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          sched_setaffinity, sched_getaffinity - set and get a
          thread's CPU affinity mask

          #define _GNU_SOURCE             /* See feature_test_macros(7) */
          #include <sched.h>

          int sched_setaffinity(pid_t pid, size_t cpusetsize,
                                const cpu_set_t *mask);

          int sched_getaffinity(pid_t pid, size_t cpusetsize,
                                cpu_set_t *mask);

          A thread's CPU affinity mask determines the set of CPUs on
          which it is eligible to run.  On a multiprocessor system,
          setting the CPU affinity mask can be used to obtain perfor-
          mance benefits.  For example, by dedicating one CPU to a
          particular thread (i.e., setting the affinity mask of that
          thread to specify a single CPU, and setting the affinity
          mask of all other threads to exclude that CPU), it is possi-
          ble to ensure maximum execution speed for that thread.
          Restricting a thread to run on a single CPU also avoids the
          performance cost caused by the cache invalidation that
          occurs when a thread ceases to execute on one CPU and then
          recommences execution on a different CPU.

          A CPU affinity mask is represented by the cpu_set_t struc-
          ture, a "CPU set", pointed to by mask. A set of macros for
          manipulating CPU sets is described in CPU_SET(3).

          sched_setaffinity() sets the CPU affinity mask of the thread
          whose ID is pid to the value specified by mask. If pid is
          zero, then the calling thread is used.  The argument
          cpusetsize is the length (in bytes) of the data pointed to
          by mask. Normally this argument would be specified as

          If the thread specified by pid is not currently running on
          one of the CPUs specified in mask, then that thread is
          migrated to one of the CPUs specified in mask.

          sched_getaffinity() writes the affinity mask of the thread
          whose ID is pid into the cpu_set_t structure pointed to by
          mask. The cpusetsize argument specifies the size (in bytes)
          of mask. If pid is zero, then the mask of the calling thread
          is returned.


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          On success, sched_setaffinity() and sched_getaffinity()
          return 0 (but see "C library/kernel differences" below,
          which notes that the underlying sched_getaffinity() differs
          in its return value).  On error, -1 is returned, and errno
          is set appropriately.

               A supplied memory address was invalid.

               The affinity bit mask mask contains no processors that
               are currently physically on the system and permitted to
               the thread according to any restrictions that may be
               imposed by cpuset cgroups or the "cpuset" mechanism
               described in cpuset(7).

               (sched_getaffinity() and, in kernels before 2.6.9,
               sched_setaffinity()) cpusetsize is smaller than the
               size of the affinity mask used by the kernel.

               (sched_setaffinity()) The calling thread does not have
               appropriate privileges.  The caller needs an effective
               user ID equal to the real user ID or effective user ID
               of the thread identified by pid, or it must possess the
               CAP_SYS_NICE capability in the user namespace of the
               thread pid.

               The thread whose ID is pid could not be found.

          The CPU affinity system calls were introduced in Linux ker-
          nel 2.5.8.  The system call wrappers were introduced in
          glibc 2.3.  Initially, the glibc interfaces included a
          cpusetsize argument, typed as unsigned int. In glibc 2.3.3,
          the cpusetsize argument was removed, but was then restored
          in glibc 2.3.4, with type size_t.

          These system calls are Linux-specific.

          After a call to sched_setaffinity(), the set of CPUs on
          which the thread will actually run is the intersection of
          the set specified in the mask argument and the set of CPUs
          actually present on the system.  The system may further
          restrict the set of CPUs on which the thread runs if the
          "cpuset" mechanism described in cpuset(7) is being used.
          These restrictions on the actual set of CPUs on which the

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          thread will run are silently imposed by the kernel.

          There are various ways of determining the number of CPUs
          available on the system, including: inspecting the contents
          of /proc/cpuinfo; using sysconf(3) to obtain the values of
          ters; and inspecting the list of CPU directories under

          sched(7) has a description of the Linux scheduling scheme.

          The affinity mask is a per-thread attribute that can be
          adjusted independently for each of the threads in a thread
          group.  The value returned from a call to gettid(2) can be
          passed in the argument pid. Specifying pid as 0 will set the
          attribute for the calling thread, and passing the value
          returned from a call to getpid(2) will set the attribute for
          the main thread of the thread group.  (If you are using the
          POSIX threads API, then use pthread_setaffinity_np(3)
          instead of sched_setaffinity().)

          The isolcpus boot option can be used to isolate one or more
          CPUs at boot time, so that no processes are scheduled onto
          those CPUs.  Following the use of this boot option, the only
          way to schedule processes onto the isolated CPUs is via
          sched_setaffinity() or the cpuset(7) mechanism.  For further
          information, see the kernel source file
          Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt.  .}f As
          noted in that file, isolcpus is the preferred mechanism of
          isolating CPUs (versus the alternative of manually setting
          the CPU affinity of all processes on the system).

