GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

     NAME
          git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission

     SYNOPSIS
          git format-patch [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
                             [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
                             [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
                             [-s | --signoff]
                             [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
                             [--signature-file=<file>]
                             [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
                             [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
                             [--in-reply-to=<message id>] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
                             [--ignore-if-in-upstream]
                             [--cover-from-description=<mode>]
                             [--rfc] [--subject-prefix=<subject prefix>]
                             [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
                             [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
                             [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet]
                             [--[no-]encode-email-headers]
                             [--no-notes | --notes[=<ref>]]
                             [--interdiff=<previous>]
                             [--range-diff=<previous> [--creation-factor=<percent>]]
                             [--filename-max-length=<n>]
                             [--progress]
                             [<common diff options>]
                             [ <since> | <revision range> ]

     DESCRIPTION
          Prepare each non-merge commit with its "patch" in one
          "message" per commit, formatted to resemble a UNIX mailbox.
          The output of this command is convenient for e-mail
          submission or for use with git am.

          A "message" generated by the command consists of three
          parts:

          +o   A brief metadata header that begins with From <commit>
              with a fixed Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001 datestamp to help
              programs like "file(1)" to recognize that the file is an
              output from this command, fields that record the author
              identity, the author date, and the title of the change
              (taken from the first paragraph of the commit log
              message).

          +o   The second and subsequent paragraphs of the commit log
              message.

          +o   The "patch", which is the "diff -p --stat" output (see

     Page 1                     Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

              git-diff(1)) between the commit and its parent.

          The log message and the patch is separated by a line with a
          three-dash line.

          There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.

           1. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits
              leading to the tip of the current branch that are not in
              the history that leads to the <since> to be output.

           2. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING
              REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7)) means the commits
              in the specified range.

          The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single
          <commit>. To apply the second rule, i.e., format everything
          since the beginning of history up until <commit>, use the
          --root option: git format-patch --root <commit>. If you want
          to format only <commit> itself, you can do this with git
          format-patch -1 <commit>.

          By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from
          1, and uses the first line of the commit message (massaged
          for pathname safety) as the filename. With the
          --numbered-files option, the output file names will only be
          numbers, without the first line of the commit appended. The
          names of the output files are printed to standard output,
          unless the --stdout option is specified.

          If -o is specified, output files are created in <dir>.
          Otherwise they are created in the current working directory.
          The default path can be set with the format.outputDirectory
          configuration option. The -o option takes precedence over
          format.outputDirectory. To store patches in the current
          working directory even when format.outputDirectory points
          elsewhere, use -o .. All directory components will be
          created.

          By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] "
          followed by the concatenation of lines from the commit
          message up to the first blank line (see the DISCUSSION
          section of git-commit(1)).

          When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will
          instead be "[PATCH n/m] ". To force 1/1 to be added for a
          single patch, use -n. To omit patch numbers from the
          subject, use -N.

          If given --thread, git-format-patch will generate
          In-Reply-To and References headers to make the second and
          subsequent patch mails appear as replies to the first mail;

     Page 2                     Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

          this also generates a Message-Id header to reference.

     OPTIONS
          -p, --no-stat
              Generate plain patches without any diffstats.

          -U<n>, --unified=<n>
              Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the
              usual three.

          --output=<file>
              Output to a specific file instead of stdout.

          --output-indicator-new=<char>,
          --output-indicator-old=<char>,
          --output-indicator-context=<char>
              Specify the character used to indicate new, old or
              context lines in the generated patch. Normally they are
              +, - and ' ' respectively.

          --indent-heuristic
              Enable the heuristic that shifts diff hunk boundaries to
              make patches easier to read. This is the default.

          --no-indent-heuristic
              Disable the indent heuristic.

          --minimal
              Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff
              is produced.

          --patience
              Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

          --histogram
              Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

          --anchored=<text>
              Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.

              This option may be specified more than once.

              If a line exists in both the source and destination,
              exists only once, and starts with this text, this
              algorithm attempts to prevent it from appearing as a
              deletion or addition in the output. It uses the
              "patience diff" algorithm internally.

