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     NAME
          git-log - Show commit logs

     SYNOPSIS
          git log [<options>] [<revision range>] [[--] <path>...]

     DESCRIPTION
          Shows the commit logs.

          List commits that are reachable by following the parent
          links from the given commit(s), but exclude commits that are
          reachable from the one(s) given with a ^ in front of them.
          The output is given in reverse chronological order by
          default.

          You can think of this as a set operation. Commits reachable
          from any of the commits given on the command line form a
          set, and then commits reachable from any of the ones given
          with ^ in front are subtracted from that set. The remaining
          commits are what comes out in the commandcqs output. Various
          other options and paths parameters can be used to further
          limit the result.

          Thus, the following command:

              $ git log foo bar ^baz

          means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or
          bar, but not from baz".

          A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a
          short-hand for "^<commit1> <commit2>". For example, either
          of the following may be used interchangeably:

              $ git log origin..HEAD
              $ git log HEAD ^origin

          Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is
          useful for merges. The resulting set of commits is the
          symmetric difference between the two operands. The following
          two commands are equivalent:

              $ git log A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
              $ git log A...B

          The command takes options applicable to the git-rev-list(1)

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          command to control what is shown and how, and options
          applicable to the git-diff(1) command to control how the
          changes each commit introduces are shown.

     OPTIONS
          --follow
              Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames
              (works only for a single file).

          --no-decorate, --decorate[=short|full|auto|no]
              Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown.
              If short is specified, the ref name prefixes
              refs/heads/, refs/tags/ and refs/remotes/ will not be
              printed. If full is specified, the full ref name
              (including prefix) will be printed. If auto is
              specified, then if the output is going to a terminal,
              the ref names are shown as if short were given,
              otherwise no ref names are shown. The option --decorate
              is short-hand for --decorate=short. Default to
              configuration value of log.decorate if configured,
              otherwise, auto.

          --decorate-refs=<pattern>, --decorate-refs-exclude=<pattern>
              If no --decorate-refs is given, pretend as if all refs
              were included. For each candidate, do not use it for
              decoration if it matches any patterns given to
              --decorate-refs-exclude or if it doesncqt match any of
              the patterns given to --decorate-refs. The
              log.excludeDecoration config option allows excluding
              refs from the decorations, but an explicit
              --decorate-refs pattern will override a match in
              log.excludeDecoration.

          --source
              Print out the ref name given on the command line by
              which each commit was reached.

          --[no-]mailmap, --[no-]use-mailmap
              Use mailmap file to map author and committer names and
              email addresses to canonical real names and email
              addresses. See git-shortlog(1).

          --full-diff
              Without this flag, git log -p <path>...  shows commits
              that touch the specified paths, and diffs about the same
              specified paths. With this, the full diff is shown for
              commits that touch the specified paths; this means that
              "<path>..." limits only commits, and doesncqt limit diff
              for those commits.

              Note that this affects all diff-based output types, e.g.
              those produced by --stat, etc.

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          --log-size
              Include a line lqlog size <number>rq in the output for
              each commit, where <number> is the length of that
              commitcqs message in bytes. Intended to speed up tools
              that read log messages from git log output by allowing
              them to allocate space in advance.

          -L<start>,<end>:<file>, -L:<funcname>:<file>
              Trace the evolution of the line range given by
              <start>,<end>, or by the function name regex <funcname>,
              within the <file>. You may not give any pathspec
              limiters. This is currently limited to a walk starting
              from a single revision, i.e., you may only give zero or
              one positive revision arguments, and <start> and <end>
              (or <funcname>) must exist in the starting revision. You
              can specify this option more than once. Implies --patch.
              Patch output can be suppressed using --no-patch, but
              other diff formats (namely --raw, --numstat,
              --shortstat, --dirstat, --summary, --name-only,
              --name-status, --check) are not currently implemented.

              <start> and <end> can take one of these forms:

              +o   number

                  If <start> or <end> is a number, it specifies an
                  absolute line number (lines count from 1).

              +o   /regex/

                  This form will use the first line matching the given
                  POSIX regex. If <start> is a regex, it will search
                  from the end of the previous -L range, if any,
                  otherwise from the start of file. If <start> is
                  ^/regex/, it will search from the start of file. If
                  <end> is a regex, it will search starting at the
                  line given by <start>.

              +o   +offset or -offset

                  This is only valid for <end> and will specify a
                  number of lines before or after the line given by
                  <start>.

              If :<funcname> is given in place of <start> and <end>,
              it is a regular expression that denotes the range from
              the first funcname line that matches <funcname>, up to
              the next funcname line.  :<funcname> searches from the
              end of the previous -L range, if any, otherwise from the
              start of file.  ^:<funcname> searches from the start of
              file. The function names are determined in the same way
              as git diff works out patch hunk headers (see Defining a

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              custom hunk-header in gitattributes(5)).

          <revision range>
              Show only commits in the specified revision range. When
              no <revision range> is specified, it defaults to HEAD
              (i.e. the whole history leading to the current commit).
              origin..HEAD specifies all the commits reachable from
              the current commit (i.e.  HEAD), but not from origin.
              For a complete list of ways to spell <revision range>,
              see the Specifying Ranges section of gitrevisions(7).

          [--] <path>...
              Show only commits that are enough to explain how the
              files that match the specified paths came to be. See
              History Simplification below for details and other
              simplification modes.

              Paths may need to be prefixed with -- to separate them
              from options or the revision range, when confusion
              arises.

        Commit Limiting
          Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed
          using the special notations explained in the description,
          additional commit limiting may be applied.

          Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
          --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and
          using it with --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits
          whose log message has a line that matches <pattern>), unless
          otherwise noted.

          Note that these are applied before commit ordering and
          formatting options, such as --reverse.

          -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
              Limit the number of commits to output.

          --skip=<number>
              Skip number commits before starting to show the commit
              output.

          --since=<date>, --after=<date>
              Show commits more recent than a specific date.

          --until=<date>, --before=<date>
              Show commits older than a specific date.

          --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
              Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
              header lines that match the specified pattern (regular
              expression). With more than one --author=<pattern>,

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              commits whose author matches any of the given patterns
              are chosen (similarly for multiple
              --committer=<pattern>).

          --grep-reflog=<pattern>
              Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries
              that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
              With more than one --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog
              message matches any of the given patterns are chosen. It
              is an error to use this option unless --walk-reflogs is
              in use.

          --grep=<pattern>
              Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
              matches the specified pattern (regular expression). With
              more than one --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message
              matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see
              --all-match).

              When --notes is in effect, the message from the notes is
              matched as if it were part of the log message.

          --all-match
              Limit the commits output to ones that match all given
              --grep, instead of ones that match at least one.

          --invert-grep
              Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
              do not match the pattern specified with
              --grep=<pattern>.

          -i, --regexp-ignore-case
              Match the regular expression limiting patterns without
              regard to letter case.

          --basic-regexp
              Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular
              expressions; this is the default.

          -E, --extended-regexp
              Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular
              expressions instead of the default basic regular
              expressions.

          -F, --fixed-strings
              Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings
              (doncqt interpret pattern as a regular expression).

          -P, --perl-regexp
              Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible
              regular expressions.

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              Support for these types of regular expressions is an
              optional compile-time dependency. If Git wasncqt compiled
              with support for them providing this option will cause
              it to die.

          --remove-empty
              Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

          --merges
              Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as
              --min-parents=2.

          --no-merges
              Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
              exactly the same as --max-parents=1.

          --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>,
          --no-min-parents, --no-max-parents
              Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that
              many parent commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is
              the same as --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as
              --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and
              --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

              --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits
              (to no limit) again. Equivalent forms are
              --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0 or more parents) and
              --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no upper
              limit).

          --first-parent
              Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
              commit. This option can give a better overview when
              viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
              because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
              adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
              this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
              brought in to your history by such a merge.

              This option also changes default diff format for merge
              commits to first-parent, see --diff-merges=first-parent
              for details.

          --not
              Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof)
              for all following revision specifiers, up to the next
              --not.

          --all
              Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD,
              are listed on the command line as <commit>.

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          --branches[=<pattern>]
              Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on
              the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given,
              limit branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
              pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

          --tags[=<pattern>]
              Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on
              the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given,
              limit tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern
              lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

          --remotes[=<pattern>]
              Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on
              the command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given,
              limit remote-tracking branches to ones matching given
              shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end
              is implied.

          --glob=<glob-pattern>
              Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob
              <glob-pattern> are listed on the command line as
              <commit>. Leading refs/, is automatically prepended if
              missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is
              implied.

          --exclude=<glob-pattern>
              Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the
              next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob
              would otherwise consider. Repetitions of this option
              accumulate exclusion patterns up to the next --all,
              --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob option (other
              options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

              The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads,
              refs/tags, or refs/remotes when applied to --branches,
              --tags, or --remotes, respectively, and they must begin
              with refs/ when applied to --glob or --all. If a
              trailing /* is intended, it must be given explicitly.

