terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

     NAME      terminfo - terminal capability data base

     SYNOPSIS      /etc/terminfo/*/*

     DESCRIPTION      Terminfo
          is a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
          programs such as nvi(1), lynx(1), mutt(1), and other curses
          applications, using high-level calls to libraries such as
          ncurses(3NCURSES).  It is also used via low-level calls by
          non-curses applications which may be screen-oriented (such
          as clear(1)) or non-screen (such as tabs(1)).

          Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities
          which they have, by specifying how to perform screen opera-
          tions, and by specifying padding requirements and initial-
          ization sequences.

          This manual describes ncurses version 6.2 (patch 20201114).

        Terminfo Entry Syntax

          Entries in terminfo
          consist of a sequence of fields:

          +o   Each field ends with a comma ``,'' (embedded commas may
              be escaped with a backslash or written as ``\054'').

          +o   White space between fields is ignored.

          +o   The first field in a terminfo entry begins in the first
              column.

          +o   Newlines and leading whitespace (spaces or tabs) may be
              used for formatting entries for readability.  These are
              removed from parsed entries.

              The infocmp -f and -W options rely on this to format
              if-then-else expressions, or to enforce maximum line-
              width.  The resulting formatted terminal description can
              be read by tic.

          +o   The first field for each terminal gives the names which
              are known for the terminal, separated by ``|'' charac-
              ters.

              The first name given is the most common abbreviation for
              the terminal (its primary name), the last name given
              should be a long name fully identifying the terminal
              (see longname(3X)), and all others are treated as syn-
              onyms (aliases) for the primary terminal name.

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

              X/Open Curses advises that all names but the last should
              be in lower case and contain no blanks; the last name
              may well contain upper case and blanks for readability.

              This implementation is not so strict; it allows mixed
              case in the primary name and aliases.  If the last name
              has no embedded blanks, it allows that to be both an
              alias and a verbose name (but will warn about this ambi-
              guity).

          +o   Lines beginning with a ``#'' in the first column are
              treated as comments.

              While comment lines are legal at any point, the output
              of captoinfo and infotocap (aliases for tic) will move
              comments so they occur only between entries.

          Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should
          be chosen using the following conventions.  The particular
          piece of hardware making up the terminal should have a root
          name, thus ``hp2621''.  This name should not contain
          hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or user prefer-
          ences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode
          suffix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132-column mode would be vt100-w.
          The following suffixes should be used where possible:

          center ; l c l l l l.  Suffix    Meaning   Example
          -nn  Number of lines on the screen aaa-60 -np  Number of
          pages of memory     c100-4p -am  With automargins (usually
          the default)  vt100-am -m   Mono mode; suppress color
             ansi-m -mc  Magic cookie; spaces when
          highlighting  wy30-mc -na  No arrow keys (leave them in
          local)     c100-na -nam Without automatic margins
             vt100-nam -nl  No status line
             att4415-nl -ns  No status line
             hp2626-ns -rv  Reverse video                      c100-rv
          -s   Enable status line                 vt100-s -vb  Use
          visible bell instead of beep   wy370-vb -w   Wide mode (> 80
          columns, usually 132)   vt100-w

          For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7)
          manual page.

        Terminfo Capabilities Syntax

          The terminfo entry consists of several capabilities, i.e.,
          features that the terminal has, or methods for exercising
          the terminal's features.

          After the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal
          entry), there should be one or more capability fields.
          These are boolean, numeric or string names with

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          corresponding values:

          +o   Boolean capabilities are true when present, false when
              absent.  There is no explicit value for boolean capabil-
              ities.

          +o   Numeric capabilities have a ``#'' following the name,
              then an unsigned decimal integer value.

          +o   String capabilities have a ``='' following the name,
              then an string of characters making up the capability
              value.

              String capabilities can be split into multiple lines,
              just as the fields comprising a terminal entry can be
              split into multiple lines.  While blanks between fields
              are ignored, blanks embedded within a string value are
              retained, except for leading blanks on a line.

          Any capability can be canceled, i.e., suppressed from the
          terminal entry, by following its name with ``@'' rather than
          a capability value.

        Similar Terminals

          If there are two very similar terminals, one (the variant)
          can be defined as being just like the other (the base) with
          certain exceptions.  In the definition of the variant, the
          string capability use can be given with the name of the base
          terminal:

          +o   The capabilities given before use override those in the
              base type named by use.

          +o   If there are multiple use capabilities, they are merged
              in reverse order.  That is, the rightmost use reference
              is processed first, then the one to its left, and so
              forth.

          +o   Capabilities given explicitly in the entry override
              those brought in by use references.

          A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of
          the use reference that imports it, where xx is the capabil-
          ity.  For example, the entry

               2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

          defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capa-
          bilities, and hence does not turn on the function key labels
          when in visual mode.  This is useful for different modes for
          a terminal, or for different user preferences.

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          An entry included via use can contain canceled capabilities,
          which have the same effect as if those cancels were inline
          in the using terminal entry.

        Predefined Capabilities     The following is a complete table
          of the capabilities included in a terminfo description block
          and available to terminfo-using code.  In each line of the
          table,

          The variable is the name by which the programmer (at the
          terminfo level) accesses the capability.

          The capname is the short name used in the text of the data-
          base, and is used by a person updating the database.  When-
          ever possible, capnames are chosen to be the same as or sim-
          ilar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard (now superseded by
          ECMA-48, which uses identical or very similar names).
          Semantics are also intended to match those of the specifica-
          tion.

          The termcap code is the old termcap
          capability name (some capabilities are new, and have names
          which termcap did not originate).

          Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal
          limit of 5 characters has been adopted to keep them short
          and to allow the tabs in the source file Caps to line up
          nicely.

          Finally, the description field attempts to convey the seman-
          tics of the capability.  You may find some codes in the
          description field:

          (P)  indicates that padding may be specified

          #[1-9]
               in the description field indicates that the string is
               passed through tparm(3X) with parameters as given (#i).

               If no parameters are listed in the description, passing
               the string through tparm(3X) may give unexpected
               results, e.g., if it contains percent (%%) signs.