          --diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}
              Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

              default, myers

     Page 3                     Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

                  The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is
                  the default.

              minimal
                  Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
                  diff is produced.

              patience
                  Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating
                  patches.

              histogram
                  This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to
                  "support low-occurrence common elements".

              For instance, if you configured the diff.algorithm
              variable to a non-default value and want to use the
              default one, then you have to use
              --diff-algorithm=default option.

          --stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]
              Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as
              necessary will be used for the filename part, and the
              rest for the graph part. Maximum width defaults to
              terminal width, or 80 columns if not connected to a
              terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The width of
              the filename part can be limited by giving another width
              <name-width> after a comma. The width of the graph part
              can be limited by using --stat-graph-width=<width>
              (affects all commands generating a stat graph) or by
              setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width> (does not affect git
              format-patch). By giving a third parameter <count>, you
              can limit the output to the first <count> lines,
              followed by ...  if there are more.

              These parameters can also be set individually with
              --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and
              --stat-count=<count>.

          --compact-summary
              Output a condensed summary of extended header
              information such as file creations or deletions ("new"
              or "gone", optionally "+l" if itcqs a symlink) and mode
              changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding or removing executable
              bit respectively) in diffstat. The information is put
              between the filename part and the graph part. Implies
              --stat.

          --numstat
              Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted
              lines in decimal notation and pathname without
              abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For

     Page 4                     Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

              binary files, outputs two - instead of saying 0 0.

          --shortstat
              Output only the last line of the --stat format
              containing total number of modified files, as well as
              number of added and deleted lines.

          -X[<param1,param2,...>], --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
              Output the distribution of relative amount of changes
              for each sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be
              customized by passing it a comma separated list of
              parameters. The defaults are controlled by the
              diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git-config(1)).
              The following parameters are available:

              changes
                  Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines
                  that have been removed from the source, or added to
                  the destination. This ignores the amount of pure
                  code movements within a file. In other words,
                  rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much
                  as other changes. This is the default behavior when
                  no parameter is given.

              lines
                  Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular
                  line-based diff analysis, and summing the
                  removed/added line counts. (For binary files, count
                  64-byte chunks instead, since binary files have no
                  natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
                  --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it
                  does count rearranged lines within a file as much as
                  other changes. The resulting output is consistent
                  with what you get from the other --*stat options.

              files
                  Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number
                  of files changed. Each changed file counts equally
                  in the dirstat analysis. This is the computationally
                  cheapest --dirstat behavior, since it does not have
                  to look at the file contents at all.

              cumulative
                  Count changes in a child directory for the parent
                  directory as well. Note that when using cumulative,
                  the sum of the percentages reported may exceed 100%.
                  The default (non-cumulative) behavior can be
                  specified with the noncumulative parameter.

              <limit>
                  An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3%
                  by default). Directories contributing less than this

     Page 5                     Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

                  percentage of the changes are not shown in the
                  output.

              Example: The following will count changed files, while
              ignoring directories with less than 10% of the total
              amount of changed files, and accumulating child
              directory counts in the parent directories:
              --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

          --cumulative
              Synonym for --dirstat=cumulative

          --dirstat-by-file[=<param1,param2>...]
              Synonym for --dirstat=files,param1,param2...

          --summary
              Output a condensed summary of extended header
              information such as creations, renames and mode changes.

          --no-renames
              Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
              file gives the default to do so.

          --[no-]rename-empty
              Whether to use empty blobs as rename source.

          --full-index
              Instead of the first handful of characters, show the
              full pre- and post-image blob object names on the
              "index" line when generating patch format output.

          --binary
              In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that
              can be applied with git-apply.

          --abbrev[=<n>]
              Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
              name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
              lines, show the shortest prefix that is at least <n>
              hexdigits long that uniquely refers the object. In
              diff-patch output format, --full-index takes higher
              precedence, i.e. if --full-index is specified, full blob
              names will be shown regardless of --abbrev. Non default
              number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

          -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
              Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and
              create. This serves two purposes:

              It affects the way a change that amounts to a total
              rewrite of a file not as a series of deletion and
              insertion mixed together with a very few lines that

     Page 6                     Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

              happen to match textually as the context, but as a
              single deletion of everything old followed by a single
              insertion of everything new, and the number m controls
              this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70%
              specifies that less than 30% of the original should
              remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
              rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a
              series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
              context lines).

