intel(4)           (xf86-video-intel 2.99.917)           intel(4)

          intel - Intel integrated graphics chipsets

          Section 34Device34
            Identifier 34devname34
            Driver 34intel34

          intel is an Xorg driver for Intel integrated graphics chip-
          sets.  The driver supports depths 8, 15, 16 and 24.  All
          visual types are supported in depth 8.  For the i810/i815
          other depths support the TrueColor and DirectColor visuals.
          For the i830M and later, only the TrueColor visual is sup-
          ported for depths greater than 8.  The driver supports hard-
          ware accelerated 3D via the Direct Rendering Infrastructure
          (DRI), but only in depth 16 for the i810/i815 and depths 16
          and 24 for the 830M and later.

          intel supports the i810, i810-DC100, i810e, i815, i830M,
          845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G, 915G, 915GM, 945G, 945GM, 965G,
          965Q, 946GZ, 965GM, 945GME, G33, Q33, Q35, G35, GM45, G45,
          Q45, G43, G41 chipsets, Pineview-M in Atom N400 series,
          Pineview-D in Atom D400/D500 series, Intel(R) HD Graphics,
          Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics, Intel(R) Iris(TM) Pro Graphics.

          Please refer to xorg.conf(5) for general configuration
          details.  This section only covers configuration details
          specific to this driver.

          The Intel 8xx and 9xx families of integrated graphics chip-
          sets have a unified memory architecture meaning that system
          memory is used as video RAM.  For the i810 and i815 family
          of chipsets, operating system support for allocating system
          memory is required in order to use this driver.  For the
          830M and later, this is required in order for the driver to
          use more video RAM than has been pre-allocated at boot time
          by the BIOS.  This is usually achieved with an "agpgart" or
          "agp" kernel driver.  Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, and
          Solaris have such kernel drivers available.

          By default, the i810/i815 will use 8 MB of system memory for
          graphics if AGP allocable memory is < 128 MB, 16 MB if < 192
          MB or 24 MB if higher. Use the VideoRam option to change the
          default value.

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          For the 830M and later, the driver will automatically size
          its memory allocation according to the features it will sup-
          port.  Therefore, the VideoRam option, which in the past had
          been necessary to allow more than some small amount of mem-
          ory to be allocated, is now ignored.

          The following driver Options are supported

          Option 34ColorKey34 34integer34
               This sets the default pixel value for the YUV video
               overlay key.

               Default: undefined.

          Option 34DRI34 34string34
               Disable or enable DRI support. A driver name to use can
               be provided instead of simple boolean value, which will
               be passed to the GL implementation for it to load the
               appropriate backend. Alternatively the maximum level of
               DRI to enable (e.g. "1", "2" or "3") can be specified.

               Default: All levels of DRI are enabled for configura-
               tions where it is supported.

          The following driver Options are supported for the i810 and
          i815 chipsets:

          Option 34CacheLines34 34integer34
               This allows the user to change the amount of graphics
               memory used for 2D acceleration and video when XAA
               acceleration is enabled.  Decreasing this amount leaves
               more for 3D textures.  Increasing it can improve 2D
               performance at the expense of 3D performance.

               Default: depends on the resolution, depth, and avail-
               able video memory.  The driver attempts to allocate
               space for at 3 screenfuls of pixmaps plus an HD-sized
               XV video.  The default used for a specific configura-
               tion can be found by examining the Xorg log file.

          Option 34DDC34 34boolean34
               Disable or enable DDC support.

               Default: enabled.

          Option 34Dac6Bit34 34boolean34
               Enable or disable 6-bits per RGB for 8-bit modes.

               Default: 8-bits per RGB for 8-bit modes.

          Option 34XvMCSurfaces34 34integer34

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               This option enables XvMC.  The integer parameter speci-
               fies the number of surfaces to use.  Valid values are 6
               and 7.

               Default: XvMC is disabled.

          VideoRam integer
               This option specifies the amount of system memory to
               use for graphics, in KB.

               The default is 8192 if AGP allocable memory is < 128
               MB, 16384 if < 192 MB, 24576 if higher. DRI require at
               least a value of 16384. Higher values may give better
               3D performance, at expense of available system memory.

          Option 34Accel34 34boolean34
               Enable or disable acceleration.