          (P*) indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the
               number of lines affected

          (#i) indicates the ith parameter.

          These are the boolean capabilities:

          center; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw7 lw2 lw20.  Variable  Cap-

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

           TCap Description Booleans  name Code
          auto_left_margin    bw   bw   T{ cub1 wraps from column 0 to
          last column T} auto_right_margin   am   am   T{ terminal has
          automatic margins T} back_color_erase    bce  ut   T{ screen
          erased with background color T} can_change     ccc  cc   T{
          terminal can re-define existing colors T}
          ceol_standout_glitch     xhp  xs   T{ standout not erased by
          overwriting (hp) T} col_addr_glitch     xhpa YA   T{ only
          positive motion for hpa/mhpa caps T}
          cpi_changes_res     cpix YF   T{ changing character pitch
          changes resolution T} cr_cancels_micro_mode    crxm YB   T{
          using cr turns off micro mode T}
          dest_tabs_magic_smso     xt   xt   T{ tabs destructive,
          magic so char (t1061) T} eat_newline_glitch  xenl xn   T{
          newline ignored after 80 cols (concept) T}
          erase_overstrike    eo   eo   T{ can erase overstrikes with
          a blank T} generic_type   gn   gn   T{ generic line type T}
          hard_copy hc   hc   T{ hardcopy terminal T}
          hard_cursor    chts HC   T{ cursor is hard to see T}
          has_meta_key   km   km   T{ Has a meta key (i.e., sets 8th-
          bit) T} has_print_wheel     daisy     YC   T{ printer needs
          operator to change character set T}
          has_status_line     hs   hs   T{ has extra status line T}
          hue_lightness_saturation hls  hl   T{ terminal uses only HLS
          color notation (Tektronix) T}
          insert_null_glitch  in   in   T{ insert mode distinguishes
          nulls T} lpi_changes_res     lpix YG   T{ changing line
          pitch changes resolution T} memory_above   da   da   T{ dis-
          play may be retained above the screen T}
          memory_below   db   db   T{ display may be retained below
          the screen T} move_insert_mode    mir  mi   T{ safe to move
          while in insert mode T} move_standout_mode  msgr ms   T{
          safe to move while in standout mode T}
          needs_xon_xoff nxon nx   T{ padding will not work, xon/xoff
          required T} no_esc_ctlc    xsb  xb   T{ beehive (f1=escape,
          f2=ctrl C) T} no_pad_char    npc  NP   T{ pad character does
          not exist T} non_dest_scroll_region   ndscr     ND   T{
          scrolling region is non-destructive T}
          non_rev_rmcup  nrrmc     NR   T{ smcup does not reverse
          rmcup T} over_strike    os   os   T{ terminal can overstrike
          T} prtr_silent    mc5i 5i   T{ printer will not echo on
          screen T} row_addr_glitch     xvpa YD   T{ only positive
          motion for vpa/mvpa caps T}
          semi_auto_right_margin   sam  YE   T{ printing in last col-
          umn causes cr T} status_line_esc_ok  eslok     es   T{
          escape can be used on the status line T}
          tilde_glitch   hz   hz   T{ cannot print ~'s (Hazeltine) T}
          transparent_underline    ul   ul   T{ underline character
          overstrikes T} xon_xoff  xon  xo   T{ terminal uses xon/xoff
          handshaking T}

          These are the numeric capabilities:

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          center; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw7 lw2 lw20.  Variable  Cap-
           TCap Description Numeric   name Code columns   cols co   T{
          number of columns in a line T} init_tabs it   it   T{ tabs
          initially every # spaces T} label_height   lh   lh   T{ rows
          in each label T} label_width    lw   lw   T{ columns in each
          label T} lines     lines     li   T{ number of lines on
          screen or page T} lines_of_memory     lm   lm   T{ lines of
          memory if > line. 0 means varies T}
          magic_cookie_glitch xmc  sg   T{ number of blank characters
          left by smso or rmso T} max_attributes ma   ma   T{ maximum
          combined attributes terminal can handle T}
          max_colors     colors    Co   T{ maximum number of colors on
          screen T} max_pairs pairs     pa   T{ maximum number of
          color-pairs on the screen T}
          maximum_windows     wnum MW   T{ maximum number of definable
          windows T} no_color_video ncv  NC   T{ video attributes that
          cannot be used with colors T} num_labels     nlab Nl   T{
          number of labels on screen T}
          padding_baud_rate   pb   pb   T{ lowest baud rate where pad-
          ding needed T} virtual_terminal    vt   vt   T{ virtual ter-
          minal number (CB/unix) T} width_status_line   wsl  ws   T{
          number of columns in status line T}

          The following numeric capabilities are present in the SVr4.0
          term  structure, but are not yet documented in the man page.
          They came in with SVr4's printer support.

          center; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw7 lw2 lw20.  Variable  Cap-
           TCap Description Numeric   name Code
          bit_image_entwining bitwin    Yo   T{ number of passes for
          each bit-image row T} bit_image_type bitype    Yp   T{ type
          of bit-image device T} buffer_capacity     bufsz     Ya   T{
          numbers of bytes buffered before printing T}
          buttons   btns BT   T{ number of buttons on mouse T}
          dot_horz_spacing    spinh     Yc   T{ spacing of dots hori-
          zontally in dots per inch T}
          dot_vert_spacing    spinv     Yb   T{ spacing of pins verti-
          cally in pins per inch T}
          max_micro_address   maddr     Yd   T{ maximum value in
          micro_..._address T} max_micro_jump mjump     Ye   T{ maxi-
          mum value in parm_..._micro T} micro_col_size mcs  Yf   T{
          character step size when in micro mode T}
          micro_line_size     mls  Yg   T{ line step size when in
          micro mode T} number_of_pins npins     Yh   T{ numbers of
          pins in print-head T} output_res_char     orc  Yi   T{ hori-
          zontal resolution in units per line T}
          output_res_horz_inch     orhi Yk   T{ horizontal resolution
          in units per inch T} output_res_line     orl  Yj   T{ verti-
          cal resolution in units per line T}
          output_res_vert_inch     orvi Yl   T{ vertical resolution in
          units per inch T} print_rate     cps  Ym   T{ print rate in
          characters per second T} wide_char_size widcs     Yn   T{

