one-way conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for
              human consumption, but cannot be applied. For this
              reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for
              git-diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-
              patch(1) or diff plumbing commands.

          --ignore-submodules[=<when>]
              Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation.
              <when> can be either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or
              "all", which is the default. Using "none" will consider
              the submodule modified when it either contains untracked
              or modified files or its HEAD differs from the commit
              recorded in the superproject and can be used to override

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              any settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or
              gitmodules(5). When "untracked" is used submodules are
              not considered dirty when they only contain untracked
              content (but they are still scanned for modified
              content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work
              tree of submodules, only changes to the commits stored
              in the superproject are shown (this was the behavior
              until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to
              submodules.

          --src-prefix=<prefix>
              Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

          --dst-prefix=<prefix>
              Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

          --no-prefix
              Do not show any source or destination prefix.

          --line-prefix=<prefix>
              Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.

          --ita-invisible-in-index
              By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an
              existing empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git
              diff --cached". This option makes the entry appear as a
              new file in "git diff" and non-existent in "git diff
              --cached". This option could be reverted with
              --ita-visible-in-index. Both options are experimental
              and could be removed in future.

          For more detailed explanation on these common options, see
          also gitdiffcore(7).

          <tree-ish>
              The id of a tree object.

          <path>...
              If provided, the results are limited to a subset of
              files matching one of the provided pathspecs.

          -r
              recurse into sub-trees

          -t
              show tree entry itself as well as subtrees. Implies -r.

          --root
              When --root is specified the initial commit will be
              shown as a big creation event. This is equivalent to a
              diff against the NULL tree.

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          --merge-base
              Instead of comparing the <tree-ish>s directly, use the
              merge base between the two <tree-ish>s as the "before"
              side. There must be two <tree-ish>s given and they must
              both be commits.

          --stdin
              When --stdin is specified, the command does not take
              <tree-ish> arguments from the command line. Instead, it
              reads lines containing either two <tree>, one <commit>,
              or a list of <commit> from its standard input. (Use a
              single space as separator.)

              When two trees are given, it compares the first tree
              with the second. When a single commit is given, it
              compares the commit with its parents. The remaining
              commits, when given, are used as if they are parents of
              the first commit.

              When comparing two trees, the ID of both trees
              (separated by a space and terminated by a newline) is
              printed before the difference. When comparing commits,
              the ID of the first (or only) commit, followed by a
              newline, is printed.

              The following flags further affect the behavior when
              comparing commits (but not trees).

          -m
              By default, git diff-tree --stdin does not show
              differences for merge commits. With this flag, it shows
              differences to that commit from all of its parents. See
              also -c.

          -s
              By default, git diff-tree --stdin shows differences,
              either in machine-readable form (without -p) or in patch
              form (with -p). This output can be suppressed. It is
              only useful with -v flag.

          -v
              This flag causes git diff-tree --stdin to also show the
              commit message before the differences.

          --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
              Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given
              format, where <format> can be one of oneline, short,
              medium, full, fuller, reference, email, raw,
              format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When <format> is
              none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts
              as if --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

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              See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional
              details for each format. When =<format> part is omitted,
              it defaults to medium.

              Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the
              repository configuration (see git-config(1)).

          --abbrev-commit
              Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit
              object name, show a prefix that names the object
              uniquely. "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff
              output, if it is displayed) option can be used to
              specify the minimum length of the prefix.

              This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more
              readable for people using 80-column terminals.

          --no-abbrev-commit
              Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name.
              This negates --abbrev-commit, either explicit or implied
              by other options such as "--oneline". It also overrides
              the log.abbrevCommit variable.

          --oneline
              This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline
              --abbrev-commit" used together.

          --encoding=<encoding>
              The commit objects record the encoding used for the log
              message in their encoding header; this option can be
              used to tell the command to re-code the commit log
              message in the encoding preferred by the user. For non
              plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8. Note that if
              an object claims to be encoded in X and we are
              outputting in X, we will output the object verbatim;
              this means that invalid sequences in the original commit
              may be copied to the output.

