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     NAME
          locale - describes a locale definition file

     DESCRIPTION
          The locale definition file contains all the information that
          the localedef(1) command needs to convert it into the binary
          locale database.

          The definition files consist of sections which each describe
          a locale category in detail.  See locale(7) for additional
          details for these categories.

        Syntax
          The locale definition file starts with a header that may
          consist of the following keywords:

          escape_char
               is followed by a character that should be used as the
               escape-character for the rest of the file to mark char-
               acters that should be interpreted in a special way.  It
               defaults to the backslash (\).

          comment_char
               is followed by a character that will be used as the
               comment-character for the rest of the file.  It
               defaults to the number sign (#).

          The locale definition has one part for each locale category.
          Each part can be copied from another existing locale or can
          be defined from scratch.  If the category should be copied,
          the only valid keyword in the definition is copy followed by
          the name of the locale in double quotes which should be
          copied.  The exceptions for this rule are LC_COLLATE and
          LC_CTYPE where a copy statement can be followed by locale-
          specific rules and selected overrides.

          When defining a locale or a category from scratch, an exist-
          ing system- provided locale definition file should be used
          as a reference to follow common glibc conventions.

        Locale category sections
          The following category sections are defined by POSIX:

          *  LC_CTYPE

          *  LC_COLLATE

          *  LC_MESSAGES

          *  LC_MONETARY

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          *  LC_NUMERIC

          *  LC_TIME

          In addition, since version 2.2, the GNU C library supports
          the following nonstandard categories:

          *  LC_ADDRESS

          *  LC_IDENTIFICATION

          *  LC_MEASUREMENT

          *  LC_NAME

          *  LC_PAPER

          *  LC_TELEPHONE

          See locale(7) for a more detailed description of each cate-
          gory.

        LC_ADDRESS
          The definition starts with the string LC_ADDRESS in the
          first column.

          The following keywords are allowed:

          postal_fmt
               followed by a string containing field descriptors that
               define the format used for postal addresses in the
               locale.  The following field descriptors are recog-
               nized:

               %n   Person's name, possibly constructed with the
                    LC_NAME name_fmt keyword (since glibc 2.24).

               %a  Care of person, or organization.

               %f  Firm name.

               %d  Department name.

               %b  Building name.

               %s  Street or block (e.g., Japanese) name.

               %h  House number or designation.

               %N  Insert an end-of-line if the previous descriptor's
                   value was not an empty string; otherwise ignore.

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               %t  Insert a space if the previous descriptor's value
                   was not an empty string; otherwise ignore.

               %r  Room number, door designation.

               %e  Floor number.

               %C  Country designation, from the country_post keyword.

               %l  Local township within town or city (since glibc
                   2.24).

               %z  Zip number, postal code.

               %T  Town, city.

               %S  State, province, or prefecture.

               %c  Country, as taken from data record.

               Each field descriptor may have an aqRaq after the aq%aq to
               specify that the information is taken from a Romanized
               version string of the entity.

          country_name
               followed by the country name in the language of the
               current document (e.g., "Deutschland" for the de_DE
               locale).

          country_post
               followed by the abbreviation of the country (see
               CERT_MAILCODES).

          country_ab2
               followed by the two-letter abbreviation of the country
               (ISO 3166).

          country_ab3
               followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the coun-
               try (ISO 3166).

          country_num
               followed by the numeric country code (ISO 3166).

          country_car
               followed by the international license plate country
               code.

          country_isbn
               followed by the ISBN code (for books).

          lang_name

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               followed by the language name in the language of the
               current document.

          lang_ab
               followed by the two-letter abbreviation of the language
               (ISO 639).

          lang_term
               followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the lan-
               guage (ISO 639-2/T).

          lang_lib
               followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the lan-
               guage for library use (ISO 639-2/B).  Applications
               should in general prefer lang_term over lang_lib.

          The LC_ADDRESS definition ends with the string END
          LC_ADDRESS.

        LC_CTYPE
          The definition starts with the string LC_CTYPE in the first
          column.