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          character step size when in double wide mode T}

          These are the string capabilities:

          center; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw7 lw2 lw20.  Variable  Cap-
           TCap Description String    name Code acs_chars acsc ac   T{
          graphics charset pairs, based on vt100 T}
          back_tab  cbt  bt   T{ back tab (P) T} bell bel  bl   T{
          audible signal (bell) (P) T}
          carriage_return     cr   cr   T{ carriage return (P*) (P*)
          T} change_char_pitch   cpi  ZA   T{ Change number of charac-
          ters per inch to #1 T} change_line_pitch   lpi  ZB   T{
          Change number of lines per inch to #1 T}
          change_res_horz     chr  ZC   T{ Change horizontal resolu-
          tion to #1 T} change_res_vert     cvr  ZD   T{ Change verti-
          cal resolution to #1 T}
          change_scroll_region     csr  cs   T{ change region to line
          #1 to line #2 (P) T} char_padding   rmp  rP   T{ like ip but
          when in insert mode T} clear_all_tabs tbc  ct   T{ clear all
          tab stops (P) T} clear_margins  mgc  MC   T{ clear right and
          left soft margins T} clear_screen   clear     cl   T{ clear
          screen and home cursor (P*) T} clr_bol   el1  cb   T{ Clear
          to beginning of line T} clr_eol   el   ce   T{ clear to end
          of line (P) T} clr_eos   ed   cd   T{ clear to end of screen
          (P*) T} column_address hpa  ch   T{ horizontal position #1,
          absolute (P) T} command_character   cmdch     CC   T{ termi-
          nal settable cmd character in prototype !?  T}
          create_window  cwin CW   T{ define a window #1 from #2,#3 to
          #4,#5 T} cursor_address cup  cm   T{ move to row #1 columns
          #2 T} cursor_down    cud1 do   T{ down one line T}
          cursor_home    home ho   T{ home cursor (if no cup) T}
          cursor_invisible    civis     vi   T{ make cursor invisible
          T} cursor_left    cub1 le   T{ move left one space T}
          cursor_mem_address  mrcup     CM   T{ memory relative cursor
          addressing, move to row #1 columns #2 T}
          cursor_normal  cnorm     ve   T{ make cursor appear normal
          (undo civis/cvvis) T} cursor_right   cuf1 nd   T{ non-
          destructive space (move right one space) T}
          cursor_to_ll   ll   ll   T{ last line, first column (if no
          cup) T} cursor_up cuu1 up   T{ up one line T}
          cursor_visible cvvis     vs   T{ make cursor very visible T}
          define_char    defc ZE   T{ Define a character #1, #2 dots
          wide, descender #3 T} delete_character    dch1 dc   T{
          delete character (P*) T} delete_line    dl1  dl   T{ delete
          line (P*) T} dial_phone     dial DI   T{ dial number #1 T}
          dis_status_line     dsl  ds   T{ disable status line T}
          display_clock  dclk DK   T{ display clock T}
          down_half_line hd   hd   T{ half a line down T}
          ena_acs   enacs     eA   T{ enable alternate char set T}
          enter_alt_charset_mode   smacs     as   T{ start alternate
          character set (P) T} enter_am_mode  smam SA   T{ turn on
          automatic margins T} enter_blink_mode    blink     mb   T{

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          turn on blinking T} enter_bold_mode     bold md   T{ turn on
          bold (extra bright) mode T} enter_ca_mode  smcup     ti   T{
          string to start programs using cup T}
          enter_delete_mode   smdc dm   T{ enter delete mode T}
          enter_dim_mode dim  mh   T{ turn on half-bright mode T}
          enter_doublewide_mode    swidm     ZF   T{ Enter double-wide
          mode T} enter_draft_quality sdrfq     ZG   T{ Enter draft-
          quality mode T} enter_insert_mode   smir im   T{ enter
          insert mode T} enter_italics_mode  sitm ZH   T{ Enter italic
          mode T} enter_leftward_mode slm  ZI   T{ Start leftward car-
          riage motion T} enter_micro_mode    smicm     ZJ   T{ Start
          micro-motion mode T}
          enter_near_letter_quality     snlq ZK   T{ Enter NLQ mode T}
          enter_normal_quality     snrmq     ZL   T{ Enter normal-
          quality mode T} enter_protected_mode     prot mp   T{ turn
          on protected mode T} enter_reverse_mode  rev  mr   T{ turn
          on reverse video mode T}
          enter_secure_mode   invis     mk   T{ turn on blank mode
          (characters invisible) T} enter_shadow_mode   sshm ZM   T{
          Enter shadow-print mode T} enter_standout_mode smso so   T{
          begin standout mode T}
          enter_subscript_mode     ssubm     ZN   T{ Enter subscript
          mode T} enter_superscript_mode   ssupm     ZO   T{ Enter
          superscript mode T} enter_underline_mode     smul us   T{
          begin underline mode T} enter_upward_mode   sum  ZP   T{
          Start upward carriage motion T}
          enter_xon_mode smxon     SX   T{ turn on xon/xoff handshak-
          ing T} erase_chars    ech  ec   T{ erase #1 characters (P)
          T} exit_alt_charset_mode    rmacs     ae   T{ end alternate
          character set (P) T} exit_am_mode   rmam RA   T{ turn off
          automatic margins T} exit_attribute_mode sgr0 me   T{ turn
          off all attributes T} exit_ca_mode   rmcup     te   T{
          strings to end programs using cup T}
          exit_delete_mode    rmdc ed   T{ end delete mode T}
          exit_doublewide_mode     rwidm     ZQ   T{ End double-wide
          mode T} exit_insert_mode    rmir ei   T{ exit insert mode T}
          exit_italics_mode   ritm ZR   T{ End italic mode T}
          exit_leftward_mode  rlm  ZS   T{ End left-motion mode T}
          exit_micro_mode     rmicm     ZT   T{ End micro-motion mode
          T} exit_shadow_mode    rshm ZU   T{ End shadow-print mode T}
          exit_standout_mode  rmso se   T{ exit standout mode T}
          exit_subscript_mode rsubm     ZV   T{ End subscript mode T}
          exit_superscript_mode    rsupm     ZW   T{ End superscript
          mode T} exit_underline_mode rmul ue   T{ exit underline mode
          T} exit_upward_mode    rum  ZX   T{ End reverse character
          motion T} exit_xon_mode  rmxon     RX   T{ turn off xon/xoff
          handshaking T} fixed_pause    pause     PA   T{ pause for
          2-3 seconds T} flash_hook     hook fh   T{ flash switch hook
          T} flash_screen   flash     vb   T{ visible bell (may not
          move cursor) T} form_feed ff   ff   T{ hardcopy terminal
          page eject (P*) T} from_status_line    fsl  fs   T{ return
          from status line T} goto_window    wingo     WG   T{ go to

