sane-scsi(5)              (14 Jul 2008)              sane-scsi(5)

          sane-scsi - SCSI adapter tips for scanners

          This manual page contains various operating-system specific
          tips and tricks on how to get scanners with a SCSI interface

          For scanners with a SCSI interface, it may be necessary to
          edit the appropriate backend configuration file before using
          SANE for the first time.  For most systems, the
          configuration file should list the name of the generic SCSI
          device that the scanner is connected to (e.g., under Linux,
          /dev/sg4 or /dev/sge is such a generic SCSI device).  It is
          customary to create a symlink from /dev/scanner to the gen-
          eric SCSI device that the scanner is connected to.  In this
          case, the configuration file simply lists the line
          /dev/scanner. For a detailed description of each backend's
          configuration file, please refer to the relevant backend
          manual page (e.g., sane-epson(5) for Epson scanners,
          sane-hp(5) for HP scanners, etc.).

          For some operating systems (e.g. Linux and OS/2), there is
          an alternate way of specifying scanner devices.  This alter-
          nate way allows one to identify scanners by the SCSI vendor
          and model string and/or by the SCSI device address (consist-
          ing of bus number, channel number, id, and logical unit num-
          ber).  The syntax for specifying a scanner in this way is:


          where VENDOR is the SCSI vendor string, MODEL is the SCSI
          model string, TYPE is type SCSI device type string, BUS is
          the SCSI bus number (named "host" in /proc/scsi/scsi),
          CHANNEL is the SCSI channel number, ID is the SCSI id, and
          LUN is the logical unit number of the scanner device.  The
          first two fields are strings which must be enclosed in
          double-quotes if they contain any whitespace.  The remaining
          four fields are non-negative integer numbers.  The correct
          values for these fields can be found by using operating sys-
          tem specific tools, e.g. for Linux by looking at the output
          of the command cat /proc/scsi/scsi. To simplify configura-
          tion, a field's value can be replaced with an asterisk sym-
          bol (``*'').  An asterisk has the effect that any value is
          allowed for that particular field.  This can have the effect
          that a single scsi-line matches multiple devices.  When this
          happens, each matching device will be probed by the backend
          one by one and registered if the backend thinks it is a com-
          patible device.  For example, the line

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               scsi MUSTEK MFS-06000CX Scanner 0 00 03 00

          would attach the Mustek SCSI scanner with the following
          /proc/scsi/scsi entry:

            Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 03 Lun: 00
              Vendor: MUSTEK   Model: MFS-06000CX Rev: 4.04
              Type:   Scanner  ANSI SCSI revision: 0

          Usually it's sufficient to use vendor and model strings only
          or even only the vendor string. The following example

               scsi MUSTEK * * * * * *

          would have the effect that all SCSI devices in the system
          with a vendor string of MUSTEK would be probed and recog-
          nized by the backend.

          If the remainder of a scsi-string consists of asterisks
          only, the asterisks can be omitted.  For example, the fol-
          lowing line is equivalent to the one specified previously:

               scsi MUSTEK

          On some platforms (e.g., OpenStep), SANE device names take a
          special form.  This is explained below in the relevant
          platform-specific section.

          When using a SCSI scanner, ensure that the access permission
          for the generic SCSI device is set appropriately.  We recom-
          mend to add a group "scanner" to /etc/group which contains
          all users that should have access to the scanner.  The per-
          mission of the device should then be set to allow group read
          and write access.  For example, if the scanner is at generic
          SCSI device /dev/sg0, then the following two commands would
          set the permission correctly:

               $ chgrp scanner /dev/sg0
               $ chmod 660 /dev/sg0

          When your system uses the device filesystem (devfs), you
          have to edit /etc/devfs/perms.  There you should search the

               REGISTER ^sg[^/]* PERMISSIONS root.root 0600

          and add a new line (eg. for changing permissions of sg4):

               REGISTER ^sg4 PERMISSIONS root.scanner 0660

          Auto-configuration using the "scsi *" lines in the config

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          files only works if the user running the frontend has
          read/write access to /dev/xpt0. Instead, you can also set a
          link /dev/scanner to the appropriate /dev/uk device.

