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          close - close a file descriptor

          #include <unistd.h>

          int close(int fd);

          close() closes a file descriptor, so that it no longer
          refers to any file and may be reused.  Any record locks (see
          fcntl(2)) held on the file it was associated with, and owned
          by the process, are removed (regardless of the file descrip-
          tor that was used to obtain the lock).

          If fd is the last file descriptor referring to the underly-
          ing open file description (see open(2)), the resources asso-
          ciated with the open file description are freed; if the file
          descriptor was the last reference to a file which has been
          removed using unlink(2), the file is deleted.

          close() returns zero on success.  On error, -1 is returned,
          and errno is set appropriately.

               fd isn't a valid open file descriptor.

               The close() call was interrupted by a signal; see

          EIO  An I/O error occurred.

          ENOSPC, EDQUOT
               On NFS, these errors are not normally reported against
               the first write which exceeds the available storage
               space, but instead against a subsequent write(2),
               fsync(2), or close().

          See NOTES for a discussion of why close() should not be
          retried after an error.

          POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, SVr4, 4.3BSD.

          A successful close does not guarantee that the data has been
          successfully saved to disk, as the kernel uses the buffer

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          cache to defer writes.  Typically, filesystems do not flush
          buffers when a file is closed.  If you need to be sure that
          the data is physically stored on the underlying disk, use
          fsync(2).  (It will depend on the disk hardware at this

          The close-on-exec file descriptor flag can be used to ensure
          that a file descriptor is automatically closed upon a suc-
          cessful execve(2); see fcntl(2) for details.

        Multithreaded processes and close()
          It is probably unwise to close file descriptors while they
          may be in use by system calls in other threads in the same
          process.  Since a file descriptor may be reused, there are
          some obscure race conditions that may cause unintended side

          Furthermore, consider the following scenario where two
          threads are performing operations on the same file descrip-

          1. One thread is blocked in an I/O system call on the file
             descriptor.  For example, it is trying to write(2) to a
             pipe that is already full, or trying to read(2) from a
             stream socket which currently has no available data.

          2. Another thread closes the file descriptor.

          The behavior in this situation varies across systems.  On
          some systems, when the file descriptor is closed, the block-
          ing system call returns immediately with an error.

          On Linux (and possibly some other systems), the behavior is
          different.  the blocking I/O system call holds a reference
          to the underlying open file description, and this reference
          keeps the description open until the I/O system call com-
          pletes.  (See open(2) for a discussion of open file descrip-
          tions.)  Thus, the blocking system call in the first thread
          may successfully complete after the close() in the second

        Dealing with error returns from close()
          A careful programmer will check the return value of close(),
          since it is quite possible that errors on a previous
          write(2) operation are reported only on the final close()
          that releases the open file description.  Failing to check
          the return value when closing a file may lead to silent loss
          of data.  This can especially be observed with NFS and with
          disk quota.

          Note, however, that a failure return should be used only for
          diagnostic purposes (i.e., a warning to the application that

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          there may still be I/O pending or there may have been failed
          I/O) or remedial purposes (e.g., writing the file once more
          or creating a backup).

          Retrying the close() after a failure return is the wrong
          thing to do, since this may cause a reused file descriptor
          from another thread to be closed.  This can occur because
          the Linux kernel always releases the file descriptor early
          in the close operation, freeing it for reuse; the steps that
          may return an error, such as flushing data to the filesystem
          or device, occur only later in the close operation.

          Many other implementations similarly always close the file
          descriptor (except in the case of EBADF, meaning that the
          file descriptor was invalid) even if they subsequently
          report an error on return from close().  POSIX.1 is cur-
          rently silent on this point, but there are plans to mandate
          this behavior in the next major release of the standard.

          A careful programmer who wants to know about I/O errors may
          precede close() with a call to fsync(2).

          The EINTR error is a somewhat special case.  Regarding the
          EINTR error, POSIX.1-2008 says:

               If close() is interrupted by a signal that is to be
               caught, it shall return -1 with errno set to EINTR and
               the state of fildes is unspecified.

          This permits the behavior that occurs on Linux and many
          other implementations, where, as with other errors that may
          be reported by close(), the file descriptor is guaranteed to
          be closed.  However, it also permits another possibility:
          that the implementation returns an EINTR error and keeps the
          file descriptor open.  (According to its documentation, HP-
          UX's close() does this.)  The caller must then once more use
          close() to close the file descriptor, to avoid file descrip-
          tor leaks.  This divergence in implementation behaviors pro-
          vides a difficult hurdle for portable applications, since on
          many implementations, close() must not be called again after
          an EINTR error, and on at least one, close() must be called
          again.  There are plans to address this conundrum for the
          next major release of the POSIX.1 standard.

          fcntl(2), fsync(2), open(2), shutdown(2), unlink(2),

          This page is part of release 5.10 of the Linux man-pages
          project.  A description of the project, information about
          reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be

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          found at

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