          --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
              Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough
              spaces to fill to the next display column that is
              multiple of <n>) in the log message before showing it in
              the output.  --expand-tabs is a short-hand for
              --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a short-hand
              for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

              By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that
              indent the log message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which
              is the default, full, and fuller).

          --notes[=<ref>]
              Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the

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              commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the
              default for git log, git show and git whatchanged
              commands when there is no --pretty, --format, or
              --oneline option given on the command line.

              By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs
              listed in the core.notesRef and notes.displayRef
              variables (or corresponding environment overrides). See
              git-config(1) for more details.

              With an optional <ref> argument, use the ref to find the
              notes to display. The ref can specify the full refname
              when it begins with refs/notes/; when it begins with
              notes/, refs/ and otherwise refs/notes/ is prefixed to
              form a full name of the ref.

              Multiple --notes options can be combined to control
              which notes are being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo"
              will show only notes from "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo
              --notes" will show both notes from "refs/notes/foo" and
              from the default notes ref(s).

          --no-notes
              Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes
              option, by resetting the list of notes refs from which
              notes are shown. Options are parsed in the order given
              on the command line, so e.g. "--notes --notes=foo
              --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes from
              "refs/notes/bar".

          --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
              These options are deprecated. Use the above
              --notes/--no-notes options instead.

          --show-signature
              Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing
              the signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

          --no-commit-id
              git diff-tree outputs a line with the commit ID when
              applicable. This flag suppressed the commit ID output.

          -c
              This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed
              (which means it is useful only when the command is given
              one <tree-ish>, or --stdin). It shows the differences
              from each of the parents to the merge result
              simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between
              a parent and the result one at a time (which is what the
              -m option does). Furthermore, it lists only files which
              were modified from all parents.

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          --cc
              This flag changes the way a merge commit patch is
              displayed, in a similar way to the -c option. It implies
              the -c and -p options and further compresses the patch
              output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose the
              contents in the parents have only two variants and the
              merge result picks one of them without modification.
              When all hunks are uninteresting, the commit itself and
              the commit log message is not shown, just like in any
              other "empty diff" case.

          --combined-all-paths
              This flag causes combined diffs (used for merge commits)
              to list the name of the file from all parents. It thus
              only has effect when -c or --cc are specified, and is
              likely only useful if filename changes are detected
              (i.e. when either rename or copy detection have been
              requested).

          --always
              Show the commit itself and the commit log message even
              if the diff itself is empty.

     PRETTY FORMATS
          If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not
          oneline, email or raw, an additional line is inserted before
          the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the
          hashes of ancestral commits are printed, separated by
          spaces. Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be
          the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited
          your view of history: for example, if you are only
          interested in changes related to a certain directory or
          file.

          There are several built-in formats, and you can define
          additional formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option
          to either another format name, or a format: string, as
          described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the details of
          the built-in formats:

          +o   oneline

                  <hash> <title line>

              This is designed to be as compact as possible.

          +o   short

                  commit <hash>
                  Author: <author>

                  <title line>

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          +o   medium

                  commit <hash>
                  Author: <author>
                  Date:   <author date>

                  <title line>

                  <full commit message>

          +o   full

                  commit <hash>
                  Author: <author>
                  Commit: <committer>

                  <title line>

                  <full commit message>

          +o   fuller

                  commit <hash>
                  Author:     <author>
                  AuthorDate: <author date>
                  Commit:     <committer>
                  CommitDate: <committer date>

                  <title line>

                  <full commit message>

          +o   reference

                  <abbrev hash> (<title line>, <short author date>)

              This format is used to refer to another commit in a
              commit message and is the same as
              --pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s, %ad)'. By default, the
              date is formatted with --date=short unless another
              --date option is explicitly specified. As with any
              format: with format placeholders, its output is not
              affected by other options like --decorate and
              --walk-reflogs.

          +o   email

                  From <hash> <date>
                  From: <author>
                  Date: <author date>
                  Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

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                  <full commit message>

          +o   mboxrd

              Like email, but lines in the commit message starting
              with "From " (preceded by zero or more ">") are quoted
              with ">" so they arencqt confused as starting a new
              commit.