          A child created via fork(2) inherits its parent's CPU affin-
          ity mask.  The affinity mask is preserved across an

        C library/kernel differences
          This manual page describes the glibc interface for the CPU
          affinity calls.  The actual system call interface is
          slightly different, with the mask being typed as unsigned
          long *, reflecting the fact that the underlying implementa-
          tion of CPU sets is a simple bit mask.

          On success, the raw sched_getaffinity() system call returns
          the number of bytes placed copied into the mask buffer; this
          will be the minimum of cpusetsize and the size (in bytes) of
          the cpumask_t data type that is used internally by the ker-
          nel to represent the CPU set bit mask.

        Handling systems with large CPU affinity
          The underlying system calls (which represent CPU masks as
          bit masks of type unsigned long *) impose no restriction on

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          the size of the CPU mask.  However, the cpu_set_t data type
          used by glibc has a fixed size of 128 bytes, meaning that
          the maximum CPU number that can be represented is 1023.  If
          the kernel CPU affinity mask is larger than 1024, then calls
          of the form:

              sched_getaffinity(pid, sizeof(cpu_set_t), &mask);

          fail with the error EINVAL, the error produced by the under-
          lying system call for the case where the mask size specified
          in cpusetsize is smaller than the size of the affinity mask
          used by the kernel.  (Depending on the system CPU topology,
          the kernel affinity mask can be substantially larger than
          the number of active CPUs in the system.)

          When working on systems with large kernel CPU affinity
          masks, one must dynamically allocate the mask argument (see
          CPU_ALLOC(3)).  Currently, the only way to do this is by
          probing for the size of the required mask using
          sched_getaffinity() calls with increasing mask sizes (until
          the call does not fail with the error EINVAL).

          Be aware that CPU_ALLOC(3) may allocate a slightly larger
          CPU set than requested (because CPU sets are implemented as
          bit masks allocated in units of sizeof(long)). Consequently,
          sched_getaffinity() can set bits beyond the requested allo-
          cation size, because the kernel sees a few additional bits.
          Therefore, the caller should iterate over the bits in the
          returned set, counting those which are set, and stop upon
          reaching the value returned by CPU_COUNT(3) (rather than
          iterating over the number of bits requested to be allo-

          The program below creates a child process.  The parent and
          child then each assign themselves to a specified CPU and
          execute identical loops that consume some CPU time.  Before
          terminating, the parent waits for the child to complete.
          The program takes three command-line arguments: the CPU num-
          ber for the parent, the CPU number for the child, and the
          number of loop iterations that both processes should per-

          As the sample runs below demonstrate, the amount of real and
          CPU time consumed when running the program will depend on
          intra-core caching effects and whether the processes are
          using the same CPU.

          We first employ lscpu(1) to determine that this (x86) system
          has two cores, each with two CPUs:

              $ lscpu | egrep -i aqcore.*:|socketaq

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              Thread(s) per core:    2
              Core(s) per socket:    2
              Socket(s):             1

          We then time the operation of the example program for three
          cases: both processes running on the same CPU; both pro-
          cesses running on different CPUs on the same core; and both
          processes running on different CPUs on different cores.

              $ time -p ./a.out 0 0 100000000
              real 14.75
              user 3.02
              sys 11.73
              $ time -p ./a.out 0 1 100000000
              real 11.52
              user 3.98
              sys 19.06
              $ time -p ./a.out 0 3 100000000
              real 7.89
              user 3.29
              sys 12.07

        Program source

          #define _GNU_SOURCE
          #include <sched.h>
          #include <stdio.h>
          #include <stdlib.h>
          #include <unistd.h>
          #include <sys/wait.h>

          #define errExit(msg)    do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); \
                                  } while (0)

          main(int argc, char *argv[])
              cpu_set_t set;
              int parentCPU, childCPU;
              int nloops;

              if (argc != 4) {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s parent-cpu child-cpu num-loops\n",

              parentCPU = atoi(argv[1]);
              childCPU = atoi(argv[2]);
              nloops = atoi(argv[3]);


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              switch (fork()) {
              case -1:            /* Error */

              case 0:             /* Child */
                  CPU_SET(childCPU, &set);

                  if (sched_setaffinity(getpid(), sizeof(set), &set) == -1)

                  for (int j = 0; j < nloops; j++)


              default:            /* Parent */
                  CPU_SET(parentCPU, &set);

                  if (sched_setaffinity(getpid(), sizeof(set), &set) == -1)

                  for (int j = 0; j < nloops; j++)

                  wait(NULL);     /* Wait for child to terminate */

          lscpu(1), nproc(1), taskset(1), clone(2), getcpu(2),
          getpriority(2), gettid(2), nice(2),
          sched_get_priority_max(2), sched_get_priority_min(2),
          sched_getscheduler(2), sched_setscheduler(2),
          setpriority(2), CPU_SET(3), get_nprocs(3),
          pthread_setaffinity_np(3), sched_getcpu(3), capabilities(7),
          cpuset(7), sched(7), numactl(8)

          This page is part of release 5.10 of the Linux man-pages
          project.  A description of the project, information about
          reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be
          found at

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