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          window #1 T} hangup    hup  HU   T{ hang-up phone T}
          init_1string   is1  i1   T{ initialization string T}
          init_2string   is2  is   T{ initialization string T}
          init_3string   is3  i3   T{ initialization string T}
          init_file if   if   T{ name of initialization file T}
          init_prog iprog     iP   T{ path name of program for ini-
          tialization T} initialize_color    initc     Ic   T{ ini-
          tialize color #1 to (#2,#3,#4) T}
          initialize_pair     initp     Ip   T{ Initialize color pair
          #1 to fg=(#2,#3,#4), bg=(#5,#6,#7) T}
          insert_character    ich1 ic   T{ insert character (P) T}
          insert_line    il1  al   T{ insert line (P*) T}
          insert_padding ip   ip   T{ insert padding after inserted
          character T} key_a1    ka1  K1   T{ upper left of keypad T}
          key_a3    ka3  K3   T{ upper right of keypad T}
          key_b2    kb2  K2   T{ center of keypad T}
          key_backspace  kbs  kb   T{ backspace key T}
          key_beg   kbeg @1   T{ begin key T} key_btab  kcbt kB   T{
          back-tab key T} key_c1    kc1  K4   T{ lower left of keypad
          T} key_c3    kc3  K5   T{ lower right of keypad T}
          key_cancel     kcan @2   T{ cancel key T}
          key_catab ktbc ka   T{ clear-all-tabs key T}
          key_clear kclr kC   T{ clear-screen or erase key T}
          key_close kclo @3   T{ close key T}
          key_command    kcmd @4   T{ command key T}
          key_copy  kcpy @5   T{ copy key T}
          key_create     kcrt @6   T{ create key T}
          key_ctab  kctab     kt   T{ clear-tab key T}
          key_dc    kdch1     kD   T{ delete-character key T}
          key_dl    kdl1 kL   T{ delete-line key T}
          key_down  kcud1     kd   T{ down-arrow key T}
          key_eic   krmir     kM   T{ sent by rmir or smir in insert
          mode T} key_end   kend @7   T{ end key T}
          key_enter kent @8   T{ enter/send key T}
          key_eol   kel  kE   T{ clear-to-end-of-line key T}
          key_eos   ked  kS   T{ clear-to-end-of-screen key T}
          key_exit  kext @9   T{ exit key T} key_f0    kf0  k0   T{ F0
          function key T} key_f1    kf1  k1   T{ F1 function key T}
          key_f10   kf10 k;   T{ F10 function key T}
          key_f11   kf11 F1   T{ F11 function key T}
          key_f12   kf12 F2   T{ F12 function key T}
          key_f13   kf13 F3   T{ F13 function key T}
          key_f14   kf14 F4   T{ F14 function key T}
          key_f15   kf15 F5   T{ F15 function key T}
          key_f16   kf16 F6   T{ F16 function key T}
          key_f17   kf17 F7   T{ F17 function key T}
          key_f18   kf18 F8   T{ F18 function key T}
          key_f19   kf19 F9   T{ F19 function key T}
          key_f2    kf2  k2   T{ F2 function key T}
          key_f20   kf20 FA   T{ F20 function key T}
          key_f21   kf21 FB   T{ F21 function key T}
          key_f22   kf22 FC   T{ F22 function key T}

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          key_f23   kf23 FD   T{ F23 function key T}
          key_f24   kf24 FE   T{ F24 function key T}
          key_f25   kf25 FF   T{ F25 function key T}
          key_f26   kf26 FG   T{ F26 function key T}
          key_f27   kf27 FH   T{ F27 function key T}
          key_f28   kf28 FI   T{ F28 function key T}
          key_f29   kf29 FJ   T{ F29 function key T}
          key_f3    kf3  k3   T{ F3 function key T}
          key_f30   kf30 FK   T{ F30 function key T}
          key_f31   kf31 FL   T{ F31 function key T}
          key_f32   kf32 FM   T{ F32 function key T}
          key_f33   kf33 FN   T{ F33 function key T}
          key_f34   kf34 FO   T{ F34 function key T}
          key_f35   kf35 FP   T{ F35 function key T}
          key_f36   kf36 FQ   T{ F36 function key T}
          key_f37   kf37 FR   T{ F37 function key T}
          key_f38   kf38 FS   T{ F38 function key T}
          key_f39   kf39 FT   T{ F39 function key T}
          key_f4    kf4  k4   T{ F4 function key T}
          key_f40   kf40 FU   T{ F40 function key T}
          key_f41   kf41 FV   T{ F41 function key T}
          key_f42   kf42 FW   T{ F42 function key T}
          key_f43   kf43 FX   T{ F43 function key T}
          key_f44   kf44 FY   T{ F44 function key T}
          key_f45   kf45 FZ   T{ F45 function key T}
          key_f46   kf46 Fa   T{ F46 function key T}
          key_f47   kf47 Fb   T{ F47 function key T}
          key_f48   kf48 Fc   T{ F48 function key T}
          key_f49   kf49 Fd   T{ F49 function key T}
          key_f5    kf5  k5   T{ F5 function key T}
          key_f50   kf50 Fe   T{ F50 function key T}
          key_f51   kf51 Ff   T{ F51 function key T}
          key_f52   kf52 Fg   T{ F52 function key T}
          key_f53   kf53 Fh   T{ F53 function key T}
          key_f54   kf54 Fi   T{ F54 function key T}
          key_f55   kf55 Fj   T{ F55 function key T}
          key_f56   kf56 Fk   T{ F56 function key T}
          key_f57   kf57 Fl   T{ F57 function key T}
          key_f58   kf58 Fm   T{ F58 function key T}
          key_f59   kf59 Fn   T{ F59 function key T}
          key_f6    kf6  k6   T{ F6 function key T}
          key_f60   kf60 Fo   T{ F60 function key T}
          key_f61   kf61 Fp   T{ F61 function key T}
          key_f62   kf62 Fq   T{ F62 function key T}
          key_f63   kf63 Fr   T{ F63 function key T}
          key_f7    kf7  k7   T{ F7 function key T}
          key_f8    kf8  k8   T{ F8 function key T}
          key_f9    kf9  k9   T{ F9 function key T}
          key_find  kfnd @0   T{ find key T} key_help  khlp %1   T{
          help key T} key_home  khome     kh   T{ home key T}
          key_ic    kich1     kI   T{ insert-character key T}
          key_il    kil1 kA   T{ insert-line key T}