          +o   raw

              The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored
              in the commit object. Notably, the hashes are displayed
              in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev
              are used, and parents information show the true parent
              commits, without taking grafts or history simplification
              into account. Note that this format affects the way
              commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown
              e.g. with git log --raw. To get full object names in a
              raw diff format, use --no-abbrev.

          +o   format:<string>

              The format:<string> format allows you to specify which
              information you want to show. It works a little bit like
              printf format, with the notable exception that you get a
              newline with %n instead of \n.

              E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title
              was >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:

                  The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
                  The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

              The placeholders are:

              +o   Placeholders that expand to a single literal
                  character:

                  %n
                      newline

                  %%
                      a raw %

                  %x00
                      print a byte from a hex code

              +o   Placeholders that affect formatting of later
                  placeholders:

                  %Cred

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                      switch color to red

                  %Cgreen
                      switch color to green

                  %Cblue
                      switch color to blue

                  %Creset
                      reset color

                  %C(...)
                      color specification, as described under Values
                      in the "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-
                      config(1). By default, colors are shown only
                      when enabled for log output (by color.diff,
                      color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto
                      settings of the former if we are going to a
                      terminal).  %C(auto,...)  is accepted as a
                      historical synonym for the default (e.g.,
                      %C(auto,red)). Specifying %C(always,...)  will
                      show the colors even when color is not otherwise
                      enabled (though consider just using
                      --color=always to enable color for the whole
                      output, including this format and anything else
                      git might color).  auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto))
                      will turn on auto coloring on the next
                      placeholders until the color is switched again.

                  %m
                      left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

                  %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]])
                      switch line wrapping, like the -w option of
                      git-shortlog(1).

                  %<(<N>[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])
                      make the next placeholder take at least N
                      columns, padding spaces on the right if
                      necessary. Optionally truncate at the beginning
                      (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc) or the end (trunc)
                      if the output is longer than N columns. Note
                      that truncating only works correctly with N >=
                      2.

                  %<|(<N>)
                      make the next placeholder take at least until
                      Nth columns, padding spaces on the right if
                      necessary

                  %>(<N>), %>|(<N>)
                      similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but

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                      padding spaces on the left

                  %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>)
                      similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively,
                      except that if the next placeholder takes more
                      spaces than given and there are spaces on its
                      left, use those spaces

                  %><(<N>), %><|(<N>)
                      similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but
                      padding both sides (i.e. the text is centered)

              +o   Placeholders that expand to information extracted
                  from the commit:

                  %H
                      commit hash

                  %h
                      abbreviated commit hash

                  %T
                      tree hash

                  %t
                      abbreviated tree hash

                  %P
                      parent hashes

                  %p
                      abbreviated parent hashes

                  %an
                      author name

                  %aN
                      author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
                      shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %ae
                      author email

                  %aE
                      author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
                      shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %al
                      author email local-part (the part before the @
                      sign)

                  %aL

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                      author local-part (see %al) respecting .mailmap,
                      see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %ad
                      author date (format respects --date= option)

                  %aD
                      author date, RFC2822 style

                  %ar
                      author date, relative

                  %at
                      author date, UNIX timestamp

                  %ai
                      author date, ISO 8601-like format

                  %aI
                      author date, strict ISO 8601 format

                  %as
                      author date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                  %ah
                      author date, human style (like the --date=human
                      option of git-rev-list(1))

                  %cn
                      committer name

                  %cN
                      committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
                      shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %ce
                      committer email

                  %cE
                      committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
                      shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %cl
                      committer email local-part (the part before the
                      @ sign)

                  %cL
                      committer local-part (see %cl) respecting
                      .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %cd
                      committer date (format respects --date= option)

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                  %cD
                      committer date, RFC2822 style

                  %cr
                      committer date, relative

                  %ct
                      committer date, UNIX timestamp

                  %ci
                      committer date, ISO 8601-like format

                  %cI
                      committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

                  %cs
                      committer date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                  %ch
                      committer date, human style (like the
                      --date=human option of git-rev-list(1))

                  %d
                      ref names, like the --decorate option of git-
                      log(1)

                  %D
                      ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

                  %(describe[:options])
                      human-readable name, like git-describe(1); empty
                      string for undescribable commits. The describe
                      string may be followed by a colon and zero or
                      more comma-separated options. Descriptions can
                      be inconsistent when tags are added or removed
                      at the same time.