              When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also
              considered as the source of a rename (usually -M only
              considers a file that disappeared as the source of a
              rename), and the number n controls this aspect of the -B
              option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies that a change
              with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of
              the filecqs size are eligible for being picked up as a
              possible source of a rename to another file.

          -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
              Detect renames. If n is specified, it is a threshold on
              the similarity index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions
              compared to the filecqs size). For example, -M90% means
              Git should consider a delete/add pair to be a rename if
              more than 90% of the file hasncqt changed. Without a %
              sign, the number is to be read as a fraction, with a
              decimal point before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is
              thus the same as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as
              -M5%. To limit detection to exact renames, use -M100%.
              The default similarity index is 50%.

          -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
              Detect copies as well as renames. See also
              --find-copies-harder. If n is specified, it has the same
              meaning as for -M<n>.

          --find-copies-harder
              For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds
              copies only if the original file of the copy was
              modified in the same changeset. This flag makes the
              command inspect unmodified files as candidates for the
              source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
              large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than
              one -C option has the same effect.

          -D, --irreversible-delete
              Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the
              header but not the diff between the preimage and
              /dev/null. The resulting patch is not meant to be
              applied with patch or git apply; this is solely for
              people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
              text after the change. In addition, the output obviously

     Page 7                     Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

              lacks enough information to apply such a patch in
              reverse, even manually, hence the name of the option.

              When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in
              the deletion part of a delete/create pair.

          -l<num>
              The -M and -C options involve some preliminary steps
              that can detect subsets of renames/copies cheaply,
              followed by an exhaustive fallback portion that compares
              all remaining unpaired destinations to all relevant
              sources. (For renames, only remaining unpaired sources
              are relevant; for copies, all original sources are
              relevant.) For N sources and destinations, this
              exhaustive check is O(N^2). This option prevents the
              exhaustive portion of rename/copy detection from running
              if the number of source/destination files involved
              exceeds the specified number. Defaults to
              diff.renameLimit. Note that a value of 0 is treated as
              unlimited.

          -O<orderfile>
              Control the order in which files appear in the output.
              This overrides the diff.orderFile configuration variable
              (see git-config(1)). To cancel diff.orderFile, use
              -O/dev/null.

              The output order is determined by the order of glob
              patterns in <orderfile>. All files with pathnames that
              match the first pattern are output first, all files with
              pathnames that match the second pattern (but not the
              first) are output next, and so on. All files with
              pathnames that do not match any pattern are output last,
              as if there was an implicit match-all pattern at the end
              of the file. If multiple pathnames have the same rank
              (they match the same pattern but no earlier patterns),
              their output order relative to each other is the normal
              order.

              <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

              +o   Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as
                  separators for readability.

              +o   Lines starting with a hash ("#") are ignored, so
                  they can be used for comments. Add a backslash ("\")
                  to the beginning of the pattern if it starts with a
                  hash.

              +o   Each other line contains a single pattern.

              Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns

     Page 8                     Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

              used for fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag,
              except a pathname also matches a pattern if removing any
              number of the final pathname components matches the
              pattern. For example, the pattern "foo*bar" matches
              "fooasdfbar" and "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not "foobarx".

          --skip-to=<file>, --rotate-to=<file>
              Discard the files before the named <file> from the
              output (i.e.  skip to), or move them to the end of the
              output (i.e.  rotate to). These were invented primarily
              for use of the git difftool command, and may not be very
              useful otherwise.

          --relative[=<path>], --no-relative
              When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be
              told to exclude changes outside the directory and show
              pathnames relative to it with this option. When you are
              not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
              can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
              to by giving a <path> as an argument.  --no-relative can
              be used to countermand both diff.relative config option
              and previous --relative.

          -a, --text
              Treat all files as text.

          --ignore-cr-at-eol
              Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a
              comparison.

          --ignore-space-at-eol
              Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

          -b, --ignore-space-change
              Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores
              whitespace at line end, and considers all other
              sequences of one or more whitespace characters to be
              equivalent.

          -w, --ignore-all-space
              Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
              differences even if one line has whitespace where the
              other line has none.

