GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

     NAME
          git-send-email - Send a collection of patches as emails

     SYNOPSIS
          git send-email [<options>] <file|directory|rev-list options>...
          git send-email --dump-aliases

     DESCRIPTION
          Takes the patches given on the command line and emails them
          out. Patches can be specified as files, directories (which
          will send all files in the directory), or directly as a
          revision list. In the last case, any format accepted by
          git-format-patch(1) can be passed to git send-email.

          The header of the email is configurable via command-line
          options. If not specified on the command line, the user will
          be prompted with a ReadLine enabled interface to provide the
          necessary information.

          There are two formats accepted for patch files:

           1. mbox format files

              This is what git-format-patch(1) generates. Most headers
              and MIME formatting are ignored.

           2. The original format used by Greg Kroah-Hartmancqs
              send_lots_of_email.pl script

              This format expects the first line of the file to
              contain the "Cc:" value and the "Subject:" of the
              message as the second line.

     OPTIONS
        Composing
          --annotate
              Review and edit each patch youcqre about to send. Default
              is the value of sendemail.annotate. See the
              CONFIGURATION section for sendemail.multiEdit.

          --bcc=<address>,...
              Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the
              value of sendemail.bcc.

              This option may be specified multiple times.

          --cc=<address>,...
              Specify a starting "Cc:" value for each email. Default
              is the value of sendemail.cc.

     Page 1                     Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

              This option may be specified multiple times.

          --compose
              Invoke a text editor (see GIT_EDITOR in git-var(1)) to
              edit an introductory message for the patch series.

              When --compose is used, git send-email will use the
              From, Subject, and In-Reply-To headers specified in the
              message. If the body of the message (what you type after
              the headers and a blank line) only contains blank (or
              Git: prefixed) lines, the summary woncqt be sent, but
              From, Subject, and In-Reply-To headers will be used
              unless they are removed.

              Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted
              for.

              See the CONFIGURATION section for sendemail.multiEdit.

          --from=<address>
              Specify the sender of the emails. If not specified on
              the command line, the value of the sendemail.from
              configuration option is used. If neither the
              command-line option nor sendemail.from are set, then the
              user will be prompted for the value. The default for the
              prompt will be the value of GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT, or
              GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT if that is not set, as returned by
              "git var -l".

          --reply-to=<address>
              Specify the address where replies from recipients should
              go to. Use this if replies to messages should go to
              another address than what is specified with the --from
              parameter.

          --in-reply-to=<identifier>
              Make the first mail (or all the mails with --no-thread)
              appear as a reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids
              breaking threads to provide a new patch series. The
              second and subsequent emails will be sent as replies
              according to the --[no-]chain-reply-to setting.

              So for example when --thread and --no-chain-reply-to are
              specified, the second and subsequent patches will be
              replies to the first one like in the illustration below
              where [PATCH v2 0/3] is in reply to [PATCH 0/2]:

                  [PATCH 0/2] Here is what I did...
                    [PATCH 1/2] Clean up and tests
                    [PATCH 2/2] Implementation
                    [PATCH v2 0/3] Here is a reroll
                      [PATCH v2 1/3] Clean up

     Page 2                     Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

                      [PATCH v2 2/3] New tests
                      [PATCH v2 3/3] Implementation

              Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose is
              not set, this will be prompted for.

          --subject=<string>
              Specify the initial subject of the email thread. Only
              necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose is not
              set, this will be prompted for.

          --to=<address>,...
              Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated.
              Generally, this will be the upstream maintainer of the
              project involved. Default is the value of the
              sendemail.to configuration value; if that is
              unspecified, and --to-cmd is not specified, this will be
              prompted for.

              This option may be specified multiple times.

          --8bit-encoding=<encoding>
              When encountering a non-ASCII message or subject that
              does not declare its encoding, add headers/quoting to
              indicate it is encoded in <encoding>. Default is the
              value of the sendemail.assume8bitEncoding; if that is
              unspecified, this will be prompted for if any non-ASCII
              files are encountered.

              Note that no attempts whatsoever are made to validate
              the encoding.

          --compose-encoding=<encoding>
              Specify encoding of compose message. Default is the
              value of the sendemail.composeencoding; if that is
              unspecified, UTF-8 is assumed.

          --transfer-encoding=(7bit|8bit|quoted-printable|base64|auto)
              Specify the transfer encoding to be used to send the
              message over SMTP. 7bit will fail upon encountering a
              non-ASCII message. quoted-printable can be useful when
              the repository contains files that contain carriage
              returns, but makes the raw patch email file (as saved
              from a MUA) much harder to inspect manually. base64 is
              even more fool proof, but also even more opaque. auto
              will use 8bit when possible, and quoted-printable
              otherwise.