                      +o   match=<pattern>: Only consider tags matching
                          the given glob(7) pattern, excluding the
                          "refs/tags/" prefix.

                      +o   exclude=<pattern>: Do not consider tags
                          matching the given glob(7) pattern,
                          excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix.

                  %S
                      ref name given on the command line by which the
                      commit was reached (like git log --source), only
                      works with git log

                  %e
                      encoding

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                  %s
                      subject

                  %f
                      sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

                  %b
                      body

                  %B
                      raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

                  %N
                      commit notes

                  %GG
                      raw verification message from GPG for a signed
                      commit

                  %G?
                      show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a
                      bad signature, "U" for a good signature with
                      unknown validity, "X" for a good signature that
                      has expired, "Y" for a good signature made by an
                      expired key, "R" for a good signature made by a
                      revoked key, "E" if the signature cannot be
                      checked (e.g. missing key) and "N" for no
                      signature

                  %GS
                      show the name of the signer for a signed commit

                  %GK
                      show the key used to sign a signed commit

                  %GF
                      show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a
                      signed commit

                  %GP
                      show the fingerprint of the primary key whose
                      subkey was used to sign a signed commit

                  %GT
                      show the trust level for the key used to sign a
                      signed commit

                  %gD
                      reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or
                      refs/stash@{2 minutes ago}; the format follows
                      the rules described for the -g option. The
                      portion before the @ is the refname as given on

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                      the command line (so git log -g
                      refs/heads/master would yield
                      refs/heads/master@{0}).

                  %gd
                      shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the
                      refname portion is shortened for human
                      readability (so refs/heads/master becomes just
                      master).

                  %gn
                      reflog identity name

                  %gN
                      reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
                      git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %ge
                      reflog identity email

                  %gE
                      reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
                      git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %gs
                      reflog subject

                  %(trailers[:options])
                      display the trailers of the body as interpreted
                      by git-interpret-trailers(1). The trailers
                      string may be followed by a colon and zero or
                      more comma-separated options. If any option is
                      provided multiple times the last occurrence
                      wins.

                      The boolean options accept an optional value
                      [=<BOOL>]. The values true, false, on, off etc.
                      are all accepted. See the "boolean" sub-section
                      in "EXAMPLES" in git-config(1). If a boolean
                      option is given with no value, itcqs enabled.

                      +o   key=<K>: only show trailers with specified
                          key. Matching is done case-insensitively and
                          trailing colon is optional. If option is
                          given multiple times trailer lines matching
                          any of the keys are shown. This option
                          automatically enables the only option so
                          that non-trailer lines in the trailer block
                          are hidden. If that is not desired it can be
                          disabled with only=false. E.g.,
                          %(trailers:key=Reviewed-by) shows trailer
                          lines with key Reviewed-by.

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                      +o   only[=<BOOL>]: select whether non-trailer
                          lines from the trailer block should be
                          included.

                      +o   separator=<SEP>: specify a separator
                          inserted between trailer lines. When this
                          option is not given each trailer line is
                          terminated with a line feed character. The
                          string SEP may contain the literal
                          formatting codes described above. To use
                          comma as separator one must use %x2C as it
                          would otherwise be parsed as next option.
                          E.g., %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C )
                          shows all trailer lines whose key is
                          "Ticket" separated by a comma and a space.

                      +o   unfold[=<BOOL>]: make it behave as if
                          interpret-trailercqs --unfold option was
                          given. E.g., %(trailers:only,unfold=true)
                          unfolds and shows all trailer lines.

                      +o   keyonly[=<BOOL>]: only show the key part of
                          the trailer.

                      +o   valueonly[=<BOOL>]: only show the value part
                          of the trailer.