          The following keywords are allowed:

          upper
               followed by a list of uppercase letters.  The letters A
               through Z are included automatically.  Characters also
               specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not
               allowed.

          lower
               followed by a list of lowercase letters.  The letters a
               through z are included automatically.  Characters also
               specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not
               allowed.

          alpha
               followed by a list of letters.  All character specified
               as either upper or lower are automatically included.
               Characters also specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or
               space are not allowed.

          digit
               followed by the characters classified as numeric dig-
               its.  Only the digits 0 through 9 are allowed.  They
               are included by default in this class.

          space
               followed by a list of characters defined as white-space
               characters.  Characters also specified as upper, lower,
               alpha, digit, graph, or xdigit are not allowed.  The

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               characters <space>, <form-feed>, <newline>,
               <carriage-return>, <tab>, and <vertical-tab> are auto-
               matically included.

          cntrl
               followed by a list of control characters.  Characters
               also specified as upper, lower, alpha, digit, punct,
               graph, print, or xdigit are not allowed.

          punct
               followed by a list of punctuation characters.  Charac-
               ters also specified as upper, lower, alpha, digit,
               cntrl, xdigit, or the <space> character are not
               allowed.

          graph
               followed by a list of printable characters, not includ-
               ing the <space> character.  The characters defined as
               upper, lower, alpha, digit, xdigit, and punct are auto-
               matically included.  Characters also specified as cntrl
               are not allowed.

          print
               followed by a list of printable characters, including
               the <space> character.  The characters defined as
               upper, lower, alpha, digit, xdigit, punct, and the
               <space> character are automatically included.  Charac-
               ters also specified as cntrl are not allowed.

          xdigit
               followed by a list of characters classified as hexadec-
               imal digits.  The decimal digits must be included fol-
               lowed by one or more set of six characters in ascending
               order.  The following characters are included by
               default: 0 through 9, a through f, A through F.

          blank
               followed by a list of characters classified as blank.
               The characters <space> and <tab> are automatically
               included.

          charclass
               followed by a list of locale-specific character class
               names which are then to be defined in the locale.

          toupper
               followed by a list of mappings from lowercase to upper-
               case letters.  Each mapping is a pair of a lowercase
               and an uppercase letter separated with a , and enclosed
               in parentheses.

          tolower

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               followed by a list of mappings from uppercase to lower-
               case letters.  If the keyword tolower is not present,
               the reverse of the toupper list is used.

          map totitle
               followed by a list of mapping pairs of characters and
               letters to be used in titles (headings).

          class
               followed by a locale-specific character class defini-
               tion, starting with the class name followed by the
               characters belonging to the class.

          charconv
               followed by a list of locale-specific character mapping
               names which are then to be defined in the locale.

          outdigit
               followed by a list of alternate output digits for the
               locale.

          map to_inpunct
               followed by a list of mapping pairs of alternate digits
               and separators for input digits for the locale.

          map to_outpunct
               followed by a list of mapping pairs of alternate sepa-
               rators for output for the locale.

          translit_start
               marks the start of the transliteration rules section.
               The section can contain the include keyword in the
               beginning followed by locale-specific rules and over-
               rides.  Any rule specified in the locale file will
               override any rule copied or included from other files.
               In case of duplicate rule definitions in the locale
               file, only the first rule is used.

               A transliteration rule consist of a character to be
               transliterated followed by a list of transliteration
               targets separated by semicolons.  The first target
               which can be presented in the target character set is
               used, if none of them can be used the default_missing
               character will be used instead.

          include
               in the transliteration rules section includes a
               transliteration rule file (and optionally a repertoire
               map file).

          default_missing
               in the transliteration rules section defines the

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               default character to be used for transliteration where
               none of the targets cannot be presented in the target
               character set.

          translit_end
               marks the end of the transliteration rules.

          The LC_CTYPE definition ends with the string END LC_CTYPE.

        LC_COLLATE
          Note that glibc does not support all POSIX-defined options,
          only the options described below are supported (as of glibc
          2.23).