               Default: acceleration is enabled.

          The following driver Options are supported for the 830M and
          later chipsets:

          Option 34Accel34 34boolean34
               Enable or disable acceleration.

               Default: acceleration is enabled.

          Option 34Present34 34boolean34
               Enable use of hardware counters and flow control for
               the Present extension.

               Default: Enabled

          Option 34AccelMethod34 34string34
               Select acceleration method.  There are a couple of
               backends available for accelerating the DDX. 34UXA34
               (Unified Acceleration Architecture) is the mature back-
               end that was introduced to support the GEM driver
               model. It is in the process of being superseded by
               34SNA34 (Sandybridge's New Acceleration). Until that pro-
               cess is complete, the ability to choose which backend
               to use remains for backwards compatibility.  In addi-
               tion, there are a pair of sub-options to limit the
               acceleration for debugging use. Specify 34off34 or 34none34
               to disable all acceleration, or 34blt34 to disable render
               acceleration and only use the BLT engine.

               Default: use SNA (render acceleration)

          Option 34TearFree34 34boolean34

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               Disable or enable TearFree updates. This option forces
               X to perform all rendering to a backbuffer prior to
               updating the actual display. It requires an extra mem-
               ory allocation the same size as a framebuffer, the
               occasional extra copy, and requires Damage tracking.
               Thus enabling TearFree requires more memory and is
               slower (reduced throughput) and introduces a small
               amount of output latency, but it should not impact
               input latency. However, the update to the screen is
               then performed synchronously with the vertical refresh
               of the display so that the entire update is completed
               before the display starts its refresh. That is only one
               frame is ever visible, preventing an unsightly tear
               between two visible and differing frames. Note that
               this replicates what the compositing manager should be
               doing, however TearFree will redirect the compositor
               updates (and those of fullscreen games) directly on to
               the scanout thus incurring no additional overhead in
               the composited case. Also note that not all compositing
               managers prevent tearing, and if the outputs are
               rotated, there will still be tearing without TearFree

               Default: TearFree is disabled.

          Option 34ReprobeOutputs34 34boolean34
               Disable or enable rediscovery of connected displays
               during server startup.  As the kernel driver loads it
               scans for connected displays and configures a console
               spanning those outputs. When the X server starts, we
               then take the list of connected displays and frame-
               buffer layout and use that for the initial configura-
               tion. Sometimes, not all displays are correctly
               detected by the kernel and so it is useful in a few
               circumstances for X to force the kernel to reprobe all
               displays when it starts. To make the X server recheck
               the status of connected displays, set the 34ReprobeOut-
               puts34 option to true.  Please do file a bug for any
               circumstances which require this workaround.

               Default: reprobing is disabled for a faster startup.

          Option 34VideoKey34 34integer34
               This is the same as the 34ColorKey34 option described
               above.  It is provided for compatibility with most
               other drivers.

          Option 34XvPreferOverlay34 34boolean34
               Make hardware overlay be the first XV adaptor.  The
               overlay behaves incorrectly in the presence of com-
               positing, but some prefer it due to it syncing to
               vblank in the absence of compositing.  While most XV-

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               using applications have options to select which XV
               adaptor to use, this option can be used to place the
               overlay first for applications which don't have options
               for selecting adaptors.

               Default: Textured video adaptor is preferred.

          Option 34Backlight34 34string34
               Override the probed backlight control interface. Some-
               times the automatically selected backlight interface
               may not correspond to the correct, or simply most use-
               ful, interface available on the system. This allows you
               to override that choice by specifying the entry under
               /sys/class/backlight to use.

               Default: Automatic selection.

          Option 34CustomEDID34 34string34
               Override the probed EDID on particular outputs. Some-
               times the manufacturer supplied EDID is corrupt or
               lacking a few usable modes and supplying a corrected
               EDID may be easier than specifying every modeline. This
               option allows to pass the path to load an EDID from per
               output. The format is a comma separated string of
               output:path pairs, e.g.

               Default: No override, use manufacturer supplied EDIDs.

          Option 34FallbackDebug34 34boolean34
               Enable printing of debugging information on accelera-
               tion fallbacks to the server log.