          --ignore-blank-lines
              Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

          -I<regex>, --ignore-matching-lines=<regex>
              Ignore changes whose all lines match <regex>. This
              option may be specified more than once.

          --inter-hunk-context=<lines>

     Page 9                     Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

              Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified
              number of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to
              each other. Defaults to diff.interHunkContext or 0 if
              the config option is unset.

          -W, --function-context
              Show whole function as context lines for each change.
              The function names are determined in the same way as git
              diff works out patch hunk headers (see Defining a custom
              hunk-header in gitattributes(5)).

          --ext-diff
              Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set
              an external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need
              to use this option with git-log(1) and friends.

          --no-ext-diff
              Disallow external diff drivers.

          --textconv, --no-textconv
              Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to
              be run when comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5)
              for details. Because textconv filters are typically a
              one-way conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for
              human consumption, but cannot be applied. For this
              reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for
              git-diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-
              patch(1) or diff plumbing commands.

          --ignore-submodules[=<when>]
              Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation.
              <when> can be either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or
              "all", which is the default. Using "none" will consider
              the submodule modified when it either contains untracked
              or modified files or its HEAD differs from the commit
              recorded in the superproject and can be used to override
              any settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or
              gitmodules(5). When "untracked" is used submodules are
              not considered dirty when they only contain untracked
              content (but they are still scanned for modified
              content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work
              tree of submodules, only changes to the commits stored
              in the superproject are shown (this was the behavior
              until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to
              submodules.

          --src-prefix=<prefix>
              Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

          --dst-prefix=<prefix>
              Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

     Page 10                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

          --no-prefix
              Do not show any source or destination prefix.

          --line-prefix=<prefix>
              Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.

          --ita-invisible-in-index
              By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an
              existing empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git
              diff --cached". This option makes the entry appear as a
              new file in "git diff" and non-existent in "git diff
              --cached". This option could be reverted with
              --ita-visible-in-index. Both options are experimental
              and could be removed in future.

          For more detailed explanation on these common options, see
          also gitdiffcore(7).

          -<n>
              Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.

          -o <dir>, --output-directory <dir>
              Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
              current working directory.

          -n, --numbered
              Name output in [PATCH n/m] format, even with a single
              patch.

          -N, --no-numbered
              Name output in [PATCH] format.

          --start-number <n>
              Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.

          --numbered-files
              Output file names will be a simple number sequence
              without the default first line of the commit appended.

          -k, --keep-subject
              Do not strip/add [PATCH] from the first line of the
              commit log message.

          -s, --signoff
              Add a Signed-off-by trailer to the commit message, using
              the committer identity of yourself. See the signoff
              option in git-commit(1) for more information.

          --stdout
              Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
              instead of creating a file for each one.

     Page 11                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

          --attach[=<boundary>]
              Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
              which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
              second part, with Content-Disposition: attachment.

          --no-attach
              Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
              configuration setting.

          --inline[=<boundary>]
              Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
              which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
              second part, with Content-Disposition: inline.

          --thread[=<style>], --no-thread
              Controls addition of In-Reply-To and References headers
              to make the second and subsequent mails appear as
              replies to the first. Also controls generation of the
              Message-Id header to reference.

              The optional <style> argument can be either shallow or
              deep.  shallow threading makes every mail a reply to the
              head of the series, where the head is chosen from the
              cover letter, the --in-reply-to, and the first patch
              mail, in this order.  deep threading makes every mail a
              reply to the previous one.

              The default is --no-thread, unless the format.thread
              configuration is set. If --thread is specified without a
              style, it defaults to the style specified by
              format.thread if any, or else shallow.

              Beware that the default for git send-email is to thread
              emails itself. If you want git format-patch to take care
              of threading, you will want to ensure that threading is
              disabled for git send-email.

          --in-reply-to=<message id>
              Make the first mail (or all the mails with --no-thread)
              appear as a reply to the given <message id>, which
              avoids breaking threads to provide a new patch series.

          --ignore-if-in-upstream
              Do not include a patch that matches a commit in
              <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches
              reachable from <since> but not from <until> and compare
              them with the patches being generated, and any patch
              that matches is ignored.