          The definition starts with the string LC_COLLATE in the
          first column.

          The following keywords are allowed:

          coll_weight_max
               followed by the number representing used collation lev-
               els.  This keyword is recognized but ignored by glibc.

          collating-element
               followed by the definition of a collating-element sym-
               bol representing a multicharacter collating element.

          collating-symbol
               followed by the definition of a collating symbol that
               can be used in collation order statements.

          define
               followed by string to be evaluated in an ifdef string /
               else / endif construct.

          reorder-after
               followed by a redefinition of a collation rule.

          reorder-end
               marks the end of the redefinition of a collation rule.

          reorder-sections-after
               followed by a script name to reorder listed scripts
               after.

          reorder-sections-end
               marks the end of the reordering of sections.

          script
               followed by a declaration of a script.

          symbol-equivalence

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               followed by a collating-symbol to be equivalent to
               another defined collating-symbol.

          The collation rule definition starts with a line:

          order_start
               followed by a list of keywords chosen from forward,
               backward, or position.  The order definition consists
               of lines that describe the collation order and is ter-
               minated with the keyword order_end.

          The LC_COLLATE definition ends with the string END
          LC_COLLATE.

        LC_IDENTIFICATION
          The definition starts with the string LC_IDENTIFICATION in
          the first column.

          The following keywords are allowed:

          title
               followed by the title of the locale document (e.g.,
               "Maori language locale for New Zealand").

          source
               followed by the name of the organization that maintains
               this document.

          address
               followed by the address of the organization that main-
               tains this document.

          contact
               followed by the name of the contact person at the orga-
               nization that maintains this document.

          email
               followed by the email address of the person or organi-
               zation that maintains this document.

          tel  followed by the telephone number (in international for-
               mat) of the organization that maintains this document.
               As of glibc 2.24, this keyword is deprecated in favor
               of other contact methods.

          fax  followed by the fax number (in international format) of
               the organization that maintains this document.  As of
               glibc 2.24, this keyword is deprecated in favor of
               other contact methods.

          language
               followed by the name of the language to which this

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               document applies.

          territory
               followed by the name of the country/geographic extent
               to which this document applies.

          audience
               followed by a description of the audience for which
               this document is intended.

          application
               followed by a description of any special application
               for which this document is intended.

          abbreviation
               followed by the short name for provider of the source
               of this document.

          revision
               followed by the revision number of this document.

          date followed by the revision date of this document.

          In addition, for each of the categories defined by the docu-
          ment, there should be a line starting with the keyword
          category, followed by:

          *  a string that identifies this locale category definition,

          *  a semicolon, and

          *  one of the LC_* identifiers.

          The LC_IDENTIFICATION definition ends with the string END
          LC_IDENTIFICATION.

        LC_MESSAGES
          The definition starts with the string LC_MESSAGES in the
          first column.

          The following keywords are allowed:

          yesexpr
               followed by a regular expression that describes possi-
               ble yes-responses.

          noexpr
               followed by a regular expression that describes possi-
               ble no-responses.

          yesstr
               followed by the output string corresponding to "yes".

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          nostr
               followed by the output string corresponding to "no".

          The LC_MESSAGES definition ends with the string END
          LC_MESSAGES.

        LC_MEASUREMENT
          The definition starts with the string LC_MEASUREMENT in the
          first column.

          The following keywords are allowed:

          measurement
               followed by number identifying the standard used for
               measurement.  The following values are recognized:

               1   Metric.

               2   US customary measurements.

          The LC_MEASUREMENT definition ends with the string END
          LC_MEASUREMENT.

        LC_MONETARY
          The definition starts with the string LC_MONETARY in the
          first column.

          The following keywords are allowed:

          int_curr_symbol
               followed by the international currency symbol.  This
               must be a 4-character string containing the interna-
               tional currency symbol as defined by the ISO 4217 stan-
               dard (three characters) followed by a separator.

          currency_symbol
               followed by the local currency symbol.

          mon_decimal_point
               followed by the single-character string that will be
               used as the decimal delimiter when formatting monetary
               quantities.

          mon_thousands_sep
               followed by the single-character string that will be
               used as a group separator when formatting monetary
               quantities.

          mon_grouping
               followed by a sequence of integers separated by semi-
               colons that describe the formatting of monetary quanti-
               ties.  See grouping below for details.