              Default is the value of the sendemail.transferEncoding
              configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to
              auto.

     Page 3                     Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

          --xmailer, --no-xmailer
              Add (or prevent adding) the "X-Mailer:" header. By
              default, the header is added, but it can be turned off
              by setting the sendemail.xmailer configuration variable
              to false.

        Sending
          --envelope-sender=<address>
              Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails.
              This is useful if your default address is not the
              address that is subscribed to a list. In order to use
              the From address, set the value to "auto". If you use
              the sendmail binary, you must have suitable privileges
              for the -f parameter. Default is the value of the
              sendemail.envelopeSender configuration variable; if that
              is unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to
              your MTA.

          --sendmail-cmd=<command>
              Specify a command to run to send the email. The command
              should be sendmail-like; specifically, it must support
              the -i option. The command will be executed in the shell
              if necessary. Default is the value of
              sendemail.sendmailcmd. If unspecified, and if
              --smtp-server is also unspecified, git-send-email will
              search for sendmail in /usr/sbin, /usr/lib and $PATH.

          --smtp-encryption=<encryption>
              Specify the encryption to use, either ssl or tls. Any
              other value reverts to plain SMTP. Default is the value
              of sendemail.smtpEncryption.

          --smtp-domain=<FQDN>
              Specifies the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) used in
              the HELO/EHLO command to the SMTP server. Some servers
              require the FQDN to match your IP address. If not set,
              git send-email attempts to determine your FQDN
              automatically. Default is the value of
              sendemail.smtpDomain.

          --smtp-auth=<mechanisms>
              Whitespace-separated list of allowed SMTP-AUTH
              mechanisms. This setting forces using only the listed
              mechanisms. Example:

                  $ git send-email --smtp-auth="PLAIN LOGIN GSSAPI" ...

              If at least one of the specified mechanisms matches the
              ones advertised by the SMTP server and if it is
              supported by the utilized SASL library, the mechanism is
              used for authentication. If neither sendemail.smtpAuth
              nor --smtp-auth is specified, all mechanisms supported

     Page 4                     Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

              by the SASL library can be used. The special value none
              maybe specified to completely disable authentication
              independently of --smtp-user

          --smtp-pass[=<password>]
              Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no
              argument is specified, then the empty string is used as
              the password. Default is the value of
              sendemail.smtpPass, however --smtp-pass always overrides
              this value.

              Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in
              configuration files or on the command line. If a
              username has been specified (with --smtp-user or a
              sendemail.smtpUser), but no password has been specified
              (with --smtp-pass or sendemail.smtpPass), then a
              password is obtained using git-credential.

          --no-smtp-auth
              Disable SMTP authentication. Short hand for
              --smtp-auth=none

          --smtp-server=<host>
              If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
              smtp.example.com or a raw IP address). If unspecified,
              and if --sendmail-cmd is also unspecified, the default
              is to search for sendmail in /usr/sbin, /usr/lib and
              $PATH if such a program is available, falling back to
              localhost otherwise.

              For backward compatibility, this option can also specify
              a full pathname of a sendmail-like program instead; the
              program must support the -i option. This method does not
              support passing arguments or using plain command names.
              For those use cases, consider using --sendmail-cmd
              instead.

          --smtp-server-port=<port>
              Specifies a port different from the default port (SMTP
              servers typically listen to smtp port 25, but may also
              listen to submission port 587, or the common SSL smtp
              port 465); symbolic port names (e.g. "submission"
              instead of 587) are also accepted. The port can also be
              set with the sendemail.smtpServerPort configuration
              variable.

          --smtp-server-option=<option>
              If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server option to
              use. Default value can be specified by the
              sendemail.smtpServerOption configuration option.

              The --smtp-server-option option must be repeated for

     Page 5                     Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

              each option you want to pass to the server. Likewise,
              different lines in the configuration files must be used
              for each option.

          --smtp-ssl
              Legacy alias for --smtp-encryption ssl.

          --smtp-ssl-cert-path
              Path to a store of trusted CA certificates for SMTP
              SSL/TLS certificate validation (either a directory that
              has been processed by c_rehash, or a single file
              containing one or more PEM format certificates
              concatenated together: see verify(1) -CAfile and -CApath
              for more information on these). Set it to an empty
              string to disable certificate verification. Defaults to
              the value of the sendemail.smtpsslcertpath configuration
              variable, if set, or the backing SSL librarycqs
              compiled-in default otherwise (which should be the best
              choice on most platforms).

          --smtp-user=<user>
              Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of
              sendemail.smtpUser; if a username is not specified (with
              --smtp-user or sendemail.smtpUser), then authentication
              is not attempted.