               Default: Disabled

          Option 34DebugFlushBatches34 34boolean34
               Flush the batch buffer after every single operation.

               Default: Disabled

          Option 34DebugFlushCaches34 34boolean34
               Include an MI_FLUSH at the end of every batch buffer to
               force data to be flushed out of cache and into memory
               before the completion of the batch.

               Default: Disabled

          Option 34DebugWait34 34boolean34
               Wait for the completion of every batch buffer before
               continuing, i.e. perform synchronous rendering.

               Default: Disabled

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          Option 34HWRotation34 34boolean34
               Override the use of native hardware rotation and force
               the use of software, but GPU accelerated where possi-
               ble, rotation. On some platforms the hardware can
               scanout directly into a rotated output bypassing the
               intermediate rendering and extra allocations required
               for software implemented rotation (i.e. native rotation
               uses less resources, is quicker and uses less power).
               This allows you to disable the native rotation in case
               of errors.

               Default: Enabled (use hardware rotation)

          Option 34VSync34 34boolean34
               This option controls the use of commands to synchronise
               rendering with the vertical refresh of the display.
               Some rendering commands have the option to be performed
               in a "tear-free" fashion by stalling the GPU to wait
               for the display to be outside of the region to be
               updated. This slows down all rendering, and histori-
               cally has been the source of many GPU hangs.

               Default: enabled.

          Option 34PageFlip34 34boolean34
               This option controls the use of commands to flip the
               scanout address on a VBlank. This is used by glXSwap-
               Buffers to efficiently perform the back-to-front
               exchange at the end of a frame without incurring the
               penalty of a copy, or stalling the render pipeline (the
               flip is performed asynchronrously to the render command
               stream by the display engine). However, it has histori-
               cally been the source of many GPU hangs.

               Default: enabled.

          Option 34SwapbuffersWait34 34boolean34
               This option controls the behavior of glXSwapBuffers and
               glXCopySubBufferMESA calls by GL applications.  If
               enabled, the calls will avoid tearing by making sure
               the display scanline is outside of the area to be
               copied before the copy occurs.  If disabled, no scan-
               line synchronization is performed, meaning tearing will
               likely occur.

               Default: enabled.

          Option 34TripleBuffer34 34boolean34
               This option enables the use of a third buffer for
               page-flipping. The third buffer allows applications to
               run at vrefresh rates even if they occasionally fail to
               swapbuffers on time. The effect of such missed swaps is

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               the output jitters between 60fps and 30fps, and in the
               worst case appears frame-locked to 30fps. The disadvan-
               tage of triple buffering is that there is an extra
               frame of latency, due to the pre-rendered frame sitting
               in the swap queue, between input and any display

               Default: enabled.

          Option 34Tiling34 34boolean34
               This option controls whether memory buffers for Pixmaps
               are allocated in tiled mode.  In most cases (especially
               for complex rendering), tiling dramatically improves

               Default: enabled.

          Option 34LinearFramebuffer34 34boolean34
               This option controls whether the memory for the scanout
               (also known as the front or frame buffer) is allocated
               in linear memory. A tiled framebuffer is required for
               power conservation features, but for certain system
               configurations you may wish to override this and force
               a linear layout.

               Default: disabled

          Option 34RelaxedFencing34 34boolean34
               This option controls whether we attempt to allocate the
               minimal amount of memory required for the buffers. The
               reduction in working set has a substantial improvement
               on system performance. However, this has been demon-
               strate to be buggy on older hardware (845-865 and 915-
               945, but ok on PineView and later) so on those chipsets
               defaults to off.

               Default: Enabled for G33 (includes PineView), and
               later, class machines.

          Option 34XvMC34 34boolean34
               Enable XvMC driver. Current support MPEG2 MC on 915/945
               and G33 series.  User should provide absolute path to
      in XvMCConfig file.

               Default: Disabled.

          Option 34Throttle34 34boolean34
               This option controls whether the driver periodically
               waits for pending drawing operations to complete.
               Throttling ensures that the GPU does not lag too far
               behind the CPU and thus noticeable delays in user
               responsible at the cost of throughput performance.

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               Default: enabled.

          Option 34HotPlug34 34boolean34
               This option controls whether the driver automatically
               notifies applications when monitors are connected or

               Default: enabled.