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          key_left  kcub1     kl   T{ left-arrow key T}
          key_ll    kll  kH   T{ lower-left key (home down) T}
          key_mark  kmrk %2   T{ mark key T}
          key_message    kmsg %3   T{ message key T}
          key_move  kmov %4   T{ move key T} key_next  knxt %5   T{
          next key T} key_npage knp  kN   T{ next-page key T}
          key_open  kopn %6   T{ open key T}
          key_options    kopt %7   T{ options key T}
          key_ppage kpp  kP   T{ previous-page key T}
          key_previous   kprv %8   T{ previous key T}
          key_print kprt %9   T{ print key T} key_redo  krdo %0   T{
          redo key T} key_reference  kref &1   T{ reference key T}
          key_refresh    krfr &2   T{ refresh key T}
          key_replace    krpl &3   T{ replace key T}
          key_restart    krst &4   T{ restart key T}
          key_resume     kres &5   T{ resume key T}
          key_right kcuf1     kr   T{ right-arrow key T}
          key_save  ksav &6   T{ save key T} key_sbeg  kBEG &9   T{
          shifted begin key T} key_scancel    kCAN &0   T{ shifted
          cancel key T} key_scommand   kCMD *1   T{ shifted command
          key T} key_scopy kCPY *2   T{ shifted copy key T}
          key_screate    kCRT *3   T{ shifted create key T}
          key_sdc   kDC  *4   T{ shifted delete-character key T}
          key_sdl   kDL  *5   T{ shifted delete-line key T}
          key_select     kslt *6   T{ select key T}
          key_send  kEND *7   T{ shifted end key T}
          key_seol  kEOL *8   T{ shifted clear-to-end-of-line key T}
          key_sexit kEXT *9   T{ shifted exit key T}
          key_sf    kind kF   T{ scroll-forward key T}
          key_sfind kFND *0   T{ shifted find key T}
          key_shelp kHLP #1   T{ shifted help key T}
          key_shome kHOM #2   T{ shifted home key T}
          key_sic   kIC  #3   T{ shifted insert-character key T}
          key_sleft kLFT #4   T{ shifted left-arrow key T}
          key_smessage   kMSG %a   T{ shifted message key T}
          key_smove kMOV %b   T{ shifted move key T}
          key_snext kNXT %c   T{ shifted next key T}
          key_soptions   kOPT %d   T{ shifted options key T}
          key_sprevious  kPRV %e   T{ shifted previous key T}
          key_sprint     kPRT %f   T{ shifted print key T}
          key_sr    kri  kR   T{ scroll-backward key T}
          key_sredo kRDO %g   T{ shifted redo key T}
          key_sreplace   kRPL %h   T{ shifted replace key T}
          key_sright     kRIT %i   T{ shifted right-arrow key T}
          key_srsume     kRES %j   T{ shifted resume key T}
          key_ssave kSAV !1   T{ shifted save key T}
          key_ssuspend   kSPD !2   T{ shifted suspend key T}
          key_stab  khts kT   T{ set-tab key T} key_sundo kUND !3   T{
          shifted undo key T} key_suspend    kspd &7   T{ suspend key
          T} key_undo  kund &8   T{ undo key T}
          key_up    kcuu1     ku   T{ up-arrow key T}
          keypad_local   rmkx ke   T{ leave 'keyboard_transmit' mode