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          positive_sign
               followed by a string that is used to indicate a posi-
               tive sign for monetary quantities.

          negative_sign
               followed by a string that is used to indicate a nega-
               tive sign for monetary quantities.

          int_frac_digits
               followed by the number of fractional digits that should
               be used when formatting with the int_curr_symbol.

          frac_digits
               followed by the number of fractional digits that should
               be used when formatting with the currency_symbol.

          p_cs_precedes
               followed by an integer that indicates the placement of
               currency_symbol for a nonnegative formatted monetary
               quantity:

               0   the symbol succeeds the value.

               1   the symbol precedes the value.

          p_sep_by_space
               followed by an integer that indicates the separation of
               currency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a
               nonnegative formatted monetary quantity.  The following
               values are recognized:

               0   No space separates the currency symbol and the
                   value.

               1   If the currency symbol and the sign string are
                   adjacent, a space separates them from the value;
                   otherwise a space separates the currency symbol and
                   the value.

               2   If the currency symbol and the sign string are
                   adjacent, a space separates them from the value;
                   otherwise a space separates the sign string and the
                   value.

          n_cs_precedes
               followed by an integer that indicates the placement of
               currency_symbol for a negative formatted monetary quan-
               tity.  The same values are recognized as for
               p_cs_precedes.

          n_sep_by_space
               followed by an integer that indicates the separation of

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               currency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a
               negative formatted monetary quantity.  The same values
               are recognized as for p_sep_by_space.

          p_sign_posn
               followed by an integer that indicates where the
               positive_sign should be placed for a nonnegative mone-
               tary quantity:

               0   Parentheses enclose the quantity and the
                   currency_symbol or int_curr_symbol.

               1   The sign string precedes the quantity and the
                   currency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol.

               2   The sign string succeeds the quantity and the
                   currency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol.

               3   The sign string precedes the currency_symbol or the
                   int_curr_symbol.

               4   The sign string succeeds the currency_symbol or the
                   int_curr_symbol.

          n_sign_posn
               followed by an integer that indicates where the
               negative_sign should be placed for a negative monetary
               quantity.  The same values are recognized as for
               p_sign_posn.

          int_p_cs_precedes
               followed by an integer that indicates the placement of
               int_curr_symbol for a nonnegative internationally for-
               matted monetary quantity.  The same values are recog-
               nized as for p_cs_precedes.

          int_n_cs_precedes
               followed by an integer that indicates the placement of
               int_curr_symbol for a negative internationally format-
               ted monetary quantity.  The same values are recognized
               as for p_cs_precedes.

          int_p_sep_by_space
               followed by an integer that indicates the separation of
               int_curr_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a
               nonnegative internationally formatted monetary quan-
               tity.  The same values are recognized as for
               p_sep_by_space.

          int_n_sep_by_space
               followed by an integer that indicates the separation of
               int_curr_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a

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               negative internationally formatted monetary quantity.
               The same values are recognized as for p_sep_by_space.

          int_p_sign_posn
               followed by an integer that indicates where the
               positive_sign should be placed for a nonnegative inter-
               nationally formatted monetary quantity.  The same val-
               ues are recognized as for p_sign_posn.

          int_n_sign_posn
               followed by an integer that indicates where the
               negative_sign should be placed for a negative interna-
               tionally formatted monetary quantity.  The same values
               are recognized as for p_sign_posn.

          The LC_MONETARY definition ends with the string END
          LC_MONETARY.

        LC_NAME
          The definition starts with the string LC_NAME in the first
          column.

          Various keywords are allowed, but only name_fmt is manda-
          tory.  Other keywords are needed only if there is common
          convention to use the corresponding salutation in this
          locale.  The allowed keywords are as follows:

          name_fmt
               followed by a string containing field descriptors that
               define the format used for names in the locale.  The
               following field descriptors are recognized:

               %f  Family name(s).

