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          select, pselect, FD_CLR, FD_ISSET, FD_SET, FD_ZERO -
          synchronous I/O multiplexing

          #include <sys/select.h>

          int select(int nfds, fd_set *readfds, fd_set *writefds
                     fd_set *exceptfds, struct timeval *timeout);

          void FD_CLR(int fd, fd_set *set);
          int  FD_ISSET(int fd, fd_set *set);
          void FD_SET(int fd, fd_set *set);
          void FD_ZERO(fd_set *set);

          int pselect(int nfds, fd_set *readfds, fd_set *writefds
                      fd_set *exceptfds, const struct timespec *timeout,
                      const sigset_t *sigmask);

     Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see

          pselect(): _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L

          select() allows a program to monitor multiple file descrip-
          tors, waiting until one or more of the file descriptors
          become "ready" for some class of I/O operation (e.g., input
          possible).  A file descriptor is considered ready if it is
          possible to perform a corresponding I/O operation (e.g.,
          read(2), or a sufficiently small write(2)) without blocking.

          select() can monitor only file descriptors numbers that are
          less than FD_SETSIZE; poll(2) and epoll(7) do not have this
          limitation.  See BUGS.

        File descriptor sets
          The principal arguments of select() are three "sets" of file
          descriptors (declared with the type fd_set), which allow the
          caller to wait for three classes of events on the specified
          set of file descriptors.  Each of the fd_set arguments may
          be specified as NULL if no file descriptors are to be
          watched for the corresponding class of events.

          Note well: Upon return, each of the file descriptor sets is
          modified in place to indicate which file descriptors are
          currently "ready".  Thus, if using select() within a loop,
          the sets must be reinitialized before each call.  The imple-
          mentation of the fd_set arguments as value-result arguments
          is a design error that is avoided in poll(2) and epoll(7).

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          The contents of a file descriptor set can be manipulated
          using the following macros:

               This macro clears (removes all file descriptors from)
               set. It should be employed as the first step in ini-
               tializing a file descriptor set.

               This macro adds the file descriptor fd to set. Adding a
               file descriptor that is already present in the set is a
               no-op, and does not produce an error.

               This macro removes the file descriptor fd from set.
               Removing a file descriptor that is not present in the
               set is a no-op, and does not produce an error.

               select() modifies the contents of the sets according to
               the rules described below.  After calling select(), the
               FD_ISSET() macro can be used to test if a file descrip-
               tor is still present in a set.  FD_ISSET() returns
               nonzero if the file descriptor fd is present in set,
               and zero if it is not.

          The arguments of select() are as follows:

               The file descriptors in this set are watched to see if
               they are ready for reading.  A file descriptor is ready
               for reading if a read operation will not block; in par-
               ticular, a file descriptor is also ready on end-of-

               After select() has returned, readfds will be cleared of
               all file descriptors except for those that are ready
               for reading.

               The file descriptors in this set are watched to see if
               they are ready for writing.  A file descriptor is ready
               for writing if a write operation will not block.  How-
               ever, even if a file descriptor indicates as writable,
               a large write may still block.

               After select() has returned, writefds will be cleared
               of all file descriptors except for those that are ready
               for writing.


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               The file descriptors in this set are watched for
               "exceptional conditions".  For examples of some excep-
               tional conditions, see the discussion of POLLPRI in

               After select() has returned, exceptfds will be cleared
               of all file descriptors except for those for which an
               exceptional condition has occurred.

          nfds This argument should be set to the highest-numbered
               file descriptor in any of the three sets, plus 1.  The
               indicated file descriptors in each set are checked, up
               to this limit (but see BUGS).

               The timeout argument is a timeval structure (shown
               below) that specifies the interval that select() should
               block waiting for a file descriptor to become ready.
               The call will block until either:

               +o a file descriptor becomes ready;

               +o the call is interrupted by a signal handler; or

               +o the timeout expires.

               Note that the timeout interval will be rounded up to
               the system clock granularity, and kernel scheduling
               delays mean that the blocking interval may overrun by a
               small amount.

               If both fields of the timeval structure are zero, then
               select() returns immediately.  (This is useful for pol-

               If timeout is specified as NULL, select() blocks indef-
               initely waiting for a file descriptor to become ready.

          The pselect() system call allows an application to safely
          wait until either a file descriptor becomes ready or until a
          signal is caught.

          The operation of select() and pselect() is identical, other
          than these three differences:

          +o select() uses a timeout that is a struct timeval (with
            seconds and microseconds), while pselect() uses a struct
            timespec (with seconds and nanoseconds).

          +o select() may update the timeout argument to indicate how
            much time was left.  pselect() does not change this

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          +o select() has no sigmask argument, and behaves as pselect()
            called with NULL sigmask.

          sigmask is a pointer to a signal mask (see sigprocmask(2));
          if it is not NULL, then pselect() first replaces the current
          signal mask by the one pointed to by sigmask, then does the
          "select" function, and then restores the original signal
          mask.  (If sigmask is NULL, the signal mask is not modified
          during the pselect() call.)