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          T} keypad_xmit    smkx ks   T{ enter 'keyboard_transmit'
          mode T} lab_f0    lf0  l0   T{ label on function key f0 if
          not f0 T} lab_f1    lf1  l1   T{ label on function key f1 if
          not f1 T} lab_f10   lf10 la   T{ label on function key f10
          if not f10 T} lab_f2    lf2  l2   T{ label on function key
          f2 if not f2 T} lab_f3    lf3  l3   T{ label on function key
          f3 if not f3 T} lab_f4    lf4  l4   T{ label on function key
          f4 if not f4 T} lab_f5    lf5  l5   T{ label on function key
          f5 if not f5 T} lab_f6    lf6  l6   T{ label on function key
          f6 if not f6 T} lab_f7    lf7  l7   T{ label on function key
          f7 if not f7 T} lab_f8    lf8  l8   T{ label on function key
          f8 if not f8 T} lab_f9    lf9  l9   T{ label on function key
          f9 if not f9 T} label_format   fln  Lf   T{ label format T}
          label_off rmln LF   T{ turn off soft labels T}
          label_on  smln LO   T{ turn on soft labels T}
          meta_off  rmm  mo   T{ turn off meta mode T}
          meta_on   smm  mm   T{ turn on meta mode (8th-bit on) T}
          micro_column_address     mhpa ZY   T{ Like column_address in
          micro mode T} micro_down     mcud1     ZZ   T{ Like
          cursor_down in micro mode T}
          micro_left     mcub1     Za   T{ Like cursor_left in micro
          mode T} micro_right    mcuf1     Zb   T{ Like cursor_right
          in micro mode T} micro_row_address   mvpa Zc   T{ Like
          row_address #1 in micro mode T} micro_up  mcuu1     Zd   T{
          Like cursor_up in micro mode T} newline   nel  nw   T{ new-
          line (behave like cr followed by lf) T}
          order_of_pins  porder    Ze   T{ Match software bits to
          print-head pins T} orig_colors    oc   oc   T{ Set all color
          pairs to the original ones T} orig_pair op   op   T{ Set
          default pair to its original value T} pad_char  pad  pc   T{
          padding char (instead of null) T} parm_dch  dch  DC   T{
          delete #1 characters (P*) T}
          parm_delete_line    dl   DL   T{ delete #1 lines (P*) T}
          parm_down_cursor    cud  DO   T{ down #1 lines (P*) T}
          parm_down_micro     mcud Zf   T{ Like parm_down_cursor in
          micro mode T} parm_ich  ich  IC   T{ insert #1 characters
          (P*) T} parm_index     indn SF   T{ scroll forward #1 lines
          (P) T} parm_insert_line    il   AL   T{ insert #1 lines (P*)
          T} parm_left_cursor    cub  LE   T{ move #1 characters to
          the left (P) T} parm_left_micro     mcub Zg   T{ Like
          parm_left_cursor in micro mode T}
          parm_right_cursor   cuf  RI   T{ move #1 characters to the
          right (P*) T} parm_right_micro    mcuf Zh   T{ Like
          parm_right_cursor in micro mode T}
          parm_rindex    rin  SR   T{ scroll back #1 lines (P) T}
          parm_up_cursor cuu  UP   T{ up #1 lines (P*) T}
          parm_up_micro  mcuu Zi   T{ Like parm_up_cursor in micro
          mode T} pkey_key  pfkey     pk   T{ program function key #1
          to type string #2 T} pkey_local     pfloc     pl   T{ pro-
          gram function key #1 to execute string #2 T}
          pkey_xmit pfx  px   T{ program function key #1 to transmit
          string #2 T} plab_norm pln  pn   T{ program label #1 to show

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          string #2 T} print_screen   mc0  ps   T{ print contents of
          screen T} prtr_non  mc5p pO   T{ turn on printer for #1
          bytes T} prtr_off  mc4  pf   T{ turn off printer T}
          prtr_on   mc5  po   T{ turn on printer T}
          pulse     pulse     PU   T{ select pulse dialing T}
          quick_dial     qdial     QD   T{ dial number #1 without
          checking T} remove_clock   rmclk     RC   T{ remove clock T}
          repeat_char    rep  rp   T{ repeat char #1 #2 times (P*) T}
          req_for_input  rfi  RF   T{ send next input char (for ptys)
          T} reset_1string  rs1  r1   T{ reset string T}
          reset_2string  rs2  r2   T{ reset string T}
          reset_3string  rs3  r3   T{ reset string T}
          reset_file     rf   rf   T{ name of reset file T}
          restore_cursor rc   rc   T{ restore cursor to position of
          last save_cursor T} row_address    vpa  cv   T{ vertical
          position #1 absolute (P) T} save_cursor    sc   sc   T{ save
          current cursor position (P) T} scroll_forward ind  sf   T{
          scroll text up (P) T} scroll_reverse ri   sr   T{ scroll
          text down (P) T} select_char_set     scs  Zj   T{ Select
          character set, #1 T} set_attributes sgr  sa   T{ define
          video attributes #1-#9 (PG9) T} set_background setb Sb   T{
          Set background color #1 T} set_bottom_margin   smgb Zk   T{
          Set bottom margin at current line T}
          set_bottom_margin_parm   smgbp     Zl   T{ Set bottom margin
          at line #1 or (if smgtp is not given) #2 lines from bottom
          T} set_clock sclk SC   T{ set clock, #1 hrs #2 mins #3 secs
          T} set_color_pair scp  sp   T{ Set current color pair to #1
          T} set_foreground setf Sf   T{ Set foreground color #1 T}
          set_left_margin     smgl ML   T{ set left soft margin at
          current column.  See smgl. (ML is not in BSD termcap).  T}
          set_left_margin_parm     smglp     Zm   T{ Set left (right)
          margin at column #1 T} set_right_margin    smgr MR   T{ set
          right soft margin at current column T}
          set_right_margin_parm    smgrp     Zn   T{ Set right margin
          at column #1 T} set_tab   hts  st   T{ set a tab in every
          row, current columns T} set_top_margin smgt Zo   T{ Set top
          margin at current line T}
          set_top_margin_parm smgtp     Zp   T{ Set top (bottom) mar-
          gin at row #1 T} set_window     wind wi   T{ current window
          is lines #1-#2 cols #3-#4 T}
          start_bit_image     sbim Zq   T{ Start printing bit image
          graphics T} start_char_set_def  scsd Zr   T{ Start character
          set definition #1, with #2 characters in the set T}
          stop_bit_image rbim Zs   T{ Stop printing bit image graphics
          T} stop_char_set_def   rcsd Zt   T{ End definition of char-
          acter set #1 T} subscript_characters     subcs     Zu   T{
          List of subscriptable characters T}
          superscript_characters   supcs     Zv   T{ List of super-
          scriptable characters T} tab  ht   ta   T{ tab to next 8-
          space hardware tab stop T} these_cause_cr docr Zw   T{
          Printing any of these characters causes CR T}
          to_status_line tsl  ts   T{ move to status line, column #1

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          T} tone tone TO   T{ select touch tone dialing T}
          underline_char uc   uc   T{ underline char and move past it
          T} up_half_line   hu   hu   T{ half a line up T}
          user0     u0   u0   T{ User string #0 T}
          user1     u1   u1   T{ User string #1 T}
          user2     u2   u2   T{ User string #2 T}
          user3     u3   u3   T{ User string #3 T}
          user4     u4   u4   T{ User string #4 T}
          user5     u5   u5   T{ User string #5 T}
          user6     u6   u6   T{ User string #6 T}
          user7     u7   u7   T{ User string #7 T}
          user8     u8   u8   T{ User string #8 T}
          user9     u9   u9   T{ User string #9 T}
          wait_tone wait WA   T{ wait for dial-tone T}
          xoff_character xoffc     XF   T{ XOFF character T}
          xon_character  xonc XN   T{ XON character T}
          zero_motion    zerom     Zx   T{ No motion for subsequent
          character T}