          --cover-from-description=<mode>
              Controls which parts of the cover letter will be
              automatically populated using the branchcqs description.

     Page 12                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

              If <mode> is message or default, the cover letter
              subject will be populated with placeholder text. The
              body of the cover letter will be populated with the
              branchcqs description. This is the default mode when no
              configuration nor command line option is specified.

              If <mode> is subject, the first paragraph of the branch
              description will populate the cover letter subject. The
              remainder of the description will populate the body of
              the cover letter.

              If <mode> is auto, if the first paragraph of the branch
              description is greater than 100 bytes, then the mode
              will be message, otherwise subject will be used.

              If <mode> is none, both the cover letter subject and
              body will be populated with placeholder text.

          --subject-prefix=<subject prefix>
              Instead of the standard [PATCH] prefix in the subject
              line, instead use [<subject prefix>]. This allows for
              useful naming of a patch series, and can be combined
              with the --numbered option.

          --filename-max-length=<n>
              Instead of the standard 64 bytes, chomp the generated
              output filenames at around <n> bytes (too short a value
              will be silently raised to a reasonable length).
              Defaults to the value of the format.filenameMaxLength
              configuration variable, or 64 if unconfigured.

          --rfc
              Alias for --subject-prefix="RFC PATCH". RFC means
              "Request For Comments"; use this when sending an
              experimental patch for discussion rather than
              application.

          -v <n>, --reroll-count=<n>
              Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic.
              The output filenames have v<n> prepended to them, and
              the subject prefix ("PATCH" by default, but configurable
              via the --subject-prefix option) has ` v<n>` appended to
              it. E.g.  --reroll-count=4 may produce
              v4-0001-add-makefile.patch file that has "Subject:
              [PATCH v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.  <n> does not have
              to be an integer (e.g. "--reroll-count=4.4", or
              "--reroll-count=4rev2" are allowed), but the downside of
              using such a reroll-count is that the
              range-diff/interdiff with the previous version does not
              state exactly which version the new interation is
              compared against.

     Page 13                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

          --to=<email>
              Add a To: header to the email headers. This is in
              addition to any configured headers, and may be used
              multiple times. The negated form --no-to discards all
              To: headers added so far (from config or command line).

          --cc=<email>
              Add a Cc: header to the email headers. This is in
              addition to any configured headers, and may be used
              multiple times. The negated form --no-cc discards all
              Cc: headers added so far (from config or command line).

          --from, --from=<ident>
              Use ident in the From: header of each commit email. If
              the author ident of the commit is not textually
              identical to the provided ident, place a From: header in
              the body of the message with the original author. If no
              ident is given, use the committer ident.

              Note that this option is only useful if you are actually
              sending the emails and want to identify yourself as the
              sender, but retain the original author (and git am will
              correctly pick up the in-body header). Note also that
              git send-email already handles this transformation for
              you, and this option should not be used if you are
              feeding the result to git send-email.

          --add-header=<header>
              Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in
              addition to any configured headers, and may be used
              multiple times. For example, --add-header="Organization:
              git-foo". The negated form --no-add-header discards all
              (To:, Cc:, and custom) headers added so far from config
              or command line.

          --[no-]cover-letter
              In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
              containing the branch description, shortlog and the
              overall diffstat. You can fill in a description in the
              file before sending it out.

          --encode-email-headers, --no-encode-email-headers
              Encode email headers that have non-ASCII characters with
              "Q-encoding" (described in RFC 2047), instead of
              outputting the headers verbatim. Defaults to the value
              of the format.encodeEmailHeaders configuration variable.

          --interdiff=<previous>
              As a reviewer aid, insert an interdiff into the cover
              letter, or as commentary of the lone patch of a 1-patch
              series, showing the differences between the previous
              version of the patch series and the series currently

     Page 14                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

              being formatted.  previous is a single revision naming
              the tip of the previous series which shares a common
              base with the series being formatted (for example git
              format-patch --cover-letter --interdiff=feature/v1 -3
              feature/v2).