               Adaptec AHA1542CF
                    Reported to work fine under FreeBSD 2.2.2R with
                    the aha driver.

               Adaptec 2940
                    Reported to work fine under FreeBSD 2.2.2.

               Adaptec 1522
                    The scanner probes ok but any attempt to access it
                    hangs the entire system. It looks like something
                    is disabling interrupts and then not re-enabling
                    them, so it looks like a bug in the FreeBSD aic

               Adaptec 1505
                    Works on FreeBSD 2.2.5R and 3.0 using the aic
                    driver, provided that Plug-and-Play support is
                    disabled on the card.  If there are no uk devices,
                    just do a sh MAKEDEV uk0 in the /dev directory.
                    The scanner should then be accessible as /dev/uk0
                    if it was probed during boot.

               Tekram DC390
                    Reported to work fine under FreeBSD 2.2.2R with
                    the amd driver.

          First, make sure your kernel has SCSI generic support
          enabled.  In make xconfig, this shows up under ``SCSI
          support->SCSI generic support''.

          To keep scanning times to a minimum, it is strongly recom-
          mended to use a large buffer size for the generic SCSI
          driver. From SG driver version 2.0 on, the maximum buffer
          size can be changed at program run time, and there is no
          restriction in size. This driver version is part of the
          Linux kernels from version 2.2.7 on. If the new SG driver is
          available some backends (e.g.  sane-umax(5), sane-mustek(5),
          sane-sharp(5)) automatically request larger SCSI buffers. If
          a backend does not automatically request a larger SCSI
          buffer, set the environment variable SANE_SG_BUFFERSIZE to
          the desired buffer size in bytes. It is not recommended to
          use more than 1 MB, because for large values the probability
          increases that the SG driver cannot allocate the necessary
          buffer(s). For ISA cards, even 1 MB might be a too large
          value. For a detailed discussion of memory issues of the SG
          driver, see

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          For Linux kernels before version 2.2.7 the size of the
          buffer is only 32KB.  This works, but for many cheaper scan-
          ners this causes scanning to be slower by about a factor of
          four than when using a size of 127KB.  Linux defines the
          size of this buffer by macro SG_BIG_BUFF in header file
          /usr/include/scsi/sg.h. Unless a system is seriously short
          on memory, it is recommended to increase this value to the
          maximum legal value of 128*1024-512=130560 bytes.  After
          changing this value, it is necessary to recompile both the
          kernel (or the SCSI generic module) and the SCSI backends.
          Keep in mind that this is only necessary with older Linux

          A common issue with SCSI scanners is what to do when you
          booted the system while the scanner was turned off.  In such
          a case, the scanner won't be recognized by the kernel and
          SANE won't be able to access it.  Fortunately, Linux pro-
          vides a simple mechanism to probe a SCSI device on demand.
          Suppose you have a scanner connected to SCSI bus 2 and the
          scanner has a SCSI id of 5.  When the system is up and run-
          ning and the scanner is turned on, you can issue the com-

               echo "scsi add-single-device 2 0 5 0" > /proc/scsi/scsi

          and the kernel will probe and recognize your scanner (this
          needs to be done as root).  It's also possible to dynami-
          cally remove a SCSI device by using the
          ``remove-single-device'' command.  For details, please refer
          to to the SCSI-2.4-HOWTO.

          Scanners are known to work with the following SCSI adapters
          under Linux. This list isn't complete, usually any SCSI
          adapter supported by Linux should work.

               Acard/Advance SCSI adapters
                    Some old versions of the kernel driver (atp870u.c)
                    cut the inquiry information.  Therefore the scan-
                    ner couldn't be detected correctly. Use a current

               Adaptec AHA-1505/AHA-1542/AHA-2940
                    Reported to work fine with Linux since v2.0. If
                    you encounter kernel freezes or other unexpected
                    behaviour get the latest Linux kernel (2.2.17
                    seems to work) or reduce SCSI buffer size to 32

               ASUS SC200
                    Reported to work fine with Linux v2.0.