          --reflog
              Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are
              listed on the command line as <commit>.

          --alternate-refs
              Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of
              alternate repositories were listed on the command line.
              An alternate repository is any repository whose object
              directory is specified in objects/info/alternates. The
              set of included objects may be modified by
              core.alternateRefsCommand, etc. See git-config(1).

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          --single-worktree
              By default, all working trees will be examined by the
              following options when there are more than one (see
              git-worktree(1)): --all, --reflog and --indexed-objects.
              This option forces them to examine the current working
              tree only.

          --ignore-missing
              Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend
              as if the bad input was not given.

          --bisect
              Pretend as if the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad was
              listed and as if it was followed by --not and the good
              bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* on the command line.

          --stdin
              In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line,
              read them from the standard input. If a -- separator is
              seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to
              limit the result.

          --cherry-mark
              Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent
              commits with = rather than omitting them, and
              inequivalent ones with +.

          --cherry-pick
              Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
              another commit on the lqother siderq when the set of
              commits are limited with symmetric difference.

              For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual
              way to list all commits on only one side of them is with
              --left-right (see the example below in the description
              of the --left-right option). However, it shows the
              commits that were cherry-picked from the other branch
              (for example, lq3rd on brq may be cherry-picked from
              branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
              excluded from the output.

          --left-only, --right-only
              List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric
              difference, i.e. only those which would be marked <
              resp.  > by --left-right.

              For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits
              those commits from B which are in A or are
              patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In other words, this
              lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More precisely,
              --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact
              list.

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          --cherry
              A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges;
              useful to limit the output to the commits on our side
              and mark those that have been applied to the other side
              of a forked history with git log --cherry
              upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream
              mybranch.

          -g, --walk-reflogs
              Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
              reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
              When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
              exclude (that is, ^commit, commit1..commit2, and
              commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

              With --pretty format other than oneline and reference
              (for obvious reasons), this causes the output to have
              two extra lines of information taken from the reflog.
              The reflog designator in the output may be shown as
              ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the reverse-chronological index
              in the reflog) or as ref@{timestamp} (with the timestamp
              for that entry), depending on a few rules:

               1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{Nth},
                  show the index format.

               2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now},
                  show the timestamp format.

               3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the
                  command line, show the timestamp in the format
                  requested by --date.

               4. Otherwise, show the index format.

              Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed
              with this information on the same line. This option
              cannot be combined with --reverse. See also git-
              reflog(1).

              Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be
              shown at all.

          --merge
              After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having
              a conflict and doncqt exist on all heads to merge.

          --boundary
              Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are
              prefixed with -.

        History Simplification

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          Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history,
          for example the commits modifying a particular <path>. But
          there are two parts of History Simplification, one part is
          selecting the commits and the other is how to do it, as
          there are various strategies to simplify the history.

          The following options select the commits to be shown:

          <paths>
              Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

          --simplify-by-decoration
              Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are
              selected.

          Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful
          history.

          The following options affect the way the simplification is
          performed:

          Default mode
              Simplifies the history to the simplest history
              explaining the final state of the tree. Simplest because
              it prunes some side branches if the end result is the
              same (i.e. merging branches with the same content)

          --show-pulls
              Include all commits from the default mode, but also any
              merge commits that are not TREESAME to the first parent
              but are TREESAME to a later parent. This mode is helpful
              for showing the merge commits that "first introduced" a
              change to a branch.

          --full-history
              Same as the default mode, but does not prune some
              history.

          --dense
              Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
              meaningful history.

          --sparse
              All commits in the simplified history are shown.

          --simplify-merges
              Additional option to --full-history to remove some
              needless merges from the resulting history, as there are
              no selected commits contributing to this merge.

          --ancestry-path
              When given a range of commits to display (e.g.

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              commit1..commit2 or commit2 ^commit1), only display
              commits that exist directly on the ancestry chain
              between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits that are
              both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

          A more detailed explanation follows.

          Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call
          commits that modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME.
          (In a diff filtered for foo, they look different and equal,
          respectively.)

          In the following, we will always refer to the same example
          history to illustrate the differences between simplification
          settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file foo in
          this commit graph:

                        .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
                       /     /   /   /   /   /
                      I     B   C   D   E   Y
                       \   /   /   /   /   /
                        `-------------'   X

          The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the
          first parent of each merge. The commits are:

          +o   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with
              contents lqasdfrq, and a file quux exists with contents
              lqquuxrq. Initial commits are compared to an empty tree,
              so I is !TREESAME.

          +o   In A, foo contains just lqfoorq.

          +o   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial
              and hence TREESAME to all parents.

          +o   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to
              lqfoobarrq, so it is not TREESAME to any parent.

          +o   D sets foo to lqbazrq. Its merge O combines the strings
              from N and D to lqfoobarbazrq; i.e., it is not TREESAME to
              any parent.

          +o   E changes quux to lqxyzzyrq, and its merge P combines the
              strings to lqquux xyzzyrq.  P is TREESAME to O, but not to
              E.

          +o   X is an independent root commit that added a new file
              side, and Y modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge
              Q added side to P, and Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

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          rev-list walks backwards through history, including or
          excluding commits based on whether --full-history and/or
          parent rewriting (via --parents or --children) are used. The
          following settings are available.

          Default mode
              Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any
              parent (though this can be changed, see --sparse below).
              If the commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one
              parent, follow only that parent. (Even if there are
              several TREESAME parents, follow only one of them.)
              Otherwise, follow all parents.

              This results in:

                            .-A---N---O
                           /     /   /
                          I---------D

              Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if
              one is available, removed B from consideration entirely.
              C was considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits
              are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

              Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents,
              but that does not affect the commits selected in default
              mode, so we have shown the parent lines.

          --full-history without parent rewriting
              This mode differs from the default in one point: always
              follow all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to
              one of them. Even if more than one side of the merge has
              commits that are included, this does not imply that the
              merge itself is! In the example, we get

                          I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

              M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.
              E, C and B were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so
              the others do not appear.

              Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really
              possible to talk about the parent/child relationships
              between the commits, so we show them disconnected.

          --full-history with parent rewriting
              Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
              (though this can be changed, see --sparse below).

              Merges are always included. However, their parent list
              is rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that
              are not included themselves. This results in

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                            .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
                           /     /   /   /   /
                          I     B   /   D   /
                           \   /   /   /   /
                            `-------------'

              Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note
              that E was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the
              parent list of P was rewritten to contain E's parent I.
              The same happened for C and N, and X, Y and Q.

          In addition to the above settings, you can change whether
          TREESAME affects inclusion:

          --dense
              Commits that are walked are included if they are not
              TREESAME to any parent.

          --sparse
              All commits that are walked are included.

              Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies
              merges: if one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow
              only that one, so the other sides of the merge are never
              walked.

          --simplify-merges
              First, build a history graph in the same way that
              --full-history with parent rewriting does (see above).

              Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the
              final history according to the following rules:

              +o   Set C' to C.

              +o   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification
                  P'. In the process, drop parents that are ancestors
                  of other parents or that are root commits TREESAME
                  to an empty tree, and remove duplicates, but take
                  care to never drop all parents that we are TREESAME
                  to.

              +o   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or
                  merge commit (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary
                  commit, or !TREESAME, it remains. Otherwise, it is
                  replaced with its only parent.

              The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
              --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns
              into:

                            .-A---M---N---O

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                           /     /       /
                          I     B       D
                           \   /       /
                            `---------'

              Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over
              --full-history:

              +o   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an
                  ancestor of the other parent M. Still, N remained
                  because it is !TREESAME.

              +o   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then
                  removed completely, because it had one parent and is
                  TREESAME.

              +o   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then
                  removed, because it was a TREESAME root.  Q was then
                  removed completely, because it had one parent and is
                  TREESAME.

          There is another simplification mode available:

          --ancestry-path
              Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the
              ancestry chain between the lqfromrq and lqtorq commits in
              the given commit range. I.e. only display commits that
              are ancestor of the lqtorq commit and descendants of the
              lqfromrq commit.

              As an example use case, consider the following commit
              history:

                              D---E-------F
                             /     \       \
                            B---C---G---H---I---J
                           /                     \
                          A-------K---------------L--M

              A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are
              ancestors of M, but excludes the ones that are ancestors
              of D. This is useful to see what happened to the history
              leading to M since D, in the sense that lqwhat does M
              have that did not exist in Drq. The result in this
              example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D
              itself, of course).

              When we want to find out what commits in M are
              contaminated with the bug introduced by D and need
              fixing, however, we might want to view only the subset
              of D..M that are actually descendants of D, i.e.
              excluding C and K. This is exactly what the

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              --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the D..M range,
              it results in:

                                  E-------F
                                   \       \
                                    G---H---I---J
                                                 \
                                                  L--M

          Before discussing another option, --show-pulls, we need to
          create a new example history.