          --range-diff=<previous>
              As a reviewer aid, insert a range-diff (see git-range-
              diff(1)) into the cover letter, or as commentary of the
              lone patch of a 1-patch series, showing the differences
              between the previous version of the patch series and the
              series currently being formatted.  previous can be a
              single revision naming the tip of the previous series if
              it shares a common base with the series being formatted
              (for example git format-patch --cover-letter
              --range-diff=feature/v1 -3 feature/v2), or a revision
              range if the two versions of the series are disjoint
              (for example git format-patch --cover-letter
              --range-diff=feature/v1~3..feature/v1 -3 feature/v2).

              Note that diff options passed to the command affect how
              the primary product of format-patch is generated, and
              they are not passed to the underlying range-diff
              machinery used to generate the cover-letter material
              (this may change in the future).

          --creation-factor=<percent>
              Used with --range-diff, tweak the heuristic which
              matches up commits between the previous and current
              series of patches by adjusting the creation/deletion
              cost fudge factor. See git-range-diff(1)) for details.

          --notes[=<ref>], --no-notes
              Append the notes (see git-notes(1)) for the commit after
              the three-dash line.

              The expected use case of this is to write supporting
              explanation for the commit that does not belong to the
              commit log message proper, and include it with the patch
              submission. While one can simply write these
              explanations after format-patch has run but before
              sending, keeping them as Git notes allows them to be
              maintained between versions of the patch series (but see
              the discussion of the notes.rewrite configuration
              options in git-notes(1) to use this workflow).

              The default is --no-notes, unless the format.notes
              configuration is set.

          --[no-]signature=<signature>
              Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676
              the signature is separated from the body by a line with

     Page 15                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

              '-- .RE

              --signature-file=<file>
                  Works just like --signature except the signature is
                  read from a file.

              --suffix=.<sfx>
                  Instead of using .patch as the suffix for generated
                  filenames, use specified suffix. A common
                  alternative is --suffix=.txt. Leaving this empty
                  will remove the .patch suffix.

                  Note that the leading character does not have to be
                  a dot; for example, you can use --suffix=-patch to
                  get 0001-description-of-my-change-patch.

              -q, --quiet
                  Do not print the names of the generated files to
                  standard output.

              --no-binary
                  Do not output contents of changes in binary files,
                  instead display a notice that those files changed.
                  Patches generated using this option cannot be
                  applied properly, but they are still useful for code
                  review.

              --zero-commit
                  Output an all-zero hash in each patchcqs From header
                  instead of the hash of the commit.

              --[no-]base[=<commit>]
                  Record the base tree information to identify the
                  state the patch series applies to. See the BASE TREE
                  INFORMATION section below for details. If <commit>
                  is "auto", a base commit is automatically chosen.
                  The --no-base option overrides a format.useAutoBase
                  configuration.

              --root
                  Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>,
                  even if it is just a single commit (that would
                  normally be treated as a <since>). Note that root
                  commits included in the specified range are always
                  formatted as creation patches, independently of this
                  flag.

              --progress
                  Show progress reports on stderr as patches are
                  generated.

     CONFIGURATION

     Page 16                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

          You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each
          message, defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix,
          number patches when outputting more than one patch, add
          "To:" or "Cc:" headers, configure attachments, change the
          patch output directory, and sign off patches with
          configuration variables.

              [format]
                      headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
                      subjectPrefix = CHANGE
                      suffix = .txt
                      numbered = auto
                      to = <email>
                      cc = <email>
                      attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
                      signOff = true
                      outputDirectory = <directory>
                      coverLetter = auto
                      coverFromDescription = auto

     DISCUSSION
          The patch produced by git format-patch is in UNIX mailbox
          format, with a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the
          file is output from format-patch rather than a real mailbox,
          like so:

              From 8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
              From: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
              Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700
              Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?=
               =?UTF-8?q?Uwe=20Kleine-K=C3=B6nig=20diet?=
              MIME-Version: 1.0
              Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
              Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

              arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
              (See commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae comment)

              Do the same for ia64 so we can have sleek & trim looking
              ...

          Typically it will be placed in a MUAcqs drafts folder, edited
          to add timely commentary that should not go in the changelog
          after the three dashes, and then sent as a message whose
          body, in our example, starts with "arch/arm config files
          were...". On the receiving end, readers can save interesting
          patches in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with git-am(1).