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               BusLogic BT958
                    To configure the BusLogic card, you may need to
                    follow these instructions (contributed by Jeremy
                    <>): During boot, when your
                    BusLogic adapter is being initialized, press
                    Ctrl-B to enter your BusLogic adapter setup.
                    Choose the address which your BusLogic containing
                    your scanner is located. Choose ``SCSI Device Con-
                    figuration''.  Choose ``Scan SCSI Bus''.  Choose
                    whatever SCSI id that contains your scanner and
                    then choose ``View/Modify SCSI configuration''.
                    Change ``Negotiation'' to ``async'' and change
                    ``Disconnect'' to ``off''. Press Esc, save, and
                    Esc again until you are asked to reboot.

               (DTCT436/436P) ISA SCSI card
               NCR/Symbios 53c400/53c400a or Domex DTC3181E/L/LE
                    This card is supplied by Mustek (and other ven-
                    dors). It's supported since Linux 2.2.  The SCSI
                    cards are supported by the module g_NCR5380.  It's
                    necessary to tell the kernel the io port and type
                    of card.  Example for a 53c400a: modprobe
                    g_NCR5380 ncr_addr=0x280 ncr_53c400a=1 . Once the
                    kernel detects the card, it should work all right.
                    However, while it should work, do not expect good
                    performance out of this card---it has no interrupt
                    line and therefore while a scan is in progress,
                    the system becomes almost unusable. You may change
                    the values of the USLEEP macros in
                    drivers/scsi/g_NCR5380.c. Some documentation is in
                    this file and NCR5380.c.

               NCR/Symbios 810
                    For some scanners it may be necessary to disable
                    disconnect/reconnect. To achieve this use the
                    option ncr53c8xx="disc:n". Some people reported
                    that their scanner only worked with the 53c7,8xx
                    driver, not the ncr53c8xx. Try both if you have
                    For Linux kernels before 2.0.33 it may be neces-
                    sary to increase the SCSI timeout. The default
                    timeout for the Linux kernels before 2.0.33 is 10
                    seconds, which is way too low when scanning large
                    area.  If you get messages of the form ``restart
                    (ncr dead ?)'' in your /var/log/messages file or
                    on the system console, it's an indication that the
                    timeout is too short.  In this case, find the line
                    ``if (np->latetime>10)'' in file ncr53c8xx. (nor-
                    mally in directory /usr/src/linux/drivers/scsi)
                    and change the constant 10 to, say, 60 (one
                    minute).  Then rebuild the kernel/module and try

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               Tekram DC315
                    The driver can be downloaded from
           For some
                    older scanners it may be necessary to disable all
                    the more advanced features by using e.g.  modprobe
                    dc395x_trm dc395x_trm=7,5,1,32.

               Tekram DC390
                    Version 1.11 of the Tekram driver seems to work
                    fine mostly, except that the scan does not termi-
                    nate properly (it causes a SCSI timeout after 10
                    minutes).  The generic AM53C974 also seems to work
                    fine and does not suffer from the timeout prob-

          Under Solaris, OpenStep and NeXTStep, the generic SCSI
          device name refers to a SCSI bus, not to an individual
          device.  For example, /dev/sg0 refers to the first SCSI bus.
          To tell SANE which device to use, append the character
          'a'+target-id to the special device name.  For example, the
          SCSI device connected to the first SCSI controller and with
          target-id 0 would be called /dev/sg0a, and the device with
          target-id 1 on that same bus would be called /dev/sg0b, and
          so on.

               If the library was compiled with debug support enabled,
               this environment variable controls the debug level for
               the generic SCSI I/O subsystem.  E.g., a value of 128
               requests all debug output to be printed by the backend.
               A value of 255 also prints kernel messages from the
               SCSI subsystem (where available).  Smaller levels
               reduce verbosity.

               sets the timeout value for SCSI commands in seconds.
               Overriding the default value of 120 seconds should only
               be necessary for very slow scanners.

          sane(7), sane-find-scanner(1), sane-backendname(5),"

          David Mosberger

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