               %F  Family names in uppercase.

               %g  First given name.

               %G  First given initial.

               %l  First given name with Latin letters.

               %o  Other shorter name.

               %m  Additional given name(s).

               %M  Initials for additional given name(s).

               %p  Profession.

               %s  Salutation, such as "Doctor".

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               %S  Abbreviated salutation, such as "Mr." or "Dr.".

               %d  Salutation, using the FDCC-sets conventions.

               %t  If the preceding field descriptor resulted in an
                   empty string, then the empty string, otherwise a
                   space character.

          name_gen
               followed by the general salutation for any gender.

          name_mr
               followed by the salutation for men.

          name_mrs
               followed by the salutation for married women.

          name_miss
               followed by the salutation for unmarried women.

          name_ms
               followed by the salutation valid for all women.

          The LC_NAME definition ends with the string END LC_NAME.

        LC_NUMERIC
          The definition starts with the string LC_NUMERIC in the
          first column.

          The following keywords are allowed:

          decimal_point
               followed by the single-character string that will be
               used as the decimal delimiter when formatting numeric
               quantities.

          thousands_sep
               followed by the single-character string that will be
               used as a group separator when formatting numeric quan-
               tities.

          grouping
               followed by a sequence of integers separated by semi-
               colons that describe the formatting of numeric quanti-
               ties.

               Each integer specifies the number of digits in a group.
               The first integer defines the size of the group immedi-
               ately to the left of the decimal delimiter.  Subsequent
               integers define succeeding groups to the left of the
               previous group.  If the last integer is not -1, then
               the size of the previous group (if any) is repeatedly

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               used for the remainder of the digits.  If the last
               integer is -1, then no further grouping is performed.

          The LC_NUMERIC definition ends with the string END
          LC_NUMERIC.

        LC_PAPER
          The definition starts with the string LC_PAPER in the first
          column.

          The following keywords are allowed:

          height
               followed by the height, in millimeters, of the standard
               paper format.

          width
               followed by the width, in millimeters, of the standard
               paper format.

          The LC_PAPER definition ends with the string END LC_PAPER.

        LC_TELEPHONE
          The definition starts with the string LC_TELEPHONE in the
          first column.

          The following keywords are allowed:

          tel_int_fmt
               followed by a string that contains field descriptors
               that identify the format used to dial international
               numbers.  The following field descriptors are recog-
               nized:

               %a  Area code without nationwide prefix (the prefix is
                   often "00").

               %A  Area code including nationwide prefix.

               %l  Local number (within area code).

               %e  Extension (to local number).

               %c  Country code.

               %C  Alternate carrier service code used for dialing
                   abroad.

               %t  If the preceding field descriptor resulted in an
                   empty string, then the empty string, otherwise a
                   space character.

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          tel_dom_fmt
               followed by a string that contains field descriptors
               that identify the format used to dial domestic numbers.
               The recognized field descriptors are the same as for
               tel_int_fmt.

          int_select
               followed by the prefix used to call international phone
               numbers.

          int_prefix
               followed by the prefix used from other countries to
               dial this country.

          The LC_TELEPHONE definition ends with the string END
          LC_TELEPHONE.

        LC_TIME
          The definition starts with the string LC_TIME in the first
          column.

          The following keywords are allowed:

          abday
               followed by a list of abbreviated names of the days of
               the week.  The list starts with the first day of the
               week as specified by week (Sunday by default).  See
               NOTES.

          day  followed by a list of names of the days of the week.
               The list starts with the first day of the week as spec-
               ified by week (Sunday by default).  See NOTES.

          abmon
               followed by a list of abbreviated month names.

          mon  followed by a list of month names.

          d_t_fmt
               followed by the appropriate date and time format (for
               syntax, see strftime(3)).

          d_fmt
               followed by the appropriate date format (for syntax,
               see strftime(3)).

          t_fmt
               followed by the appropriate time format (for syntax,
               see strftime(3)).