          Option 34Virtualheads34 34integer34
               This option controls specifies the number of fake out-
               puts to create in addition to the normal outputs
               detected on your hardware. These outputs cannot be
               assigned to the regular displays attached to the GPU,
               but do otherwise act as any other xrandr output and
               share a portion of the regular framebuffer. One use
               case for these extra heads is for extending your desk-
               top onto a discrete GPU using the Bumblebee project.
               However, the recommendation here is to use PRIME
               instead to create a single Xserver that can addresses
               and coordinate between multiple GPUs.

               Default: 0

          Option 34ZaphodHeads34 34string34

               Specify the randr output(s) to use with zaphod mode for
               a particular driver instance.  If you set this option
               you must use it with all instances of the driver. By
               default, each head is assigned only one CRTC (which
               limits using multiple outputs with that head to cloned
               mode). CRTC can be manually assigned to individual
               heads by preceding the output names with a comma delim-
               ited list of pipe numbers followed by a colon. Note
               that different pipes may be limited in their function-
               ality and some outputs may only work with different
               For example:

               Option 34ZaphodHeads34 34LVDS1,VGA134

               will assign xrandr outputs LVDS1 and VGA1 to this
               instance of the driver.

               Option 34ZaphodHeads34 340,2:HDMI1,DP234

               will assign xrandr outputs HDMI1 and DP2 and CRTCs 0
               and 2 to this instance of the driver.

          On 830M and better chipsets, the driver supports runtime

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          configuration of detected outputs.  You can use the xrandr
          tool to control outputs on the command line as follows:

               xrandr --output output --set property value

          Note that you may need to quote property and value arguments
          that contain spaces.  Each output listed below may have one
          or more properties associated with it (like a binary EDID
          block if one is found).  Some outputs have unique properties
          which are described below.  See the "MULTIHEAD CONFIGURA-
          TIONS" section below for additional information.

          VGA output port (typically exposed via an HD15 connector).

          Low Voltage Differential Signalling output (typically a lap-
          top LCD panel).  Available properties:

          BACKLIGHT - current backlight level (adjustable)
               By adjusting the BACKLIGHT property, the brightness on
               the LVDS output can be adjusted.  In some cases, this
               property may be unavailable (for example if your plat-
               form uses an external microcontroller to control the

          scaling mode - control LCD panel scaling mode
               When the currently selected display mode differs from
               the native panel resolution, various scaling options
               are available. These include

                    Simply center the image on-screen without scaling.
                    This is the only scaling mode that guarantees a
                    one-to-one correspondence between native and dis-
                    played pixels, but some portions of the panel may
                    be unused (so-called "letterboxing").

               Full aspect
                    Scale the image as much as possible while preserv-
                    ing aspect ratio. Pixels may not be displayed
                    one-to-one (there may be some blurriness). Some
                    portions of the panel may be unused if the aspect
                    ratio of the selected mode does not match that of
                    the panel.

               Full Scale the image to the panel size without regard
                    to aspect ratio. This is the only mode which guar-
                    antees that every pixel of the panel will be used.
                    But the displayed image may be distorted by

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                    stretching either horizontally or vertically, and
                    pixels may not be displayed one-to-one (there may
                    be some blurriness).

          The precise names of these options may differ depending on
          the kernel video driver, (but the functionality should be
          similar). See the output of xrandr --prop for a list of cur-
          rently available scaling modes.

          Integrated TV output.  Available properties include:

          BOTTOM, RIGHT, TOP, LEFT - margins
               Adjusting these properties allows you to control the
               placement of your TV output buffer on the screen. The
               options with the same name can also be set in xorg.conf
               with integer value.

          BRIGHTNESS - TV brightness, range 0-255
               Adjust TV brightness, default value is 128.

          CONTRAST - TV contrast, range 0-255
               Adjust TV contrast, default value is 1.0 in chipset
               specific format.

          SATURATION - TV saturation, range 0-255
               Adjust TV saturation, default value is 1.0 in chipset
               specific format.

          HUE - TV hue, range 0-255
               Adjust TV hue, default value is 0.

          TV_FORMAT - output standard
               This property allows you to control the output standard
               used on your TV output port.  You can select between
               NTSC-M, NTSC-443, NTSC-J, PAL-M, PAL-N, and PAL.