          --smtp-debug=0|1
              Enable (1) or disable (0) debug output. If enabled, SMTP
              commands and replies will be printed. Useful to debug
              TLS connection and authentication problems.

          --batch-size=<num>
              Some email servers (e.g. smtp.163.com) limit the number
              emails to be sent per session (connection) and this will
              lead to a failure when sending many messages. With this
              option, send-email will disconnect after sending $<num>
              messages and wait for a few seconds (see
              --relogin-delay) and reconnect, to work around such a
              limit. You may want to use some form of credential
              helper to avoid having to retype your password every
              time this happens. Defaults to the
              sendemail.smtpBatchSize configuration variable.

          --relogin-delay=<int>
              Waiting $<int> seconds before reconnecting to SMTP
              server. Used together with --batch-size option. Defaults
              to the sendemail.smtpReloginDelay configuration
              variable.

        Automating
          --no-[to|cc|bcc]
              Clears any list of "To:", "Cc:", "Bcc:" addresses

     Page 6                     Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

              previously set via config.

          --no-identity
              Clears the previously read value of sendemail.identity
              set via config, if any.

          --to-cmd=<command>
              Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
              should generate patch file specific "To:" entries.
              Output of this command must be single email address per
              line. Default is the value of sendemail.tocmd
              configuration value.

          --cc-cmd=<command>
              Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
              should generate patch file specific "Cc:" entries.
              Output of this command must be single email address per
              line. Default is the value of sendemail.ccCmd
              configuration value.

          --[no-]chain-reply-to
              If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to
              the previous email sent. If disabled with
              "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after the first will
              be sent as replies to the first email sent. When using
              this, it is recommended that the first file given be an
              overview of the entire patch series. Disabled by
              default, but the sendemail.chainReplyTo configuration
              variable can be used to enable it.

          --identity=<identity>
              A configuration identity. When given, causes values in
              the sendemail.<identity> subsection to take precedence
              over values in the sendemail section. The default
              identity is the value of sendemail.identity.

          --[no-]signed-off-by-cc
              If this is set, add emails found in the Signed-off-by
              trailer or Cc: lines to the cc list. Default is the
              value of sendemail.signedoffbycc configuration value; if
              that is unspecified, default to --signed-off-by-cc.

          --[no-]cc-cover
              If this is set, emails found in Cc: headers in the first
              patch of the series (typically the cover letter) are
              added to the cc list for each email set. Default is the
              value of sendemail.cccover configuration value; if that
              is unspecified, default to --no-cc-cover.

          --[no-]to-cover
              If this is set, emails found in To: headers in the first
              patch of the series (typically the cover letter) are

     Page 7                     Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

              added to the to list for each email set. Default is the
              value of sendemail.tocover configuration value; if that
              is unspecified, default to --no-to-cover.

          --suppress-cc=<category>
              Specify an additional category of recipients to suppress
              the auto-cc of:

              +o   author will avoid including the patch author.

              +o   self will avoid including the sender.

              +o   cc will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines
                  in the patch header except for self (use self for
                  that).

              +o   bodycc will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc
                  lines in the patch body (commit message) except for
                  self (use self for that).

              +o   sob will avoid including anyone mentioned in the
                  Signed-off-by trailers except for self (use self for
                  that).

              +o   misc-by will avoid including anyone mentioned in
                  Acked-by, Reviewed-by, Tested-by and other "-by"
                  lines in the patch body, except Signed-off-by (use
                  sob for that).

              +o   cccmd will avoid running the --cc-cmd.

              +o   body is equivalent to sob + bodycc + misc-by.

              +o   all will suppress all auto cc values.

              Default is the value of sendemail.suppresscc
              configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to
              self if --suppress-from is specified, as well as body if
              --no-signed-off-cc is specified.

          --[no-]suppress-from
              If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc:
              list. Default is the value of sendemail.suppressFrom
              configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to
              --no-suppress-from.

          --[no-]thread
              If this is set, the In-Reply-To and References headers
              will be added to each email sent. Whether each mail
              refers to the previous email (deep threading per git
              format-patch wording) or to the first email (shallow
              threading) is governed by "--[no-]chain-reply-to".

     Page 8                     Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

              If disabled with "--no-thread", those headers will not
              be added (unless specified with --in-reply-to). Default
              is the value of the sendemail.thread configuration
              value; if that is unspecified, default to --thread.

              It is up to the user to ensure that no In-Reply-To
              header already exists when git send-email is asked to
              add it (especially note that git format-patch can be
              configured to do the threading itself). Failure to do so
              may not produce the expected result in the recipientcqs
              MUA.