          A common problem users face when looking at simplified
          history is that a commit they know changed a file somehow
          does not appear in the filecqs simplified history. Letcqs
          demonstrate a new example and show how options such as
          --full-history and --simplify-merges works in that case:

                        .-A---M-----C--N---O---P
                       /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                      I     B   \  R-'`-Z'   /
                       \   /     \/         /
                        \ /      /\        /
                         `---X--'  `---Y--'

          For this example, suppose I created file.txt which was
          modified by A, B, and X in different ways. The single-parent
          commits C, Z, and Y do not change file.txt. The merge commit
          M was created by resolving the merge conflict to include
          both changes from A and B and hence is not TREESAME to
          either. The merge commit R, however, was created by ignoring
          the contents of file.txt at M and taking only the contents
          of file.txt at X. Hence, R is TREESAME to X but not M.
          Finally, the natural merge resolution to create N is to take
          the contents of file.txt at R, so N is TREESAME to R but not
          C. The merge commits O and P are TREESAME to their first
          parents, but not to their second parents, Z and Y
          respectively.

          When using the default mode, N and R both have a TREESAME
          parent, so those edges are walked and the others are
          ignored. The resulting history graph is:

                      I---X

          When using --full-history, Git walks every edge. This will
          discover the commits A and B and the merge M, but also will
          reveal the merge commits O and P. With parent rewriting, the
          resulting graph is:

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                        .-A---M--------N---O---P
                       /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                      I     B   \  R-'`--'   /
                       \   /     \/         /
                        \ /      /\        /
                         `---X--'  `------'

          Here, the merge commits O and P contribute extra noise, as
          they did not actually contribute a change to file.txt. They
          only merged a topic that was based on an older version of
          file.txt. This is a common issue in repositories using a
          workflow where many contributors work in parallel and merge
          their topic branches along a single trunk: manu unrelated
          merges appear in the --full-history results.

          When using the --simplify-merges option, the commits O and P
          disappear from the results. This is because the rewritten
          second parents of O and P are reachable from their first
          parents. Those edges are removed and then the commits look
          like single-parent commits that are TREESAME to their
          parent. This also happens to the commit N, resulting in a
          history view as follows:

                        .-A---M--.
                       /     /    \
                      I     B      R
                       \   /      /
                        \ /      /
                         `---X--'

          In this view, we see all of the important single-parent
          changes from A, B, and X. We also see the carefully-resolved
          merge M and the not-so-carefully-resolved merge R. This is
          usually enough information to determine why the commits A
          and B "disappeared" from history in the default view.
          However, there are a few issues with this approach.

          The first issue is performance. Unlike any previous option,
          the --simplify-merges option requires walking the entire
          commit history before returning a single result. This can
          make the option difficult to use for very large
          repositories.

          The second issue is one of auditing. When many contributors
          are working on the same repository, it is important which
          merge commits introduced a change into an important branch.
          The problematic merge R above is not likely to be the merge
          commit that was used to merge into an important branch.
          Instead, the merge N was used to merge R and X into the
          important branch. This commit may have information about why

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          the change X came to override the changes from A and B in
          its commit message.

          --show-pulls
              In addition to the commits shown in the default history,
              show each merge commit that is not TREESAME to its first
              parent but is TREESAME to a later parent.

              When a merge commit is included by --show-pulls, the
              merge is treated as if it "pulled" the change from
              another branch. When using --show-pulls on this example
              (and no other options) the resulting graph is:

                          I---X---R---N

              Here, the merge commits R and N are included because
              they pulled the commits X and R into the base branch,
              respectively. These merges are the reason the commits A
              and B do not appear in the default history.

              When --show-pulls is paired with --simplify-merges, the
              graph includes all of the necessary information:

                            .-A---M--.   N
                           /     /    \ /
                          I     B      R
                           \   /      /
                            \ /      /
                             `---X--'

              Notice that since M is reachable from R, the edge from N
              to M was simplified away. However, N still appears in
              the history as an important commit because it "pulled"
              the change R into the main branch.

          The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only
          the big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting
          commits that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked
          as !TREESAME (in other words, kept after history
          simplification rules described above) if (1) they are
          referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the
          paths given on the command line. All other commits are
          marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

        Commit Ordering
          By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological
          order.

          --date-order
              Show no parents before all of its children are shown,
              but otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp
              order.

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          --author-date-order
              Show no parents before all of its children are shown,
              but otherwise show commits in the author timestamp
              order.

          --topo-order
              Show no parents before all of its children are shown,
              and avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history
              intermixed.

              For example, in a commit history like this:

                      ---1----2----4----7
                          \              \
                           3----5----6----8---

              where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps,
              git rev-list and friends with --date-order show the
              commits in the timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

              With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8
              7 4 2 6 5 3 1); some older commits are shown before
              newer ones in order to avoid showing the commits from
              two parallel development track mixed together.

          --reverse
              Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit
              Limiting section above) in reverse order. Cannot be
              combined with --walk-reflogs.

        Object Traversal
          These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git
          repositories.

          --no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]
              Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their
              ancestors. This has no effect if a range is specified.
              If the argument unsorted is given, the commits are shown
              in the order they were given on the command line.
              Otherwise (if sorted or no argument was given), the
              commits are shown in reverse chronological order by
              commit time. Cannot be combined with --graph.

          --do-walk
              Overrides a previous --no-walk.

        Commit Formatting
          --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
              Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given
              format, where <format> can be one of oneline, short,
              medium, full, fuller, reference, email, raw,
              format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When <format> is

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              none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts
              as if --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

              See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional
              details for each format. When =<format> part is omitted,
              it defaults to medium.

              Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the
              repository configuration (see git-config(1)).

          --abbrev-commit
              Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit
              object name, show a prefix that names the object
              uniquely. "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff
              output, if it is displayed) option can be used to
              specify the minimum length of the prefix.

              This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more
              readable for people using 80-column terminals.

          --no-abbrev-commit
              Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name.
              This negates --abbrev-commit, either explicit or implied
              by other options such as "--oneline". It also overrides
              the log.abbrevCommit variable.

          --oneline
              This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline
              --abbrev-commit" used together.

          --encoding=<encoding>
              The commit objects record the encoding used for the log
              message in their encoding header; this option can be
              used to tell the command to re-code the commit log
              message in the encoding preferred by the user. For non
              plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8. Note that if
              an object claims to be encoded in X and we are
              outputting in X, we will output the object verbatim;
              this means that invalid sequences in the original commit
              may be copied to the output.

          --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
              Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough
              spaces to fill to the next display column that is
              multiple of <n>) in the log message before showing it in
              the output.  --expand-tabs is a short-hand for
              --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a short-hand
              for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

              By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that
              indent the log message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which
              is the default, full, and fuller).

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          --notes[=<ref>]
              Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the
              commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the
              default for git log, git show and git whatchanged
              commands when there is no --pretty, --format, or
              --oneline option given on the command line.

              By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs
              listed in the core.notesRef and notes.displayRef
              variables (or corresponding environment overrides). See
              git-config(1) for more details.

              With an optional <ref> argument, use the ref to find the
              notes to display. The ref can specify the full refname
              when it begins with refs/notes/; when it begins with
              notes/, refs/ and otherwise refs/notes/ is prefixed to
              form a full name of the ref.

              Multiple --notes options can be combined to control
              which notes are being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo"
              will show only notes from "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo
              --notes" will show both notes from "refs/notes/foo" and
              from the default notes ref(s).

          --no-notes
              Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes
              option, by resetting the list of notes refs from which
              notes are shown. Options are parsed in the order given
              on the command line, so e.g. "--notes --notes=foo
              --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes from
              "refs/notes/bar".

          --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
              These options are deprecated. Use the above
              --notes/--no-notes options instead.

          --show-signature
              Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing
              the signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

          --relative-date
              Synonym for --date=relative.

          --date=<format>
              Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable
              format, such as when using --pretty.  log.date config
              variable sets a default value for the log commandcqs
              --date option. By default, dates are shown in the
              original time zone (either committercqs or authorcqs). If
              -local is appended to the format (e.g., iso-local), the
              usercqs local time zone is used instead.

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              --date=relative shows dates relative to the current
              time, e.g. lq2 hours agorq. The -local option has no
              effect for --date=relative.

              --date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

              --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in a ISO
              8601-like format. The differences to the strict ISO 8601
              format are:

              +o   a space instead of the T date/time delimiter

              +o   a space between time and time zone

              +o   no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone

              --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict) shows
              timestamps in strict ISO 8601 format.

              --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC
              2822 format, often found in email messages.

              --date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in
              YYYY-MM-DD format.