                      +o   key_value_separator=<SEP>: specify a
                          separator inserted between trailer lines.
                          When this option is not given each trailer
                          key-value pair is separated by ": ".
                          Otherwise it shares the same semantics as
                          separator=<SEP> above.

              Note

              Some placeholders may depend on other options given to
              the revision traversal engine. For example, the %g*
              reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are
              traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d
              and %D placeholders will use the "short" decoration
              format if --decorate was not already provided on the
              command line.

          If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a
          line-feed is inserted immediately before the expansion if
          and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

          If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all
          consecutive line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion
          are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an
          empty string.

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          If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space
          is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if
          the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

          +o   tformat:

              The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except
              that it provides "terminator" semantics instead of
              "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has
              the message terminator character (usually a newline)
              appended, rather than a separator placed between
              entries. This means that the final entry of a
              single-line format will be properly terminated with a
              new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For
              example:

                  $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                    | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
                  4da45be
                  7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

                  $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                    | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
                  4da45be
                  7134973

              In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it
              is interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For
              example, these two are equivalent:

                  $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
                  $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

     RAW OUTPUT FORMAT
          The raw output format from "git-diff-index",
          "git-diff-tree", "git-diff-files" and "git diff --raw" are
          very similar.

          These commands all compare two sets of things; what is
          compared differs:

          git-diff-index <tree-ish>
              compares the <tree-ish> and the files on the filesystem.

          git-diff-index --cached <tree-ish>
              compares the <tree-ish> and the index.

          git-diff-tree [-r] <tree-ish-1> <tree-ish-2> [<pattern>...]
              compares the trees named by the two arguments.

          git-diff-files [<pattern>...]

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              compares the index and the files on the filesystem.

          The "git-diff-tree" command begins its output by printing
          the hash of what is being compared. After that, all the
          commands print one output line per changed file.

          An output line is formatted this way:

              in-place edit  :100644 100644 bcd1234 0123456 M file0
              copy-edit      :100644 100644 abcd123 1234567 C68 file1 file2
              rename-edit    :100644 100644 abcd123 1234567 R86 file1 file3
              create         :000000 100644 0000000 1234567 A file4
              delete         :100644 000000 1234567 0000000 D file5
              unmerged       :000000 000000 0000000 0000000 U file6

          That is, from the left to the right:

           1. a colon.

           2. mode for "src"; 000000 if creation or unmerged.

           3. a space.

           4. mode for "dst"; 000000 if deletion or unmerged.

           5. a space.

           6. sha1 for "src"; 0{40} if creation or unmerged.

           7. a space.

           8. sha1 for "dst"; 0{40} if creation, unmerged or "look at
              work tree".

           9. a space.

          10. status, followed by optional "score" number.

          11. a tab or a NUL when -z option is used.

          12. path for "src"

          13. a tab or a NUL when -z option is used; only exists for C
              or R.

          14. path for "dst"; only exists for C or R.

          15. an LF or a NUL when -z option is used, to terminate the
              record.

          Possible status letters are:

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          +o   A: addition of a file

          +o   C: copy of a file into a new one

          +o   D: deletion of a file

          +o   M: modification of the contents or mode of a file

          +o   R: renaming of a file

          +o   T: change in the type of the file

          +o   U: file is unmerged (you must complete the merge before
              it can be committed)

          +o   X: "unknown" change type (most probably a bug, please
              report it)

          Status letters C and R are always followed by a score
          (denoting the percentage of similarity between the source
          and target of the move or copy). Status letter M may be
          followed by a score (denoting the percentage of
          dissimilarity) for file rewrites.

          <sha1> is shown as all 0cqs if a file is new on the
          filesystem and it is out of sync with the index.

          Example:

              :100644 100644 5be4a4a 0000000 M file.c

          Without the -z option, pathnames with "unusual" characters
          are quoted as explained for the configuration variable
          core.quotePath (see git-config(1)). Using -z the filename is
          output verbatim and the line is terminated by a NUL byte.