          TV_Connector - connector type
               This config option should be added to xorg.conf TV
               monitor's section, it allows you to force the TV output
               connector type, which bypass load detect and TV will
               always be taken as connected. You can select between
               S-Video, Composite and Component.

          First DVI SDVO output

          Second DVI SDVO output

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        TMDS-1 , TMDS-2 , HDMI-1 ,
          DVI/HDMI outputs. Available common properties include:

          BROADCAST_RGB - method used to set RGB color range
               Adjusting this property allows you to set RGB color
               range on each channel in order to match HDTV
               requirement(default 0 for full range). Setting 1 means
               RGB color range is 16-235, 0 means RGB color range is
               0-255 on each channel.  (Full range is 0-255, not 16-

          SDVO and DVO TV outputs are not supported by the driver at
          this time.

          See xorg.conf(5) for information on associating Monitor sec-
          tions with these outputs for configuration.  Associating
          Monitor sections with each output can be helpful if you need
          to ignore a specific output, for example, or statically con-
          figure an extended desktop monitor layout.

          The number of independent outputs is dictated by the number
          of CRTCs (in X parlance) a given chip supports.  Most recent
          Intel chips have two CRTCs, meaning that two separate frame-
          buffers can be displayed simultaneously, in an extended
          desktop configuration.  If a chip supports more outputs than
          it has CRTCs (say local flat panel, VGA and TV in the case
          of many outputs), two of the outputs will have to be
          "cloned", meaning that they display the same framebuffer
          contents (or one displays a subset of another's framebuffer
          if the modes aren't equal).

          You can use the "xrandr" tool, or various desktop utilities,
          to change your output configuration at runtime.  To stati-
          cally configure your outputs, you can use the "Monitor-
          <type>" options along with additional monitor sections in
          your xorg.conf to create your screen topology.  The example
          below puts the VGA output to the right of the builtin laptop
          screen, both running at 1024x768.

          Section 34Monitor34
            Identifier 34Laptop FooBar Internal Display34
            Option 34Position34 340 034

          Section 34Monitor34
            Identifier 34Some Random CRT34
            Option 34Position34 341024 034
            Option 34RightOf34 34Laptop FoodBar Internal Display34

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          Section 34Device34
            Driver 34intel34
            Option 34monitor-LVDS34 34Laptop FooBar Internal Display34
            Option 34monitor-VGA34 34Some Random CRT34

          The driver supports the following X11 Xv attributes for Tex-
          tured Video.  You can use the "xvattr" tool to query/set
          those attributes at runtime.

          XV_SYNC_TO_VBLANK is used to control whether textured
          adapter synchronizes the screen update to the vblank to
          eliminate tearing. It is a Boolean attribute with values of
          0 (never sync) or 1 (always sync). An historic value of -1
          (sync for large windows only) will now be interpreted as 1,
          (since the current approach for sync is not costly even with
          small video windows).

          The xf86-video-intel driver is part of the X.Org and
 umbrella projects.  Details on bug reporting
          can be found at

          Mailing lists are also commonly used to report experiences
          and ask questions about configuration and other topics.  See
 for more information (the
 mailing list is the most appro-
          priate place to ask X.Org and driver related questions).

          Xorg(1), xorg.conf(5), Xserver(1), X(7)

          Authors include: Keith Whitwell, and also Jonathan Bian,
          Matthew J Sottek, Jeff Hartmann, Mark Vojkovich, Alan Houri-
          hane, H. J. Lu.  830M and 845G support reworked for XFree86
          4.3 by David Dawes and Keith Whitwell.  852GM, 855GM, and
          865G support added by David Dawes and Keith Whitwell.  915G,
          915GM, 945G, 945GM, 965G, 965Q and 946GZ support added by
          Alan Hourihane and Keith Whitwell. Lid status support added
          by Alan Hourihane. Textured video support for 915G and later
          chips, RandR 1.2 and hardware modesetting added by Eric
          Anholt and Keith Packard. EXA and Render acceleration added
          by Wang Zhenyu. TV out support added by Zou Nan Hai and

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          Keith Packard. 965GM, G33, Q33, and Q35 support added by
          Wang Zhenyu.

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