          When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch
          generated by git format-patch can be tweaked to take

     Page 17                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

          advantage of the git am --scissors feature. After your
          response to the discussion comes a line that consists solely
          of "-- >8 --" (scissors and perforation), followed by the
          patch with unnecessary header fields removed:

              ...
              > So we should do such-and-such.

              Makes sense to me.  How about this patch?

              -- >8 --
              Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the Uwe Kleine-K:onig diet

              arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
              ...

          When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending
          your own patch, so in addition to the "From $SHA1
          $magic_timestamp" marker you should omit From: and Date:
          lines from the patch file. The patch title is likely to be
          different from the subject of the discussion the patch is in
          response to, so it is likely that you would want to keep the
          Subject: line, like the example above.

        Checking for patch corruption
          Many mailers if not set up properly will corrupt whitespace.
          Here are two common types of corruption:

          +o   Empty context lines that do not have any whitespace.

          +o   Non-empty context lines that have one extra whitespace
              at the beginning.

          One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:

          +o   Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would,
              except with To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the
              list and maintainer address.

          +o   Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call
              it a.patch, say.

          +o   Apply it:

                  $ git fetch <project> master:test-apply
                  $ git switch test-apply
                  $ git restore --source=HEAD --staged --worktree :/
                  $ git am a.patch

          If it does not apply correctly, there can be various
          reasons.

     Page 18                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

          +o   The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is bad but
              does not have much to do with your MUA. You might want
              to rebase the patch with git-rebase(1) before
              regenerating it in this case.

          +o   The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that
              the patch does not apply. Look in the .git/rebase-apply/
              subdirectory and see what patch file contains and check
              for the common corruption patterns mentioned above.

          +o   While at it, check the info and final-commit files as
              well. If what is in final-commit is not exactly what you
              would want to see in the commit log message, it is very
              likely that the receiver would end up hand editing the
              log message when applying your patch. Things like "Hi,
              this is my first patch.\n" in the patch e-mail should
              come after the three-dash line that signals the end of
              the commit message.

     MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS
          Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches
          inline using various mailers.

        GMail
          GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in the
          web interface, so it will mangle any emails that you send.
          You can however use "git send-email" and send your patches
          through the GMail SMTP server, or use any IMAP email client
          to connect to the google IMAP server and forward the emails
          through that.

          For hints on using git send-email to send your patches
          through the GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of
          git-send-email(1).

          For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the
          EXAMPLE section of git-imap-send(1).

        Thunderbird
          By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as
          flag them as being format=flowed, both of which will make
          the resulting email unusable by Git.

          There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn
          off line wraps, configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches,
          or use an external editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling
          the patches.

          Approach #1 (add-on)

              Install the Toggle Word Wrap add-on that is available
              from

     Page 19                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

              m[blue]https://addons.mozilla.org/thunderbird/addon/toggle-word-wrap/m[]
              It adds a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap" in the
              composercqs "Options" menu that you can tick off. Now you
              can compose the message as you otherwise do (cut +
              paste, git format-patch | git imap-send, etc), but you
              have to insert line breaks manually in any text that you
              type.

          Approach #2 (configuration)

              Three steps:

               1. Configure your mail server composition as plain
                  text: Edit...Account Settings...Composition &
                  Addressing, uncheck "Compose Messages in HTML".

               2. Configure your general composition window to not
                  wrap.

                  In Thunderbird 2: Edit..Preferences..Composition,
                  wrap plain text messages at 0

                  In Thunderbird 3:
                  Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search
                  for "mail.wrap_long_lines". Toggle it to make sure
                  it is set to false. Also, search for
                  "mailnews.wraplength" and set the value to 0.

               3. Disable the use of format=flowed:
                  Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search
                  for "mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed". Toggle it to
                  make sure it is set to false.

              After that is done, you should be able to compose email
              as you otherwise would (cut + paste, git format-patch |
              git imap-send, etc), and the patches will not be
              mangled.

          Approach #3 (external editor)

              The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
              AboutConfig from
              m[blue]http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/m[] and External
              Editor from
              m[blue]http://globs.org/articles.php?lng=en&pg=8m[]

               1. Prepare the patch as a text file using your method
                  of choice.

               2. Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account
                  Settings to uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML
                  format" setting in the "Composition & Addressing"

     Page 20                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

                  panel of the account to be used to send the patch.