     DIFF FORMAT FOR MERGES
          "git-diff-tree", "git-diff-files" and "git-diff --raw" can
          take -c or --cc option to generate diff output also for
          merge commits. The output differs from the format described
          above in the following way:

           1. there is a colon for each parent

           2. there are more "src" modes and "src" sha1

           3. status is concatenated status characters for each parent

           4. no optional "score" number

           5. tab-separated pathname(s) of the file

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          For -c and --cc, only the destination or final path is shown
          even if the file was renamed on any side of history. With
          --combined-all-paths, the name of the path in each parent is
          shown followed by the name of the path in the merge commit.

          Examples for -c and --cc without --combined-all-paths:

              ::100644 100644 100644 fabadb8 cc95eb0 4866510 MM       desc.c
              ::100755 100755 100755 52b7a2d 6d1ac04 d2ac7d7 RM       bar.sh
              ::100644 100644 100644 e07d6c5 9042e82 ee91881 RR       phooey.c

          Examples when --combined-all-paths added to either -c or
          --cc:

              ::100644 100644 100644 fabadb8 cc95eb0 4866510 MM       desc.c  desc.c  desc.c
              ::100755 100755 100755 52b7a2d 6d1ac04 d2ac7d7 RM       foo.sh  bar.sh  bar.sh
              ::100644 100644 100644 e07d6c5 9042e82 ee91881 RR       fooey.c fuey.c  phooey.c

          Note that combined diff lists only files which were modified
          from all parents.

     GENERATING PATCH TEXT WITH -P
          Running git-diff(1), git-log(1), git-show(1), git-diff-
          index(1), git-diff-tree(1), or git-diff-files(1) with the -p
          option produces patch text. You can customize the creation
          of patch text via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the
          GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment variables (see git(1)), and the
          diff attribute (see gitattributes(5)).

          What the -p option produces is slightly different from the
          traditional diff format:

           1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like
              this:

                  diff --git a/file1 b/file2

              The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy
              is involved. Especially, even for a creation or a
              deletion, /dev/null is not used in place of the a/ or b/
              filenames.

              When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the
              name of the source file of the rename/copy and the name
              of the file that rename/copy produces, respectively.

           2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

                  old mode <mode>
                  new mode <mode>

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                  deleted file mode <mode>
                  new file mode <mode>
                  copy from <path>
                  copy to <path>
                  rename from <path>
                  rename to <path>
                  similarity index <number>
                  dissimilarity index <number>
                  index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

              File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers
              including the file type and file permission bits.

              Path names in extended headers do not include the a/ and
              b/ prefixes.

              The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged
              lines, and the dissimilarity index is the percentage of
              changed lines. It is a rounded down integer, followed by
              a percent sign. The similarity index value of 100% is
              thus reserved for two equal files, while 100%
              dissimilarity means that no line from the old file made
              it into the new one.

              The index line includes the blob object names before and
              after the change. The <mode> is included if the file
              mode does not change; otherwise, separate lines indicate
              the old and the new mode.

           3. Pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
              explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath
              (see git-config(1)).

           4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before
              the commit, and all the file2 files refer to files after
              the commit. It is incorrect to apply each change to each
              file sequentially. For example, this patch will swap a
              and b:

                  diff --git a/a b/b
                  rename from a
                  rename to b
                  diff --git a/b b/a
                  rename from b
                  rename to a

           5. Hunk headers mention the name of the function to which
              the hunk applies. See "Defining a custom hunk-header" in
              gitattributes(5) for details of how to tailor to this to
              specific languages.

     COMBINED DIFF FORMAT

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          Any diff-generating command can take the -c or --cc option
          to produce a combined diff when showing a merge. This is the
          default format when showing merges with git-diff(1) or git-
          show(1). Note also that you can give suitable --diff-merges
          option to any of these commands to force generation of diffs
          in specific format.