          Other than the difference in the precision of the timeout
          argument, the following pselect() call:

              ready = pselect(nfds, &readfds, &writefds, &exceptfds,
                              timeout, &sigmask);

          is equivalent to atomically executing the following calls:

              sigset_t origmask;

              pthread_sigmask(SIG_SETMASK, &sigmask, &origmask);
              ready = select(nfds, &readfds, &writefds, &exceptfds, timeout);
              pthread_sigmask(SIG_SETMASK, &origmask, NULL);

          The reason that pselect() is needed is that if one wants to
          wait for either a signal or for a file descriptor to become
          ready, then an atomic test is needed to prevent race condi-
          tions.  (Suppose the signal handler sets a global flag and
          returns.  Then a test of this global flag followed by a call
          of select() could hang indefinitely if the signal arrived
          just after the test but just before the call.  By contrast,
          pselect() allows one to first block signals, handle the sig-
          nals that have come in, then call pselect() with the desired
          sigmask, avoiding the race.)

        The timeout
          The timeout argument for select() is a structure of the fol-
          lowing type:

              struct timeval {
                  time_t      tv_sec;         /* seconds */
                  suseconds_t tv_usec;        /* microseconds */

          The corresponding argument for pselect() has the following

              struct timespec {
                  time_t      tv_sec;         /* seconds */
                  long        tv_nsec;        /* nanoseconds */

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          On Linux, select() modifies timeout to reflect the amount of
          time not slept; most other implementations do not do this.
          (POSIX.1 permits either behavior.)  This causes problems
          both when Linux code which reads timeout is ported to other
          operating systems, and when code is ported to Linux that
          reuses a struct timeval for multiple select()s in a loop
          without reinitializing it.  Consider timeout to be undefined
          after select() returns.

          On success, select() and pselect() return the number of file
          descriptors contained in the three returned descriptor sets
          (that is, the total number of bits that are set in readfds,
          writefds, exceptfds). The return value may be zero if the
          timeout expired before any file descriptors became ready.

          On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set to indicate the
          error; the file descriptor sets are unmodified, and timeout
          becomes undefined.

               An invalid file descriptor was given in one of the
               sets.  (Perhaps a file descriptor that was already
               closed, or one on which an error has occurred.)  How-
               ever, see BUGS.

               A signal was caught; see signal(7).

               nfds is negative or exceeds the RLIMIT_NOFILE resource
               limit (see getrlimit(2)).

               The value contained within timeout is invalid.

               Unable to allocate memory for internal tables.

          pselect() was added to Linux in kernel 2.6.16.  Prior to
          this, pselect() was emulated in glibc (but see BUGS).

          select() conforms to POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, and 4.4BSD
          (select() first appeared in 4.2BSD).  Generally portable
          to/from non-BSD systems supporting clones of the BSD socket
          layer (including System V variants).  However, note that the
          System V variant typically sets the timeout variable before

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          returning, but the BSD variant does not.

          pselect() is defined in POSIX.1g, and in POSIX.1-2001 and

          An fd_set is a fixed size buffer.  Executing FD_CLR() or
          FD_SET() with a value of fd that is negative or is equal to
          or larger than FD_SETSIZE will result in undefined behavior.
          Moreover, POSIX requires fd to be a valid file descriptor.

          The operation of select() and pselect() is not affected by
          the O_NONBLOCK flag.

          On some other UNIX systems, select() can fail with the error
          EAGAIN if the system fails to allocate kernel-internal
          resources, rather than ENOMEM as Linux does.  POSIX speci-
          fies this error for poll(2), but not for select().  Portable
          programs may wish to check for EAGAIN and loop, just as with

        The self-pipe trick
          On systems that lack pselect(), reliable (and more portable)
          signal trapping can be achieved using the self-pipe trick.
          In this technique, a signal handler writes a byte to a pipe
          whose other end is monitored by select() in the main pro-
          gram.  (To avoid possibly blocking when writing to a pipe
          that may be full or reading from a pipe that may be empty,
          nonblocking I/O is used when reading from and writing to the

        Emulating usleep(3)
          Before the advent of usleep(3), some code employed a call to
          select() with all three sets empty, nfds zero, and a non-
          NULL timeout as a fairly portable way to sleep with subsec-
          ond precision.