          am_pm
               followed by the appropriate representation of the am

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               and pm strings.  This should be left empty for locales
               not using AM/PM convention.

          t_fmt_ampm
               followed by the appropriate time format (for syntax,
               see strftime(3)) when using 12h clock format.  This
               should be left empty for locales not using AM/PM con-
               vention.

          era  followed by semicolon-separated strings that define how
               years are counted and displayed for each era in the
               locale.  Each string has the following format:

               direction:offset:start_date:

               The fields are to be defined as follows:

               direction
                   Either + or -.  + means the years closer to
                   start_date have lower numbers than years closer to
                   end_date. - means the opposite.

               offset
                   The number of the year closest to start_date in the
                   era, corresponding to the %Ey descriptor (see
                   strptime(3)).

               start_date
                   The start of the era in the form of yyyy/mm/dd.
                   Years prior AD 1 are represented as negative num-
                   bers.

               end_date
                   The end of the era in the form of yyyy/mm/dd, or
                   one of the two special values of -* or +*.  -*
                   means the ending date is the beginning of time.  +*
                   means the ending date is the end of time.

               era_name
                   The name of the era corresponding to the %EC
                   descriptor (see strptime(3)).

               era_format
                   The format of the year in the era corresponding to
                   the %EY descriptor (see strptime(3)).

          era_d_fmt
               followed by the format of the date in alternative era
               notation, corresponding to the %Ex descriptor (see
               strptime(3)).

          era_t_fmt

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               followed by the format of the time in alternative era
               notation, corresponding to the %EX descriptor (see
               strptime(3)).

          era_d_t_fmt
               followed by the format of the date and time in alterna-
               tive era notation, corresponding to the %Ec descriptor
               (see strptime(3)).

          alt_digits
               followed by the alternative digits used for date and
               time in the locale.

          week followed by a list of three values separated by semi-
               colons: The number of days in a week (by default 7), a
               date of beginning of the week (by default corresponds
               to Sunday), and the minimal length of the first week in
               year (by default 4).  Regarding the start of the week,
               19971130 shall be used for Sunday and 19971201 shall be
               used for Monday.  See NOTES.

               followed by the number of the day from the day list to
               be shown as the first day of the week in calendar
               applications.  The default value of 1 corresponds to
               either Sunday or Monday depending on the value of the
               second week list item.  See NOTES.

               followed by the number of the first working day from
               the day list.  The default value is 2.  See NOTES.

          cal_direction
               followed by a number value that indicates the direction
               for the display of calendar dates, as follows:

               1   Left-right from top.

               2   Top-down from left.

               3   Right-left from top.

          date_fmt
               followed by the appropriate date representation for
               date(1) (for syntax, see strftime(3)).

          The LC_TIME definition ends with the string END LC_TIME.

     FILES
          /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive
               Usual default locale archive location.

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     LOCALE(5)                 (2020-11-01)                  LOCALE(5)

          /usr/share/i18n/locales
               Usual default path for locale definition files.

     CONFORMING TO
          POSIX.2.

     NOTES
          The collective GNU C library community wisdom regarding
          abday, day, week, first_weekday, and first_workday states at
          https://sourceware.org/glibc/wiki/Locales the following:

          *  The value of the second week list item specifies the base
             of the abday and day lists.

          *  first_weekday specifies the offset of the first day-of-
             week in the abday and day lists.

          *  For compatibility reasons, all glibc locales should set
             the value of the second week list item to 19971130 (Sun-
             day) and base the abday and day lists appropriately, and
             set first_weekday and first_workday to 1 or 2, depending
             on whether the week and work week actually starts on Sun-
             day or Monday for the locale.

     SEE ALSO
          iconv(1), locale(1), localedef(1), localeconv(3),
          newlocale(3), setlocale(3), strftime(3), strptime(3),
          uselocale(3), charmap(5), charsets(7), locale(7),
          unicode(7), utf-8(7)

     COLOPHON
          This page is part of release 5.10 of the Linux man-pages
          project.  A description of the project, information about
          reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be
          found at https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

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