          A "combined diff" format looks like this:

              diff --combined describe.c
              index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
              --- a/describe.c
              +++ b/describe.c
              @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                      return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
                }

              - static void describe(char *arg)
               -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
              ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
                {
               +      unsigned char sha1[20];
               +      struct commit *cmit;
                      struct commit_list *list;
                      static int initialized = 0;
                      struct commit_name *n;

               +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
               +              usage(describe_usage);
               +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
               +      if (!cmit)
               +              usage(describe_usage);
               +
                      if (!initialized) {
                              initialized = 1;
                              for_each_ref(get_name);

           1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
              this (when the -c option is used):

                  diff --combined file

              or like this (when the --cc option is used):

                  diff --cc file

           2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines
              (this example shows a merge with two parents):

                  index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>

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                  mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
                  new file mode <mode>
                  deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

              The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at
              least one of the <mode> is different from the rest.
              Extended headers with information about detected
              contents movement (renames and copying detection) are
              designed to work with diff of two <tree-ish> and are not
              used by combined diff format.

           3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header

                  --- a/file
                  +++ b/file

              Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff
              format, /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted
              files.

              However, if the --combined-all-paths option is provided,
              instead of a two-line from-file/to-file you get a N+1
              line from-file/to-file header, where N is the number of
              parents in the merge commit

                  --- a/file
                  --- a/file
                  --- a/file
                  +++ b/file

              This extended format can be useful if rename or copy
              detection is active, to allow you to see the original
              name of the file in different parents.

           4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
              accidentally feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff
              format was created for review of merge commit changes,
              and was not meant to be applied. The change is similar
              to the change in the extended index header:

                  @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

              There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the
              chunk header for combined diff format.

          Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two
          files A and B with a single column that has - (minus -
          appears in A but removed in B), + (plus - missing in A but
          added to B), or " " (space - unchanged) prefix, this format
          compares two or more files file1, file2,... with one file X,
          and shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for
          each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note how

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          Xcqs line is different from it.

          A - character in the column N means that the line appears in
          fileN but it does not appear in the result. A + character in
          the column N means that the line appears in the result, and
          fileN does not have that line (in other words, the line was
          added, from the point of view of that parent).

          In the above example output, the function signature was
          changed from both files (hence two - removals from both
          file1 and file2, plus ++ to mean one line that was added
          does not appear in either file1 or file2). Also eight other
          lines are the same from file1 but do not appear in file2
          (hence prefixed with +).

          When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a
          merge commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are
          the parents). When shown by git diff-files -c, it compares
          the two unresolved merge parents with the working tree file
          (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our version", file2 is stage 3
          aka "their version").

     OTHER DIFF FORMATS
          The --summary option describes newly added, deleted, renamed
          and copied files. The --stat option adds diffstat(1) graph
          to the output. These options can be combined with other
          options, such as -p, and are meant for human consumption.

          When showing a change that involves a rename or a copy,
          --stat output formats the pathnames compactly by combining
          common prefix and suffix of the pathnames. For example, a
          change that moves arch/i386/Makefile to arch/x86/Makefile
          while modifying 4 lines will be shown like this:

              arch/{i386 => x86}/Makefile    |   4 +--

          The --numstat option gives the diffstat(1) information but
          is designed for easier machine consumption. An entry in
          --numstat output looks like this:

              1       2       README
              3       1       arch/{i386 => x86}/Makefile

          That is, from left to right:

           1. the number of added lines;

           2. a tab;

           3. the number of deleted lines;

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           4. a tab;

           5. pathname (possibly with rename/copy information);

           6. a newline.

          When -z output option is in effect, the output is formatted
          this way:

              1       2       README NUL
              3       1       NUL arch/i386/Makefile NUL arch/x86/Makefile NUL

          That is:

           1. the number of added lines;

           2. a tab;

           3. the number of deleted lines;

           4. a tab;

           5. a NUL (only exists if renamed/copied);

           6. pathname in preimage;

           7. a NUL (only exists if renamed/copied);

           8. pathname in postimage (only exists if renamed/copied);

           9. a NUL.

          The extra NUL before the preimage path in renamed case is to
          allow scripts that read the output to tell if the current
          record being read is a single-path record or a rename/copy
          record without reading ahead. After reading added and
          deleted lines, reading up to NUL would yield the pathname,
          but if that is NUL, the record will show two paths.

     GIT
          Part of the git(1) suite

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