              --date=raw shows the date as seconds since the epoch
              (1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then
              the timezone as an offset from UTC (a + or - with four
              digits; the first two are hours, and the second two are
              minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp were formatted with
              strftime("%s %z")). Note that the -local option does not
              affect the seconds-since-epoch value (which is always
              measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying
              timezone value.

              --date=human shows the timezone if the timezone does not
              match the current time-zone, and doesncqt print the whole
              date if that matches (ie skip printing year for dates
              that are "this year", but also skip the whole date
              itself if itcqs in the last few days and we can just say
              what weekday it was). For older dates the hour and
              minute is also omitted.

              --date=unix shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp
              (seconds since 1970). As with --raw, this is always in
              UTC and therefore -local has no effect.

              --date=format:...  feeds the format ...  to your system
              strftime, except for %z and %Z, which are handled
              internally. Use --date=format:%c to show the date in
              your system localecqs preferred format. See the strftime
              manual for a complete list of format placeholders. When

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              using -local, the correct syntax is
              --date=format-local:....

              --date=default is the default format, and is similar to
              --date=rfc2822, with a few exceptions:

              +o   there is no comma after the day-of-week

              +o   the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is
                  used

          --parents
              Print also the parents of the commit (in the form
              "commit parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see
              History Simplification above.

          --children
              Print also the children of the commit (in the form
              "commit child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see
              History Simplification above.

          --left-right
              Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is
              reachable from. Commits from the left side are prefixed
              with < and those from the right with >. If combined with
              --boundary, those commits are prefixed with -.

              For example, if you have this topology:

                               y---b---b  branch B
                              / \ /
                             /   .
                            /   / \
                           o---x---a---a  branch A

              you would get an output like this:

                          $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                          >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                          >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                          <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                          <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                          -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                          -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

          --graph
              Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit
              history on the left hand side of the output. This may
              cause extra lines to be printed in between commits, in
              order for the graph history to be drawn properly. Cannot

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              be combined with --no-walk.

              This enables parent rewriting, see History
              Simplification above.

              This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the
              --date-order option may also be specified.

          --show-linear-break[=<barrier>]
              When --graph is not used, all history branches are
              flattened which can make it hard to see that the two
              consecutive commits do not belong to a linear branch.
              This option puts a barrier in between them in that case.
              If <barrier> is specified, it is the string that will be
              shown instead of the default one.

     PRETTY FORMATS
          If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not
          oneline, email or raw, an additional line is inserted before
          the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the
          hashes of ancestral commits are printed, separated by
          spaces. Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be
          the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited
          your view of history: for example, if you are only
          interested in changes related to a certain directory or
          file.

          There are several built-in formats, and you can define
          additional formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option
          to either another format name, or a format: string, as
          described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the details of
          the built-in formats:

          +o   oneline

                  <hash> <title line>

              This is designed to be as compact as possible.

          +o   short

                  commit <hash>
                  Author: <author>

                  <title line>

          +o   medium

                  commit <hash>
                  Author: <author>
                  Date:   <author date>

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                  <title line>

                  <full commit message>

          +o   full

                  commit <hash>
                  Author: <author>
                  Commit: <committer>

                  <title line>

                  <full commit message>

          +o   fuller

                  commit <hash>
                  Author:     <author>
                  AuthorDate: <author date>
                  Commit:     <committer>
                  CommitDate: <committer date>

                  <title line>

                  <full commit message>

          +o   reference

                  <abbrev hash> (<title line>, <short author date>)

              This format is used to refer to another commit in a
              commit message and is the same as
              --pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s, %ad)'. By default, the
              date is formatted with --date=short unless another
              --date option is explicitly specified. As with any
              format: with format placeholders, its output is not
              affected by other options like --decorate and
              --walk-reflogs.

          +o   email

                  From <hash> <date>
                  From: <author>
                  Date: <author date>
                  Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

                  <full commit message>

          +o   mboxrd

              Like email, but lines in the commit message starting
              with "From " (preceded by zero or more ">") are quoted

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              with ">" so they arencqt confused as starting a new
              commit.

          +o   raw

              The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored
              in the commit object. Notably, the hashes are displayed
              in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev
              are used, and parents information show the true parent
              commits, without taking grafts or history simplification
              into account. Note that this format affects the way
              commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown
              e.g. with git log --raw. To get full object names in a
              raw diff format, use --no-abbrev.

          +o   format:<string>

              The format:<string> format allows you to specify which
              information you want to show. It works a little bit like
              printf format, with the notable exception that you get a
              newline with %n instead of \n.

              E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title
              was >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:

                  The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
                  The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

              The placeholders are:

              +o   Placeholders that expand to a single literal
                  character:

                  %n
                      newline

                  %%
                      a raw %

                  %x00
                      print a byte from a hex code

              +o   Placeholders that affect formatting of later
                  placeholders:

                  %Cred
                      switch color to red

                  %Cgreen
                      switch color to green

                  %Cblue

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                      switch color to blue

                  %Creset
                      reset color

                  %C(...)
                      color specification, as described under Values
                      in the "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-
                      config(1). By default, colors are shown only
                      when enabled for log output (by color.diff,
                      color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto
                      settings of the former if we are going to a
                      terminal).  %C(auto,...)  is accepted as a
                      historical synonym for the default (e.g.,
                      %C(auto,red)). Specifying %C(always,...)  will
                      show the colors even when color is not otherwise
                      enabled (though consider just using
                      --color=always to enable color for the whole
                      output, including this format and anything else
                      git might color).  auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto))
                      will turn on auto coloring on the next
                      placeholders until the color is switched again.

                  %m
                      left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

                  %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]])
                      switch line wrapping, like the -w option of
                      git-shortlog(1).

                  %<(<N>[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])
                      make the next placeholder take at least N
                      columns, padding spaces on the right if
                      necessary. Optionally truncate at the beginning
                      (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc) or the end (trunc)
                      if the output is longer than N columns. Note
                      that truncating only works correctly with N >=
                      2.

                  %<|(<N>)
                      make the next placeholder take at least until
                      Nth columns, padding spaces on the right if
                      necessary

                  %>(<N>), %>|(<N>)
                      similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but
                      padding spaces on the left

                  %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>)
                      similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively,
                      except that if the next placeholder takes more
                      spaces than given and there are spaces on its

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                      left, use those spaces

                  %><(<N>), %><|(<N>)
                      similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but
                      padding both sides (i.e. the text is centered)

              +o   Placeholders that expand to information extracted
                  from the commit:

                  %H
                      commit hash

                  %h
                      abbreviated commit hash

                  %T
                      tree hash

                  %t
                      abbreviated tree hash

                  %P
                      parent hashes

                  %p
                      abbreviated parent hashes

                  %an
                      author name

                  %aN
                      author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
                      shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %ae
                      author email

                  %aE
                      author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
                      shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %al
                      author email local-part (the part before the @
                      sign)

                  %aL
                      author local-part (see %al) respecting .mailmap,
                      see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %ad
                      author date (format respects --date= option)

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                  %aD
                      author date, RFC2822 style

                  %ar
                      author date, relative

                  %at
                      author date, UNIX timestamp

                  %ai
                      author date, ISO 8601-like format

                  %aI
                      author date, strict ISO 8601 format

                  %as
                      author date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                  %ah
                      author date, human style (like the --date=human
                      option of git-rev-list(1))

                  %cn
                      committer name

                  %cN
                      committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
                      shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %ce
                      committer email

                  %cE
                      committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
                      shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %cl
                      committer email local-part (the part before the
                      @ sign)

                  %cL
                      committer local-part (see %cl) respecting
                      .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %cd
                      committer date (format respects --date= option)

                  %cD
                      committer date, RFC2822 style

                  %cr
                      committer date, relative

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                  %ct
                      committer date, UNIX timestamp

                  %ci
                      committer date, ISO 8601-like format

                  %cI
                      committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

                  %cs
                      committer date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                  %ch
                      committer date, human style (like the
                      --date=human option of git-rev-list(1))

                  %d
                      ref names, like the --decorate option of git-
                      log(1)

                  %D
                      ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

                  %(describe[:options])
                      human-readable name, like git-describe(1); empty
                      string for undescribable commits. The describe
                      string may be followed by a colon and zero or
                      more comma-separated options. Descriptions can
                      be inconsistent when tags are added or removed
                      at the same time.

                      +o   match=<pattern>: Only consider tags matching
                          the given glob(7) pattern, excluding the
                          "refs/tags/" prefix.

                      +o   exclude=<pattern>: Do not consider tags
                          matching the given glob(7) pattern,
                          excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix.

