PIDFD_SEND_SIGNAL(2)      (2020-06-09)       PIDFD_SEND_SIGNAL(2)

          pidfd_send_signal - send a signal to a process specified by
          a file descriptor

          #include <signal.h>

          int pidfd_send_signal(int pidfd, int sig, siginfo_t *info
                                unsigned int flags);

          The pidfd_send_signal() system call sends the signal sig to
          the target process referred to by pidfd, a PID file descrip-
          tor that refers to a process.

          If the info argument points to a siginfo_t buffer, that
          buffer should be populated as described in

          If the info argument is a NULL pointer, this is equivalent
          to specifying a pointer to a siginfo_t buffer whose fields
          match the values that are implicitly supplied when a signal
          is sent using kill(2):

          *  si_signo is set to the signal number;
          *  si_errno is set to 0;
          *  si_code is set to SI_USER;
          *  si_pid is set to the caller's PID; and
          *  si_uid is set to the caller's real user ID.

          The calling process must either be in the same PID namespace
          as the process referred to by pidfd, or be in an ancestor of
          that namespace.

          The flags argument is reserved for future use; currently,
          this argument must be specified as 0.

          On success, pidfd_send_signal() returns 0.  On error, -1 is
          returned and errno is set to indicate the cause of the

               pidfd is not a valid PID file descriptor.

               sig is not a valid signal.


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               The calling process is not in a PID namespace from
               which it can send a signal to the target process.

               flags is not 0.

               The calling process does not have permission to send
               the signal to the target process.

               pidfd doesn't refer to the calling process, and
               info.si_code is invalid (see rt_sigqueueinfo(2)).

               The target process does not exist (i.e., it has termi-
               nated and been waited on).

          pidfd_send_signal() first appeared in Linux 5.1.

          pidfd_send_signal() is Linux specific.

          Currently, there is no glibc wrapper for this system call;
          call it using syscall(2).

        PID file descriptors
          The pidfd argument is a PID file descriptor, a file descrip-
          tor that refers to  process.  Such a file descriptor can be
          obtained in any of the following ways:

          *  by opening a /proc/[pid] directory;

          *  using pidfd_open(2); or

          *  via the PID file descriptor that is returned by a call to
             clone(2) or clone3(2) that specifies the CLONE_PIDFD

          The pidfd_send_signal() system call allows the avoidance of
          race conditions that occur when using traditional interfaces
          (such as kill(2)) to signal a process.  The problem is that
          the traditional interfaces specify the target process via a
          process ID (PID), with the result that the sender may acci-
          dentally send a signal to the wrong process if the origi-
          nally intended target process has terminated and its PID has
          been recycled for another process.  By contrast, a PID file
          descriptor is a stable reference to a specific process; if
          that process terminates, pidfd_send_signal() fails with the
          error ESRCH.

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     PIDFD_SEND_SIGNAL(2)      (2020-06-09)       PIDFD_SEND_SIGNAL(2)

          #define _GNU_SOURCE
          #include <limits.h>
          #include <signal.h>
          #include <fcntl.h>
          #include <stdio.h>
          #include <string.h>
          #include <stdlib.h>
          #include <unistd.h>
          #include <sys/syscall.h>

          #ifndef __NR_pidfd_send_signal
          #define __NR_pidfd_send_signal 424

          static int
          pidfd_send_signal(int pidfd, int sig, siginfo_t *info,
                  unsigned int flags)
              return syscall(__NR_pidfd_send_signal, pidfd, sig, info, flags);

          main(int argc, char *argv[])
              siginfo_t info;
              char path[PATH_MAX];
              int pidfd, sig;

              if (argc != 3) {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <pid> <signal>\n", argv[0]);

              sig = atoi(argv[2]);

              /* Obtain a PID file descriptor by opening the /proc/PID directory
                 of the target process */

              snprintf(path, sizeof(path), "/proc/%s", argv[1]);

              pidfd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
              if (pidfd == -1) {

              /* Populate a aqsiginfo_taq structure for use with
                 pidfd_send_signal() */

              memset(&info, 0, sizeof(info));
              info.si_code = SI_QUEUE;

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              info.si_signo = sig;
              info.si_errno = 0;
              info.si_uid = getuid();
              info.si_pid = getpid();
              info.si_value.sival_int = 1234;

              /* Send the signal */

              if (pidfd_send_signal(pidfd, sig, &info, 0) == -1) {


          clone(2), kill(2), pidfd_open(2), rt_sigqueueinfo(2),
          sigaction(2), pid_namespaces(7), signal(7)

          This page is part of release 5.10 of the Linux man-pages
          project.  A description of the project, information about
          reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be
          found at

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