          The following string capabilities are present in the  SVr4.0
          term  structure,  but  were originally not documented in the
          man page.

          center; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw7 lw2 lw18.  Variable  Cap-
           TCap Description String    name Code
          alt_scancode_esc    scesa     S8   T{ Alternate escape for
          scancode emulation T}
          bit_image_carriage_return     bicr Yv   T{ Move to beginning
          of same row T} bit_image_newline   binel     Zz   T{ Move to
          next row of the bit image T}
          bit_image_repeat    birep     Xy   T{ Repeat bit image cell
          #1 #2 times T} char_set_names csnm Zy   T{ Produce #1'th
          item from list of character set names T}
          code_set_init  csin ci   T{ Init sequence for multiple code-
          sets T} color_names    colornm   Yw   T{ Give name for color
          #1 T} define_bit_image_region  defbi     Yx   T{ Define
          rectangular bit image region T} device_type    devt dv   T{
          Indicate language/codeset support T}
          display_pc_char     dispc     S1   T{ Display PC character
          #1 T} end_bit_image_region     endbi     Yy   T{ End a bit-
          image region T} enter_pc_charset_mode    smpch     S2   T{
          Enter PC character display mode T}
          enter_scancode_mode smsc S4   T{ Enter PC scancode mode T}
          exit_pc_charset_mode     rmpch     S3   T{ Exit PC character
          display mode T} exit_scancode_mode  rmsc S5   T{ Exit PC
          scancode mode T} get_mouse getm Gm   T{ Curses should get
          button events, parameter #1 not documented.  T}
          key_mouse kmous     Km   T{ Mouse event has occurred T}
          mouse_info     minfo     Mi   T{ Mouse status information T}
          pc_term_options     pctrm     S6   T{ PC terminal options T}
          pkey_plab pfxl xl   T{ Program function key #1 to type
          string #2 and show string #3 T}

     Page 14                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          req_mouse_pos  reqmp     RQ   T{ Request mouse position T}
          scancode_escape     scesc     S7   T{ Escape for scancode
          emulation T} set0_des_seq   s0ds s0   T{ Shift to codeset 0
          (EUC set 0, ASCII) T} set1_des_seq   s1ds s1   T{ Shift to
          codeset 1 T} set2_des_seq   s2ds s2   T{ Shift to codeset 2
          T} set3_des_seq   s3ds s3   T{ Shift to codeset 3 T}
          set_a_background    setab     AB   T{ Set background color
          to #1, using ANSI escape T}
          set_a_foreground    setaf     AF   T{ Set foreground color
          to #1, using ANSI escape T} set_color_band setcolor  Yz   T{
          Change to ribbon color #1 T}
          set_lr_margin  smglr     ML   T{ Set both left and right
          margins to #1, #2.  (ML is not in BSD termcap).  T}
          set_page_length     slines    YZ   T{ Set page length to #1
          lines T} set_tb_margin  smgtb     MT   T{ Sets both top and
          bottom margins to #1, #2 T}

             The XSI Curses standard added  these  hardcopy  capabili-
             ties.  They were used in some post-4.1 versions of System
             V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI,
             the ncurses termcap names for them are invented.  Accord-
             ing to the XSI Curses  standard,  they  have  no  termcap
             names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these, they
             may not  be  binary-compatible  with  System  V  terminfo
             entries after SVr4.1; beware!

             center; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw7 lw2 lw20.
             Variable  Cap- TCap Description String    name Code
             enter_horizontal_hl_mode ehhlm     Xh   T{ Enter horizon-
             tal highlight mode T}
             enter_left_hl_mode  elhlm     Xl   T{ Enter left high-
             light mode T} enter_low_hl_mode   elohlm    Xo   T{ Enter
             low highlight mode T}
             enter_right_hl_mode erhlm     Xr   T{ Enter right high-
             light mode T} enter_top_hl_mode   ethlm     Xt   T{ Enter
             top highlight mode T}
             enter_vertical_hl_mode   evhlm     Xv   T{ Enter vertical
             highlight mode T} set_a_attributes    sgr1 sA   T{ Define
             second set of video attributes #1-#6 T}
             set_pglen_inch slength   YI   T{ Set page length to #1
             hundredth of an inch (some implementations use sL for
             termcap).  T}

        User-Defined Capabilities     The preceding section listed the
          predefined  capabilities.   They deal with some special fea-
          tures for terminals no longer (or possibly never)  produced.
          Occasionally  there  are special features of newer terminals
          which are awkward or impossible to represent by reusing  the
          predefined capabilities.

          ncurses addresses this limitation by  allowing  user-defined
          capabilities.   The  tic and infocmp programs provide the -x

     Page 15                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          option for this purpose.  When -x is set, tic treats unknown
          capabilities  as user-defined.  That is, if tic encounters a
          capability name which it does not recognize, it  infers  its
          type  (boolean,  number or string) from the syntax and makes
          an  extended  table  entry   for   that   capability.    The
          use_extended_names(3X)  function makes this information con-
          ditionally available to applications.  The  ncurses  library
          provides  the  data leaving most of the behavior to applica-
          tions:

          +o   User-defined capability strings whose name  begins  with
              ``k'' are treated as function keys.

          +o   The types (boolean, number, string)  determined  by  tic
              can be inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

          +o   If the capability name happens to be two characters, the
              capability  is also available through the termcap inter-
              face.

          While termcap is said to be extensible because it  does  not
          use  a  predefined  set  of capabilities, in practice it has
          been limited to the capabilities defined by terminfo  imple-
          mentations.   As  a rule, user-defined capabilities intended
          for use by termcap applications should be limited to  boole-
          ans  and  numbers  to avoid running past the 1023 byte limit
          assumed by termcap implementations and  their  applications.
          In  particular,  providing  extended  sets  of function keys
          (past the 60 numbered keys and the handful of special  named
          keys)  is  best  done using the longer names available using
          terminfo.