               3. In the main Thunderbird window, before you open the
                  compose window for the patch, use
                  Tools->about:config to set the following to the
                  indicated values:

                              mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed  => false
                              mailnews.wraplength             => 0

               4. Open a compose window and click the external editor
                  icon.

               5. In the external editor window, read in the patch
                  file and exit the editor normally.

              Side note: it may be possible to do step 2 with
              about:config and the following settings but no onecqs
              tried yet.

                          mail.html_compose                       => false
                          mail.identity.default.compose_html      => false
                          mail.identity.id?.compose_html          => false

              There is a script in contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline
              which can help you include patches with Thunderbird in
              an easy way. To use it, do the steps above and then use
              the script as the external editor.

        KMail
          This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.

           1. Prepare the patch as a text file.

           2. Click on New Mail.

           3. Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure
              that "Word wrap" is not set.

           4. Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the patch.

           5. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you
              wish to the message, complete the addressing and subject
              fields, and press send.

     BASE TREE INFORMATION
          The base tree information block is used for maintainers or
          third party testers to know the exact state the patch series
          applies to. It consists of the base commit, which is a
          well-known commit that is part of the stable part of the

     Page 21                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

          project history everybody else works off of, and zero or
          more prerequisite patches, which are well-known patches in
          flight that is not yet part of the base commit that need to
          be applied on top of base commit in topological order before
          the patches can be applied.

          The base commit is shown as "base-commit: " followed by the
          40-hex of the commit object name. A prerequisite patch is
          shown as "prerequisite-patch-id: " followed by the 40-hex
          patch id, which can be obtained by passing the patch through
          the git patch-id --stable command.

          Imagine that on top of the public commit P, you applied
          well-known patches X, Y and Z from somebody else, and then
          built your three-patch series A, B, C, the history would be
          like:

              ---P---X---Y---Z---A---B---C

          With git format-patch --base=P -3 C (or variants thereof,
          e.g. with --cover-letter or using Z..C instead of -3 C to
          specify the range), the base tree information block is shown
          at the end of the first message the command outputs (either
          the first patch, or the cover letter), like this:

              base-commit: P
              prerequisite-patch-id: X
              prerequisite-patch-id: Y
              prerequisite-patch-id: Z

          For non-linear topology, such as

              ---P---X---A---M---C
                  \         /
                   Y---Z---B

          You can also use git format-patch --base=P -3 C to generate
          patches for A, B and C, and the identifiers for P, X, Y, Z
          are appended at the end of the first message.

          If set --base=auto in cmdline, it will track base commit
          automatically, the base commit will be the merge base of tip
          commit of the remote-tracking branch and revision-range
          specified in cmdline. For a local branch, you need to track
          a remote branch by git branch --set-upstream-to before using
          this option.

     EXAMPLES
          +o   Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply
              them on top of the current branch using git am to
              cherry-pick them:

     Page 22                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)       (08/17/2021)        GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

                  $ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k

          +o   Extract all commits which are in the current branch but
              not in the origin branch:

                  $ git format-patch origin

              For each commit a separate file is created in the
              current directory.

          +o   Extract all commits that lead to origin since the
              inception of the project:

                  $ git format-patch --root origin

          +o   The same as the previous one:

                  $ git format-patch -M -B origin

              Additionally, it detects and handles renames and
              complete rewrites intelligently to produce a renaming
              patch. A renaming patch reduces the amount of text
              output, and generally makes it easier to review. Note
              that non-Git "patch" programs woncqt understand renaming
              patches, so use it only when you know the recipient uses
              Git to apply your patch.

          +o   Extract three topmost commits from the current branch
              and format them as e-mailable patches:

                  $ git format-patch -3

     CAVEATS
          Note that format-patch will omit merge commits from the
          output, even if they are part of the requested range. A
          simple "patch" does not include enough information for the
          receiving end to reproduce the same merge commit.

     SEE ALSO
          git-am(1), git-send-email(1)

     GIT
          Part of the git(1) suite

     Page 23                    Git 2.33.0           (printed 1/20/22)