        Administering
          --confirm=<mode>
              Confirm just before sending:

              +o   always will always confirm before sending

              +o   never will never confirm before sending

              +o   cc will confirm before sending when send-email has
                  automatically added addresses from the patch to the
                  Cc list

              +o   compose will confirm before sending the first
                  message when using --compose.

              +o   auto is equivalent to cc + compose

              Default is the value of sendemail.confirm configuration
              value; if that is unspecified, default to auto unless
              any of the suppress options have been specified, in
              which case default to compose.

          --dry-run
              Do everything except actually send the emails.

          --[no-]format-patch
              When an argument may be understood either as a reference
              or as a file name, choose to understand it as a
              format-patch argument (--format-patch) or as a file name
              (--no-format-patch). By default, when such a conflict
              occurs, git send-email will fail.

          --quiet
              Make git-send-email less verbose. One line per email
              should be all that is output.

          --[no-]validate
              Perform sanity checks on patches. Currently, validation
              means the following:

     Page 9                     Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

              +o   Invoke the sendemail-validate hook if present (see
                  githooks(5)).

              +o   Warn of patches that contain lines longer than 998
                  characters unless a suitable transfer encoding
                  (auto, base64, or quoted-printable) is used; this is
                  due to SMTP limits as described by
                  m[blue]http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc5322.txtm[].

              Default is the value of sendemail.validate; if this is
              not set, default to --validate.

          --force
              Send emails even if safety checks would prevent it.

        Information
          --dump-aliases
              Instead of the normal operation, dump the shorthand
              alias names from the configured alias file(s), one per
              line in alphabetical order. Note, this only includes the
              alias name and not its expanded email addresses. See
              sendemail.aliasesfile for more information about
              aliases.

     CONFIGURATION
          sendemail.aliasesFile
              To avoid typing long email addresses, point this to one
              or more email aliases files. You must also supply
              sendemail.aliasFileType.

          sendemail.aliasFileType
              Format of the file(s) specified in
              sendemail.aliasesFile. Must be one of mutt, mailrc,
              pine, elm, or gnus, or sendmail.

              What an alias file in each format looks like can be
              found in the documentation of the email program of the
              same name. The differences and limitations from the
              standard formats are described below:

              sendmail

                  +o   Quoted aliases and quoted addresses are not
                      supported: lines that contain a " symbol are
                      ignored.

                  +o   Redirection to a file (/path/name) or pipe
                      (|command) is not supported.

                  +o   File inclusion (:include: /path/name) is not
                      supported.

     Page 10                    Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

                  +o   Warnings are printed on the standard error
                      output for any explicitly unsupported
                      constructs, and any other lines that are not
                      recognized by the parser.

          sendemail.multiEdit
              If true (default), a single editor instance will be
              spawned to edit files you have to edit (patches when
              --annotate is used, and the summary when --compose is
              used). If false, files will be edited one after the
              other, spawning a new editor each time.

          sendemail.confirm
              Sets the default for whether to confirm before sending.
              Must be one of always, never, cc, compose, or auto. See
              --confirm in the previous section for the meaning of
              these values.

     EXAMPLES
        Use gmail as the smtp server
          To use git send-email to send your patches through the GMail
          SMTP server, edit ~/.gitconfig to specify your account
          settings:

              [sendemail]
                      smtpEncryption = tls
                      smtpServer = smtp.gmail.com
                      smtpUser = yourname@gmail.com
                      smtpServerPort = 587

          If you have multi-factor authentication set up on your Gmail
          account, you will need to generate an app-specific password
          for use with git send-email. Visit
          m[blue]https://security.google.com/settings/security/apppasswordsm[]
          to create it.

          If you do not have multi-factor authentication set up on
          your Gmail account, you will need to allow less secure app
          access. Visit
          m[blue]https://myaccount.google.com/lesssecureappsm[] to
          enable it.

          Once your commits are ready to be sent to the mailing list,
          run the following commands:

              $ git format-patch --cover-letter -M origin/master -o outgoing/
              $ edit outgoing/0000-*
              $ git send-email outgoing/*

          The first time you run it, you will be prompted for your
          credentials. Enter the app-specific or your regular password

     Page 11                    Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)

     GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)         (11/25/2021)          GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)

          as appropriate. If you have credential helper configured
          (see git-credential(1)), the password will be saved in the
          credential store so you woncqt have to type it the next time.

          Note: the following core Perl modules that may be installed
          with your distribution of Perl are required: MIME::Base64,
          MIME::QuotedPrint, Net::Domain and Net::SMTP. These
          additional Perl modules are also required: Authen::SASL and
          Mail::Address.

     SEE ALSO
          git-format-patch(1), git-imap-send(1), mbox(5)

     GIT
          Part of the git(1) suite

     Page 12                    Git 2.34.1           (printed 1/20/22)