                  %S
                      ref name given on the command line by which the
                      commit was reached (like git log --source), only
                      works with git log

                  %e
                      encoding

                  %s
                      subject

                  %f
                      sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

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                  %b
                      body

                  %B
                      raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

                  %N
                      commit notes

                  %GG
                      raw verification message from GPG for a signed
                      commit

                  %G?
                      show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a
                      bad signature, "U" for a good signature with
                      unknown validity, "X" for a good signature that
                      has expired, "Y" for a good signature made by an
                      expired key, "R" for a good signature made by a
                      revoked key, "E" if the signature cannot be
                      checked (e.g. missing key) and "N" for no
                      signature

                  %GS
                      show the name of the signer for a signed commit

                  %GK
                      show the key used to sign a signed commit

                  %GF
                      show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a
                      signed commit

                  %GP
                      show the fingerprint of the primary key whose
                      subkey was used to sign a signed commit

                  %GT
                      show the trust level for the key used to sign a
                      signed commit

                  %gD
                      reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or
                      refs/stash@{2 minutes ago}; the format follows
                      the rules described for the -g option. The
                      portion before the @ is the refname as given on
                      the command line (so git log -g
                      refs/heads/master would yield
                      refs/heads/master@{0}).

                  %gd
                      shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the

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                      refname portion is shortened for human
                      readability (so refs/heads/master becomes just
                      master).

                  %gn
                      reflog identity name

                  %gN
                      reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
                      git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %ge
                      reflog identity email

                  %gE
                      reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
                      git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                  %gs
                      reflog subject

                  %(trailers[:options])
                      display the trailers of the body as interpreted
                      by git-interpret-trailers(1). The trailers
                      string may be followed by a colon and zero or
                      more comma-separated options. If any option is
                      provided multiple times the last occurrence
                      wins.

                      The boolean options accept an optional value
                      [=<BOOL>]. The values true, false, on, off etc.
                      are all accepted. See the "boolean" sub-section
                      in "EXAMPLES" in git-config(1). If a boolean
                      option is given with no value, itcqs enabled.

                      +o   key=<K>: only show trailers with specified
                          key. Matching is done case-insensitively and
                          trailing colon is optional. If option is
                          given multiple times trailer lines matching
                          any of the keys are shown. This option
                          automatically enables the only option so
                          that non-trailer lines in the trailer block
                          are hidden. If that is not desired it can be
                          disabled with only=false. E.g.,
                          %(trailers:key=Reviewed-by) shows trailer
                          lines with key Reviewed-by.

                      +o   only[=<BOOL>]: select whether non-trailer
                          lines from the trailer block should be
                          included.

                      +o   separator=<SEP>: specify a separator

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                          inserted between trailer lines. When this
                          option is not given each trailer line is
                          terminated with a line feed character. The
                          string SEP may contain the literal
                          formatting codes described above. To use
                          comma as separator one must use %x2C as it
                          would otherwise be parsed as next option.
                          E.g., %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C )
                          shows all trailer lines whose key is
                          "Ticket" separated by a comma and a space.

                      +o   unfold[=<BOOL>]: make it behave as if
                          interpret-trailercqs --unfold option was
                          given. E.g., %(trailers:only,unfold=true)
                          unfolds and shows all trailer lines.

                      +o   keyonly[=<BOOL>]: only show the key part of
                          the trailer.

                      +o   valueonly[=<BOOL>]: only show the value part
                          of the trailer.

                      +o   key_value_separator=<SEP>: specify a
                          separator inserted between trailer lines.
                          When this option is not given each trailer
                          key-value pair is separated by ": ".
                          Otherwise it shares the same semantics as
                          separator=<SEP> above.

              Note

              Some placeholders may depend on other options given to
              the revision traversal engine. For example, the %g*
              reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are
              traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d
              and %D placeholders will use the "short" decoration
              format if --decorate was not already provided on the
              command line.

          If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a
          line-feed is inserted immediately before the expansion if
          and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

          If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all
          consecutive line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion
          are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an
          empty string.

          If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space
          is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if
          the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.


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          +o   tformat:

              The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except
              that it provides "terminator" semantics instead of
              "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has
              the message terminator character (usually a newline)
              appended, rather than a separator placed between
              entries. This means that the final entry of a
              single-line format will be properly terminated with a
              new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For
              example:

                  $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                    | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
                  4da45be
                  7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

                  $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                    | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
                  4da45be
                  7134973

              In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it
              is interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For
              example, these two are equivalent:

                  $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
                  $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

     DIFF FORMATTING
          By default, git log does not generate any diff output. The
          options below can be used to show the changes made by each
          commit.

          Note that unless one of --diff-merges variants (including
          short -m, -c, and --cc options) is explicitly given, merge
          commits will not show a diff, even if a diff format like
          --patch is selected, nor will they match search options like
          -S. The exception is when --first-parent is in use, in which
          case first-parent is the default format.

          -p, -u, --patch
              Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

          -s, --no-patch
              Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like git show
              that show the patch by default, or to cancel the effect
              of --patch.

          --diff-merges=(off|none|on|first-parent|1|separate|m|combined|c|dense-combined|cc),
          --no-diff-merges

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              Specify diff format to be used for merge commits.
              Default is off unless --first-parent is in use, in which
              case first-parent is the default.

              --diff-merges=(off|none), --no-diff-merges
                  Disable output of diffs for merge commits. Useful to
                  override implied value.

              --diff-merges=on, --diff-merges=m, -m
                  This option makes diff output for merge commits to
                  be shown in the default format.  -m will produce the
                  output only if -p is given as well. The default
                  format could be changed using log.diffMerges
                  configuration parameter, which default value is
                  separate.

              --diff-merges=first-parent, --diff-merges=1
                  This option makes merge commits show the full diff
                  with respect to the first parent only.

              --diff-merges=separate
                  This makes merge commits show the full diff with
                  respect to each of the parents. Separate log entry
                  and diff is generated for each parent.

              --diff-merges=combined, --diff-merges=c, -c
                  With this option, diff output for a merge commit
                  shows the differences from each of the parents to
                  the merge result simultaneously instead of showing
                  pairwise diff between a parent and the result one at
                  a time. Furthermore, it lists only files which were
                  modified from all parents.  -c implies -p.

              --diff-merges=dense-combined, --diff-merges=cc, --cc
                  With this option the output produced by
                  --diff-merges=combined is further compressed by
                  omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in the
                  parents have only two variants and the merge result
                  picks one of them without modification.  --cc
                  implies -p.

          --combined-all-paths
              This flag causes combined diffs (used for merge commits)
              to list the name of the file from all parents. It thus
              only has effect when --diff-merges=[dense-]combined is
              in use, and is likely only useful if filename changes
              are detected (i.e. when either rename or copy detection
              have been requested).

          -U<n>, --unified=<n>
              Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the
              usual three. Implies --patch.

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          --output=<file>
              Output to a specific file instead of stdout.

          --output-indicator-new=<char>,
          --output-indicator-old=<char>,
          --output-indicator-context=<char>
              Specify the character used to indicate new, old or
              context lines in the generated patch. Normally they are
              +, - and ' ' respectively.

          --raw
              For each commit, show a summary of changes using the raw
              diff format. See the "RAW OUTPUT FORMAT" section of
              git-diff(1). This is different from showing the log
              itself in raw format, which you can achieve with
              --format=raw.

          --patch-with-raw
              Synonym for -p --raw.

          -t
              Show the tree objects in the diff output.

          --indent-heuristic
              Enable the heuristic that shifts diff hunk boundaries to
              make patches easier to read. This is the default.

          --no-indent-heuristic
              Disable the indent heuristic.

          --minimal
              Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff
              is produced.

          --patience
              Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

          --histogram
              Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

          --anchored=<text>
              Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.

              This option may be specified more than once.

              If a line exists in both the source and destination,
              exists only once, and starts with this text, this
              algorithm attempts to prevent it from appearing as a
              deletion or addition in the output. It uses the
              "patience diff" algorithm internally.

          --diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}

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              Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

              default, myers
                  The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is
                  the default.

              minimal
                  Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
                  diff is produced.

              patience
                  Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating
                  patches.

              histogram
                  This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to
                  "support low-occurrence common elements".

              For instance, if you configured the diff.algorithm
              variable to a non-default value and want to use the
              default one, then you have to use
              --diff-algorithm=default option.

          --stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]
              Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as
              necessary will be used for the filename part, and the
              rest for the graph part. Maximum width defaults to
              terminal width, or 80 columns if not connected to a
              terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The width of
              the filename part can be limited by giving another width
              <name-width> after a comma. The width of the graph part
              can be limited by using --stat-graph-width=<width>
              (affects all commands generating a stat graph) or by
              setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width> (does not affect git
              format-patch). By giving a third parameter <count>, you
              can limit the output to the first <count> lines,
              followed by ...  if there are more.

              These parameters can also be set individually with
              --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and
              --stat-count=<count>.

          --compact-summary
              Output a condensed summary of extended header
              information such as file creations or deletions ("new"
              or "gone", optionally "+l" if itcqs a symlink) and mode
              changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding or removing executable
              bit respectively) in diffstat. The information is put
              between the filename part and the graph part. Implies
              --stat.