        Correspondence between select() and poll() notifications
          Within the Linux kernel source, we find the following defi-
          nitions which show the correspondence between the readable,
          writable, and exceptional condition notifications of
          select() and the event notifications provided by poll(2) and

                                   EPOLLHUP | EPOLLERR)
                                 /* Ready for reading */
                                 /* Ready for writing */
              #define POLLEX_SET  (EPOLLPRI)
                                 /* Exceptional condition */

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        Multithreaded applications
          If a file descriptor being monitored by select() is closed
          in another thread, the result is unspecified.  On some UNIX
          systems, select() unblocks and returns, with an indication
          that the file descriptor is ready (a subsequent I/O opera-
          tion will likely fail with an error, unless another process
          reopens file descriptor between the time select() returned
          and the I/O operation is performed).  On Linux (and some
          other systems), closing the file descriptor in another
          thread has no effect on select().  In summary, any applica-
          tion that relies on a particular behavior in this scenario
          must be considered buggy.

        C library/kernel differences
          The Linux kernel allows file descriptor sets of arbitrary
          size, determining the length of the sets to be checked from
          the value of nfds. However, in the glibc implementation, the
          fd_set type is fixed in size.  See also BUGS.

          The pselect() interface described in this page is imple-
          mented by glibc.  The underlying Linux system call is named
          pselect6().  This system call has somewhat different behav-
          ior from the glibc wrapper function.

          The Linux pselect6() system call modifies its timeout argu-
          ment.  However, the glibc wrapper function hides this behav-
          ior by using a local variable for the timeout argument that
          is passed to the system call.  Thus, the glibc pselect()
          function does not modify its timeout argument; this is the
          behavior required by POSIX.1-2001.

          The final argument of the pselect6() system call is not a
          sigset_t * pointer, but is instead a structure of the form:

              struct {
                  const kernel_sigset_t *ss;   /* Pointer to signal set */
                  size_t ss_len;               /* Size (in bytes) of object
                                                  pointed to by aqssaq */

          This allows the system call to obtain both a pointer to the
          signal set and its size, while allowing for the fact that
          most architectures support a maximum of 6 arguments to a
          system call.  See sigprocmask(2) for a discussion of the
          difference between the kernel and libc notion of the signal

        Historical glibc details
          Glibc 2.0 provided an incorrect version of pselect() that
          did not take a sigmask argument.

          In glibc versions 2.1 to 2.2.1, one must define _GNU_SOURCE

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          in order to obtain the declaration of pselect() from

          POSIX allows an implementation to define an upper limit,
          advertised via the constant FD_SETSIZE, on the range of file
          descriptors that can be specified in a file descriptor set.
          The Linux kernel imposes no fixed limit, but the glibc
          implementation makes fd_set a fixed-size type, with
          FD_SETSIZE defined as 1024, and the FD_*() macros operating
          according to that limit.  To monitor file descriptors
          greater than 1023, use poll(2) or epoll(7) instead.

          According to POSIX, select() should check all specified file
          descriptors in the three file descriptor sets, up to the
          limit nfds-1. However, the current implementation ignores
          any file descriptor in these sets that is greater than the
          maximum file descriptor number that the process currently
          has open.  According to POSIX, any such file descriptor that
          is specified in one of the sets should result in the error

          Starting with version 2.1, glibc provided an emulation of
          pselect() that was implemented using sigprocmask(2) and
          select().  This implementation remained vulnerable to the
          very race condition that pselect() was designed to prevent.
          Modern versions of glibc use the (race-free) pselect() sys-
          tem call on kernels where it is provided.

          On Linux, select() may report a socket file descriptor as
          "ready for reading", while nevertheless a subsequent read
          blocks.  This could for example happen when data has arrived
          but upon examination has the wrong checksum and is dis-
          carded.  There may be other circumstances in which a file
          descriptor is spuriously reported as ready.  Thus it may be
          safer to use O_NONBLOCK on sockets that should not block.

          On Linux, select() also modifies timeout if the call is
          interrupted by a signal handler (i.e., the EINTR error
          return).  This is not permitted by POSIX.1.  The Linux
          pselect() system call has the same behavior, but the glibc
          wrapper hides this behavior by internally copying the
          timeout to a local variable and passing that variable to the
          system call.

          #include <stdio.h>
          #include <stdlib.h>
          #include <sys/select.h>


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              fd_set rfds;
              struct timeval tv;
              int retval;

              /* Watch stdin (fd 0) to see when it has input. */

              FD_SET(0, &rfds);

              /* Wait up to five seconds. */

              tv.tv_sec = 5;
              tv.tv_usec = 0;

              retval = select(1, &rfds, NULL, NULL, &tv);
              /* Donaqt rely on the value of tv now! */

              if (retval == -1)
              else if (retval)
                  printf("Data is available now.\n");
                  /* FD_ISSET(0, &rfds) will be true. */
                  printf("No data within five seconds.\n");


          accept(2), connect(2), poll(2), read(2), recv(2),
          restart_syscall(2), send(2), sigprocmask(2), write(2),
          epoll(7), time(7)

          For a tutorial with discussion and examples, see

          This page is part of release 5.10 of the Linux man-pages
          project.  A description of the project, information about
          reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be
          found at

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