          --numstat

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              Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted
              lines in decimal notation and pathname without
              abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
              binary files, outputs two - instead of saying 0 0.

          --shortstat
              Output only the last line of the --stat format
              containing total number of modified files, as well as
              number of added and deleted lines.

          -X[<param1,param2,...>], --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
              Output the distribution of relative amount of changes
              for each sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be
              customized by passing it a comma separated list of
              parameters. The defaults are controlled by the
              diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git-config(1)).
              The following parameters are available:

              changes
                  Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines
                  that have been removed from the source, or added to
                  the destination. This ignores the amount of pure
                  code movements within a file. In other words,
                  rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much
                  as other changes. This is the default behavior when
                  no parameter is given.

              lines
                  Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular
                  line-based diff analysis, and summing the
                  removed/added line counts. (For binary files, count
                  64-byte chunks instead, since binary files have no
                  natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
                  --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it
                  does count rearranged lines within a file as much as
                  other changes. The resulting output is consistent
                  with what you get from the other --*stat options.

              files
                  Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number
                  of files changed. Each changed file counts equally
                  in the dirstat analysis. This is the computationally
                  cheapest --dirstat behavior, since it does not have
                  to look at the file contents at all.

              cumulative
                  Count changes in a child directory for the parent
                  directory as well. Note that when using cumulative,
                  the sum of the percentages reported may exceed 100%.
                  The default (non-cumulative) behavior can be
                  specified with the noncumulative parameter.

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              <limit>
                  An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3%
                  by default). Directories contributing less than this
                  percentage of the changes are not shown in the
                  output.

              Example: The following will count changed files, while
              ignoring directories with less than 10% of the total
              amount of changed files, and accumulating child
              directory counts in the parent directories:
              --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

          --cumulative
              Synonym for --dirstat=cumulative

          --dirstat-by-file[=<param1,param2>...]
              Synonym for --dirstat=files,param1,param2...

          --summary
              Output a condensed summary of extended header
              information such as creations, renames and mode changes.

          --patch-with-stat
              Synonym for -p --stat.

          -z
              Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new
              newlines.

              Also, when --raw or --numstat has been given, do not
              munge pathnames and use NULs as output field
              terminators.

              Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters
              are quoted as explained for the configuration variable
              core.quotePath (see git-config(1)).

          --name-only
              Show only names of changed files. The file names are
              often encoded in UTF-8. For more information see the
              discussion about encoding in the git-log(1) manual page.

          --name-status
              Show only names and status of changed files. See the
              description of the --diff-filter option on what the
              status letters mean. Just like --name-only the file
              names are often encoded in UTF-8.

          --submodule[=<format>]
              Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When
              specifying --submodule=short the short format is used.
              This format just shows the names of the commits at the

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              beginning and end of the range. When --submodule or
              --submodule=log is specified, the log format is used.
              This format lists the commits in the range like git-
              submodule(1) summary does. When --submodule=diff is
              specified, the diff format is used. This format shows an
              inline diff of the changes in the submodule contents
              between the commit range. Defaults to diff.submodule or
              the short format if the config option is unset.

          --color[=<when>]
              Show colored diff.  --color (i.e. without =<when>) is
              the same as --color=always.  <when> can be one of
              always, never, or auto.

          --no-color
              Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

          --color-moved[=<mode>]
              Moved lines of code are colored differently. The <mode>
              defaults to no if the option is not given and to zebra
              if the option with no mode is given. The mode must be
              one of:

              no
                  Moved lines are not highlighted.

              default
                  Is a synonym for zebra. This may change to a more
                  sensible mode in the future.

              plain
                  Any line that is added in one location and was
                  removed in another location will be colored with
                  color.diff.newMoved. Similarly color.diff.oldMoved
                  will be used for removed lines that are added
                  somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any
                  moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to
                  determine if a block of code was moved without
                  permutation.

              blocks
                  Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric
                  characters are detected greedily. The detected
                  blocks are painted using either the
                  color.diff.{old,new}Moved color. Adjacent blocks
                  cannot be told apart.

              zebra
                  Blocks of moved text are detected as in blocks mode.
                  The blocks are painted using either the
                  color.diff.{old,new}Moved color or
                  color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative. The change

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                  between the two colors indicates that a new block
                  was detected.

              dimmed-zebra
                  Similar to zebra, but additional dimming of
                  uninteresting parts of moved code is performed. The
                  bordering lines of two adjacent blocks are
                  considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
                  dimmed_zebra is a deprecated synonym.

          --no-color-moved
              Turn off move detection. This can be used to override
              configuration settings. It is the same as
              --color-moved=no.

          --color-moved-ws=<modes>
              This configures how whitespace is ignored when
              performing the move detection for --color-moved. These
              modes can be given as a comma separated list:

              no
                  Do not ignore whitespace when performing move
                  detection.

              ignore-space-at-eol
                  Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

              ignore-space-change
                  Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores
                  whitespace at line end, and considers all other
                  sequences of one or more whitespace characters to be
                  equivalent.

              ignore-all-space
                  Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
                  differences even if one line has whitespace where
                  the other line has none.

              allow-indentation-change
                  Initially ignore any whitespace in the move
                  detection, then group the moved code blocks only
                  into a block if the change in whitespace is the same
                  per line. This is incompatible with the other modes.

          --no-color-moved-ws
              Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection.
              This can be used to override configuration settings. It
              is the same as --color-moved-ws=no.

          --word-diff[=<mode>]
              Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed
              words. By default, words are delimited by whitespace;

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              see --word-diff-regex below. The <mode> defaults to
              plain, and must be one of:

              color
                  Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies
                  --color.

              plain
                  Show words as [-removed-] and {+added+}. Makes no
                  attempts to escape the delimiters if they appear in
                  the input, so the output may be ambiguous.

              porcelain
                  Use a special line-based format intended for script
                  consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are
                  printed in the usual unified diff format, starting
                  with a +/-/` ` character at the beginning of the
                  line and extending to the end of the line. Newlines
                  in the input are represented by a tilde ~ on a line
                  of its own.

              none
                  Disable word diff again.

              Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is
              used to highlight the changed parts in all modes if
              enabled.

          --word-diff-regex=<regex>
              Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of
              considering runs of non-whitespace to be a word. Also
              implies --word-diff unless it was already enabled.

              Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered
              a word. Anything between these matches is considered
              whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
              differences. You may want to append |[^[:space:]] to
              your regular expression to make sure that it matches all
              non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a
              newline is silently truncated(!) at the newline.

              For example, --word-diff-regex=.  will treat each
              character as a word and, correspondingly, show
              differences character by character.

              The regex can also be set via a diff driver or
              configuration option, see gitattributes(5) or git-
              config(1). Giving it explicitly overrides any diff
              driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers override
              configuration settings.

          --color-words[=<regex>]

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              Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was
              specified) --word-diff-regex=<regex>.

          --no-renames
              Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
              file gives the default to do so.

          --[no-]rename-empty
              Whether to use empty blobs as rename source.

          --check
              Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace
              errors. What are considered whitespace errors is
              controlled by core.whitespace configuration. By default,
              trailing whitespaces (including lines that consist
              solely of whitespaces) and a space character that is
              immediately followed by a tab character inside the
              initial indent of the line are considered whitespace
              errors. Exits with non-zero status if problems are
              found. Not compatible with --exit-code.

          --ws-error-highlight=<kind>
              Highlight whitespace errors in the context, old or new
              lines of the diff. Multiple values are separated by
              comma, none resets previous values, default reset the
              list to new and all is a shorthand for old,new,context.
              When this option is not given, and the configuration
              variable diff.wsErrorHighlight is not set, only
              whitespace errors in new lines are highlighted. The
              whitespace errors are colored with
              color.diff.whitespace.

          --full-index
              Instead of the first handful of characters, show the
              full pre- and post-image blob object names on the
              "index" line when generating patch format output.

          --binary
              In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that
              can be applied with git-apply. Implies --patch.

          --abbrev[=<n>]
              Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
              name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
              lines, show the shortest prefix that is at least <n>
              hexdigits long that uniquely refers the object. In
              diff-patch output format, --full-index takes higher
              precedence, i.e. if --full-index is specified, full blob
              names will be shown regardless of --abbrev. Non default
              number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

          -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]

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              Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and
              create. This serves two purposes:

              It affects the way a change that amounts to a total
              rewrite of a file not as a series of deletion and
              insertion mixed together with a very few lines that
              happen to match textually as the context, but as a
              single deletion of everything old followed by a single
              insertion of everything new, and the number m controls
              this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70%
              specifies that less than 30% of the original should
              remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
              rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a
              series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
              context lines).

              When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also
              considered as the source of a rename (usually -M only
              considers a file that disappeared as the source of a
              rename), and the number n controls this aspect of the -B
              option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies that a change
              with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of
              the filecqs size are eligible for being picked up as a
              possible source of a rename to another file.

          -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
              If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each
              commit. For following files across renames while
              traversing history, see --follow. If n is specified, it
              is a threshold on the similarity index (i.e. amount of
              addition/deletions compared to the filecqs size). For
              example, -M90% means Git should consider a delete/add
              pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasncqt
              changed. Without a % sign, the number is to be read as a
              fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., -M5
              becomes 0.5, and is thus the same as -M50%. Similarly,
              -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit detection to exact
              renames, use -M100%. The default similarity index is
              50%.

          -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
              Detect copies as well as renames. See also
              --find-copies-harder. If n is specified, it has the same
              meaning as for -M<n>.

          --find-copies-harder
              For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds
              copies only if the original file of the copy was
              modified in the same changeset. This flag makes the
              command inspect unmodified files as candidates for the
              source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
              large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than

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              one -C option has the same effect.

          -D, --irreversible-delete
              Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the
              header but not the diff between the preimage and
              /dev/null. The resulting patch is not meant to be
              applied with patch or git apply; this is solely for
              people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
              text after the change. In addition, the output obviously
              lacks enough information to apply such a patch in
              reverse, even manually, hence the name of the option.

              When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in
              the deletion part of a delete/create pair.

          -l<num>
              The -M and -C options involve some preliminary steps
              that can detect subsets of renames/copies cheaply,
              followed by an exhaustive fallback portion that compares
              all remaining unpaired destinations to all relevant
              sources. (For renames, only remaining unpaired sources
              are relevant; for copies, all original sources are
              relevant.) For N sources and destinations, this
              exhaustive check is O(N^2). This option prevents the
              exhaustive portion of rename/copy detection from running
              if the number of source/destination files involved
              exceeds the specified number. Defaults to
              diff.renameLimit. Note that a value of 0 is treated as
              unlimited.

          --diff-filter=[(A|C|D|M|R|T|U|X|B)...[*]]
              Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C),
              Deleted (D), Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type
              (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, ...) changed
              (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown (X), or have had
              their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of the filter
              characters (including none) can be used. When *
              (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all paths are
              selected if there is any file that matches other
              criteria in the comparison; if there is no file that
              matches other criteria, nothing is selected.

              Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to
              exclude. E.g.  --diff-filter=ad excludes added and
              deleted paths.

              Note that not all diffs can feature all types. For
              instance, diffs from the index to the working tree can
              never have Added entries (because the set of paths
              included in the diff is limited by what is in the
              index). Similarly, copied and renamed entries cannot
              appear if detection for those types is disabled.

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          -S<string>
              Look for differences that change the number of
              occurrences of the specified string (i.e.
              addition/deletion) in a file. Intended for the
              scriptercqs use.

              It is useful when youcqre looking for an exact block of
              code (like a struct), and want to know the history of
              that block since it first came into being: use the
              feature iteratively to feed the interesting block in the
              preimage back into -S, and keep going until you get the
              very first version of the block.

              Binary files are searched as well.

          -G<regex>
              Look for differences whose patch text contains
              added/removed lines that match <regex>.

              To illustrate the difference between -S<regex>
              --pickaxe-regex and -G<regex>, consider a commit with
              the following diff in the same file:

                  +    return frotz(nitfol, two->ptr, 1, 0);
                  ...
                  -    hit = frotz(nitfol, mf2.ptr, 1, 0);

              While git log -G"frotz\(nitfol" will show this commit,
              git log -S"frotz\(nitfol" --pickaxe-regex will not
              (because the number of occurrences of that string did
              not change).

              Unless --text is supplied patches of binary files
              without a textconv filter will be ignored.

              See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more
              information.

          --find-object=<object-id>
              Look for differences that change the number of
              occurrences of the specified object. Similar to -S, just
              the argument is different in that it doesncqt search for
              a specific string but for a specific object id.

              The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It
              implies the -t option in git-log to also find trees.

          --pickaxe-all
              When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in
              that changeset, not just the files that contain the
              change in <string>.

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          --pickaxe-regex
              Treat the <string> given to -S as an extended POSIX
              regular expression to match.

          -O<orderfile>
              Control the order in which files appear in the output.
              This overrides the diff.orderFile configuration variable
              (see git-config(1)). To cancel diff.orderFile, use
              -O/dev/null.

              The output order is determined by the order of glob
              patterns in <orderfile>. All files with pathnames that
              match the first pattern are output first, all files with
              pathnames that match the second pattern (but not the
              first) are output next, and so on. All files with
              pathnames that do not match any pattern are output last,
              as if there was an implicit match-all pattern at the end
              of the file. If multiple pathnames have the same rank
              (they match the same pattern but no earlier patterns),
              their output order relative to each other is the normal
              order.

              <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

              +o   Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as
                  separators for readability.

              +o   Lines starting with a hash ("#") are ignored, so
                  they can be used for comments. Add a backslash ("\")
                  to the beginning of the pattern if it starts with a
                  hash.

              +o   Each other line contains a single pattern.

              Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns
              used for fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag,
              except a pathname also matches a pattern if removing any
              number of the final pathname components matches the
              pattern. For example, the pattern "foo*bar" matches
              "fooasdfbar" and "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not "foobarx".

          --skip-to=<file>, --rotate-to=<file>
              Discard the files before the named <file> from the
              output (i.e.  skip to), or move them to the end of the
              output (i.e.  rotate to). These were invented primarily
              for use of the git difftool command, and may not be very
              useful otherwise.

          -R
              Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
              on-disk file to tree contents.

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          --relative[=<path>], --no-relative
              When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be
              told to exclude changes outside the directory and show
              pathnames relative to it with this option. When you are
              not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
              can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
              to by giving a <path> as an argument.  --no-relative can
              be used to countermand both diff.relative config option
              and previous --relative.

          -a, --text
              Treat all files as text.

          --ignore-cr-at-eol
              Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a
              comparison.

          --ignore-space-at-eol
              Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

          -b, --ignore-space-change
              Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores
              whitespace at line end, and considers all other
              sequences of one or more whitespace characters to be
              equivalent.

          -w, --ignore-all-space
              Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
              differences even if one line has whitespace where the
              other line has none.

          --ignore-blank-lines
              Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

          -I<regex>, --ignore-matching-lines=<regex>
              Ignore changes whose all lines match <regex>. This
              option may be specified more than once.

          --inter-hunk-context=<lines>
              Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified
              number of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to
              each other. Defaults to diff.interHunkContext or 0 if
              the config option is unset.

          -W, --function-context
              Show whole function as context lines for each change.
              The function names are determined in the same way as git
              diff works out patch hunk headers (see Defining a custom
              hunk-header in gitattributes(5)).

          --ext-diff
              Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set

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              an external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need
              to use this option with git-log(1) and friends.

          --no-ext-diff
              Disallow external diff drivers.

          --textconv, --no-textconv
              Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to
              be run when comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5)
              for details. Because textconv filters are typically a
              one-way conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for
              human consumption, but cannot be applied. For this
              reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for
              git-diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-
              patch(1) or diff plumbing commands.

          --ignore-submodules[=<when>]
              Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation.
              <when> can be either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or
              "all", which is the default. Using "none" will consider
              the submodule modified when it either contains untracked
              or modified files or its HEAD differs from the commit
              recorded in the superproject and can be used to override
              any settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or
              gitmodules(5). When "untracked" is used submodules are
              not considered dirty when they only contain untracked
              content (but they are still scanned for modified
              content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work
              tree of submodules, only changes to the commits stored
              in the superproject are shown (this was the behavior
              until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to
              submodules.

          --src-prefix=<prefix>
              Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

          --dst-prefix=<prefix>
              Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

          --no-prefix
              Do not show any source or destination prefix.

          --line-prefix=<prefix>
              Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.

          --ita-invisible-in-index
              By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an
              existing empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git
              diff --cached". This option makes the entry appear as a
              new file in "git diff" and non-existent in "git diff
              --cached". This option could be reverted with
              --ita-visible-in-index. Both options are experimental

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              and could be removed in future.

          For more detailed explanation on these common options, see
          also gitdiffcore(7).

     GENERATING PATCH TEXT WITH -P
          Running git-diff(1), git-log(1), git-show(1), git-diff-
          index(1), git-diff-tree(1), or git-diff-files(1) with the -p
          option produces patch text. You can customize the creation
          of patch text via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the
          GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment variables (see git(1)), and the
          diff attribute (see gitattributes(5)).

          What the -p option produces is slightly different from the
          traditional diff format:

           1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like
              this:

                  diff --git a/file1 b/file2

              The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy
              is involved. Especially, even for a creation or a
              deletion, /dev/null is not used in place of the a/ or b/
              filenames.

              When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the
              name of the source file of the rename/copy and the name
              of the file that rename/copy produces, respectively.

           2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

                  old mode <mode>
                  new mode <mode>
                  deleted file mode <mode>
                  new file mode <mode>
                  copy from <path>
                  copy to <path>
                  rename from <path>
                  rename to <path>
                  similarity index <number>
                  dissimilarity index <number>
                  index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

              File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers
              including the file type and file permission bits.

              Path names in extended headers do not include the a/ and
              b/ prefixes.

              The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged
              lines, and the dissimilarity index is the percentage of

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              changed lines. It is a rounded down integer, followed by
              a percent sign. The similarity index value of 100% is
              thus reserved for two equal files, while 100%
              dissimilarity means that no line from the old file made
              it into the new one.

              The index line includes the blob object names before and
              after the change. The <mode> is included if the file
              mode does not change; otherwise, separate lines indicate
              the old and the new mode.

           3. Pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
              explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath
              (see git-config(1)).

           4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before
              the commit, and all the file2 files refer to files after
              the commit. It is incorrect to apply each change to each
              file sequentially. For example, this patch will swap a
              and b:

                  diff --git a/a b/b
                  rename from a
                  rename to b
                  diff --git a/b b/a
                  rename from b
                  rename to a

           5. Hunk headers mention the name of the function to which
              the hunk applies. See "Defining a custom hunk-header" in
              gitattributes(5) for details of how to tailor to this to
              specific languages.

     COMBINED DIFF FORMAT
          Any diff-generating command can take the -c or --cc option
          to produce a combined diff when showing a merge. This is the
          default format when showing merges with git-diff(1) or git-
          show(1). Note also that you can give suitable --diff-merges
          option to any of these commands to force generation of diffs
          in specific format.

          A "combined diff" format looks like this:

              diff --combined describe.c
              index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
              --- a/describe.c
              +++ b/describe.c
              @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                      return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
                }

              - static void describe(char *arg)

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               -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
              ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
                {
               +      unsigned char sha1[20];
               +      struct commit *cmit;
                      struct commit_list *list;
                      static int initialized = 0;
                      struct commit_name *n;

               +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
               +              usage(describe_usage);
               +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
               +      if (!cmit)
               +              usage(describe_usage);
               +
                      if (!initialized) {
                              initialized = 1;
                              for_each_ref(get_name);

           1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
              this (when the -c option is used):

                  diff --combined file

              or like this (when the --cc option is used):

                  diff --cc file

           2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines
              (this example shows a merge with two parents):

                  index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
                  mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
                  new file mode <mode>
                  deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

              The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at
              least one of the <mode> is different from the rest.
              Extended headers with information about detected
              contents movement (renames and copying detection) are
              designed to work with diff of two <tree-ish> and are not
              used by combined diff format.

           3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header

                  --- a/file
                  +++ b/file

              Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff
              format, /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted

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              files.

              However, if the --combined-all-paths option is provided,
              instead of a two-line from-file/to-file you get a N+1
              line from-file/to-file header, where N is the number of
              parents in the merge commit

                  --- a/file
                  --- a/file
                  --- a/file
                  +++ b/file

              This extended format can be useful if rename or copy
              detection is active, to allow you to see the original
              name of the file in different parents.

           4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
              accidentally feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff
              format was created for review of merge commit changes,
              and was not meant to be applied. The change is similar
              to the change in the extended index header:

                  @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

              There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the
              chunk header for combined diff format.

          Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two
          files A and B with a single column that has - (minus -
          appears in A but removed in B), + (plus - missing in A but
          added to B), or " " (space - unchanged) prefix, this format
          compares two or more files file1, file2,... with one file X,
          and shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for
          each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note how
          Xcqs line is different from it.

          A - character in the column N means that the line appears in
          fileN but it does not appear in the result. A + character in
          the column N means that the line appears in the result, and
          fileN does not have that line (in other words, the line was
          added, from the point of view of that parent).

          In the above example output, the function signature was
          changed from both files (hence two - removals from both
          file1 and file2, plus ++ to mean one line that was added
          does not appear in either file1 or file2). Also eight other
          lines are the same from file1 but do not appear in file2
          (hence prefixed with +).

          When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a
          merge commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are
          the parents). When shown by git diff-files -c, it compares

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          the two unresolved merge parents with the working tree file
          (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our version", file2 is stage 3
          aka "their version").

     EXAMPLES
          git log --no-merges
              Show the whole commit history, but skip any merges

          git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi
              Show all commits since version v2.6.12 that changed any
              file in the include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories

          git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk
              Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file
              gitk. The -- is necessary to avoid confusion with the
              branch named gitk

          git log --name-status release..test
              Show the commits that are in the "test" branch but not
              yet in the "release" branch, along with the list of
              paths each commit modifies.

          git log --follow builtin/rev-list.c
              Shows the commits that changed builtin/rev-list.c,
              including those commits that occurred before the file
              was given its present name.

          git log --branches --not --remotes=origin
              Shows all commits that are in any of local branches but
              not in any of remote-tracking branches for origin (what
              you have that origin doesncqt).

          git log master --not --remotes=*/master
              Shows all commits that are in local master but not in
              any remote repository master branches.

          git log -p -m --first-parent
              Shows the history including change diffs, but only from
              the lqmain branchrq perspective, skipping commits that
              come from merged branches, and showing full diffs of
              changes introduced by the merges. This makes sense only
              when following a strict policy of merging all topic
              branches when staying on a single integration branch.

          git log -L '/int main/',/^}/:main.c
              Shows how the function main() in the file main.c evolved
              over time.

          git log -3
              Limits the number of commits to show to 3.

     DISCUSSION

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          Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

          +o   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted
              sequences of bytes. There is no encoding translation at
              the core level.

          +o   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C.
              This applies to tree objects, the index file, ref names,
              as well as path names in command line arguments,
              environment variables and config files (.git/config (see
              git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5) and
              gitmodules(5)).

              Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply
              as sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name
              encoding conversions (except on Mac and Windows).
              Therefore, using non-ASCII path names will mostly work
              even on platforms and file systems that use legacy
              extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created
              on such systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based
              systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa.
              Additionally, many Git-based tools simply assume path
              names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display other
              encodings correctly.

          +o   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but
              other extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This
              includes ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not
              UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK,
              Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).

          Although we encourage that the commit log messages are
          encoded in UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are
          designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants
          of a particular project find it more convenient to use
          legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However, there are
          a few things to keep in mind.

           1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the
              commit log message given to it does not look like a
              valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your
              project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is
              to have i18n.commitEncoding in .git/config file, like
              this:

                  [i18n]
                          commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1

              Commit objects created with the above setting record the
              value of i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header.
              This is to help other people who look at them later.
              Lack of this header implies that the commit log message

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              is encoded in UTF-8.

           2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the
              encoding header of a commit object, and try to re-code
              the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified.
              You can specify the desired output encoding with
              i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file, like this:

                  [i18n]
                          logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

              If you do not have this configuration variable, the
              value of i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

          Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit
          log message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the
          commit object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not
          necessarily a reversible operation.

     CONFIGURATION
          See git-config(1) for core variables and git-diff(1) for
          settings related to diff generation.

          format.pretty
              Default for the --format option. (See Pretty Formats
              above.) Defaults to medium.

          i18n.logOutputEncoding
              Encoding to use when displaying logs. (See Discussion
              above.) Defaults to the value of i18n.commitEncoding if
              set, and UTF-8 otherwise.

          log.date
              Default format for human-readable dates. (Compare the
              --date option.) Defaults to "default", which means to
              write dates like Sat May 8 19:35:34 2010 -0500.

              If the format is set to "auto:foo" and the pager is in
              use, format "foo" will be the used for the date format.
              Otherwise "default" will be used.

          log.follow
              If true, git log will act as if the --follow option was
              used when a single <path> is given. This has the same
              limitations as --follow, i.e. it cannot be used to
              follow multiple files and does not work well on
              non-linear history.

          log.showRoot
              If false, git log and related commands will not treat
              the initial commit as a big creation event. Any root
              commits in git log -p output would be shown without a

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              diff attached. The default is true.

          log.showSignature
              If true, git log and related commands will act as if the
              --show-signature option was passed to them.

          mailmap.*
              See git-shortlog(1).

          notes.displayRef
              Which refs, in addition to the default set by
              core.notesRef or GIT_NOTES_REF, to read notes from when
              showing commit messages with the log family of commands.
              See git-notes(1).

              May be an unabbreviated ref name or a glob and may be
              specified multiple times. A warning will be issued for
              refs that do not exist, but a glob that does not match
              any refs is silently ignored.

              This setting can be disabled by the --no-notes option,
              overridden by the GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF environment
              variable, and overridden by the --notes=<ref> option.

     GIT
          Part of the git(1) suite

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