        A Sample Entry    The following  entry,  describing  an  ANSI-
          standard  terminal,  is  representative  of  what a terminfo
          entry for a modern terminal typically looks like.

          ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
                  am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
                  colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
                  acsc=+\020\,\021-\030.^Y0\333`\004a\261f\370g\361h\260
                       j\331k\277l\332m\300n\305o~p\304q\304r\304s_t\303
                       u\264v\301w\302x\263y\363z\362{\343|\330}\234~\376,
                  bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
                  cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
                  cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
                  cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
                  dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
                  el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
                  ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
                  indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
                  kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
                  mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,

     Page 16                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

                  rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
                  rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
                  s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
                  setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
                  sgr=\E[0;10%?%p1%t;7%;
                             %?%p2%t;4%;
                             %?%p3%t;7%;
                             %?%p4%t;5%;
                             %?%p6%t;1%;
                             %?%p7%t;8%;
                             %?%p9%t;11%;m,
                  sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
                  smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
                  u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

          Entries may continue onto multiple lines  by  placing  white
          space  at the beginning of each line except the first.  Com-
          ments may be included on lines beginning with ``#''.   Capa-
          bilities in terminfo
          are of three types:

          +o   Boolean capabilities which indicate  that  the  terminal
              has some particular feature,

          +o   numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal  or
              the size of particular delays, and

          +o   string capabilities, which give a sequence which can  be
              used to perform particular terminal operations.

        Types of Capabilities

          All capabilities have names.  For instance,  the  fact  that
          ANSI-standard terminals have automatic margins
          (i.e., an automatic return and line-feed when the end  of  a
          line  is  reached) is indicated by the capability am.  Hence
          the description of ansi includes am.   Numeric  capabilities
          are  followed  by  the  character  ``#'' and then a positive
          value.  Thus cols, which indicates the number of columns the
          terminal  has,  gives the value ``80'' for ansi.  Values for
          numeric capabilities may be specified in decimal,  octal  or
          hexadecimal,  using  the  C programming language conventions
          (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

          Finally, string valued capabilities, such as  el  (clear  to
          end  of  line sequence) are given by the two-character code,
          an ``='', and then a string ending  at  the  next  following
          ``,''.

          A number of escape sequences are provided in the string val-
          ued capabilities for easy encoding of characters there:

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          +o   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,

          +o   ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and

          +o   the sequences

                \n, \l, \r, \t, \b, \f, and \s

              produce

                newline, line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed,
                and space,

              respectively.

          X/Open Curses does not say what ``appropriate x'' might  be.
          In  practice,  that  is a printable ASCII graphic character.
          The special case ``^?'' is interpreted as DEL (127).  In all
          other cases, the character value is AND'd with 0x1f, mapping
          to ASCII control codes in the range 0 through 31.

          Other escapes include

          +o   \^ for ^,

          +o   \\ for \,

          +o   \, for comma,

          +o   \: for :,

          +o   and \0 for null.

              \0 will produce \200, which does not terminate a  string
              but  behaves as a null character on most terminals, pro-
              viding CS7 is specified.  See stty(1).

              The reason for this quirk is to maintain binary compati-
              bility  of the compiled terminfo files with other imple-
              mentations, e.g., the SVr4 systems, which document this.
              Compiled  terminfo  files  use  null-terminated strings,
              with no lengths.  Modifying this  would  require  a  new
              binary format, which would not work with other implemen-
              tations.

          Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after
          a \.

          A delay in milliseconds may  appear  anywhere  in  a  string
          capability,  enclosed  in  $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>,
          and padding characters are supplied by tputs(3X) to  provide
          this delay.

     Page 18                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          +o   The delay must be a number  with  at  most  one  decimal
              place of precision; it may be followed by suffixes ``*''
              or ``/'' or both.

          +o   A ``*'' indicates that the padding required  is  propor-
              tional to the number of lines affected by the operation,
              and the amount given is  the  per-affected-unit  padding
              required.   (In the case of insert character, the factor
              is still the number of lines affected.)

              Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the  xon
              capability; it is used for cost computation but does not
              trigger delays.

          +o   A ``/'' suffix indicates that the padding  is  mandatory
              and  forces  a delay of the given number of milliseconds
              even on devices for which xon  is  present  to  indicate
              flow control.

          Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To
          do this, put a period before the capability name.  For exam-
          ple, see the second ind in the example above.

        Fetching Compiled Descriptions

          The ncurses library searches for  terminal  descriptions  in
          several  places.   It uses only the first description found.
          The library has a compiled-in list of places to search which
          can be overridden by environment variables.  Before starting
          to search, ncurses eliminates duplicates in its search list.

          +o   If the environment  variable  TERMINFO  is  set,  it  is
              interpreted  as  the  pathname of a directory containing
              the compiled description you are working on.  Only  that
              directory is searched.

          +o   If TERMINFO is not set, ncurses will instead look in the
              directory $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

          +o   Next, if the environment variable TERMINFO_DIRS is  set,
              ncurses  will interpret the contents of that variable as
              a  list  of  colon-separated  directories  (or  database
              files) to be searched.

              An empty directory name (i.e., if the variable begins or
              ends  with  a  colon,  or  contains  adjacent colons) is
              interpreted as the system location /etc/terminfo.

          +o   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

              +o   a list of directories (no default value), and

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

              +o   the system terminfo  directory,  /etc/terminfo  (the
                  compiled-in default).

        Preparing Descriptions

          We now outline how to  prepare  descriptions  of  terminals.
          The  most effective way to prepare a terminal description is
          by imitating  the  description  of  a  similar  terminal  in
          terminfo
          and to build  up  a  description  gradually,  using  partial
          descriptions  with  vi or some other screen-oriented program
          to check that they  are  correct.   Be  aware  that  a  very
          unusual  terminal  may expose deficiencies in the ability of
          the terminfo file to describe it  or  bugs  in  the  screen-
          handling code of the test program.

          To get the padding for insert line right  (if  the  terminal
          manufacturer did not document it) a severe test is to edit a
          large file at 9600 baud, delete 16 or so lines from the mid-
          dle  of  the  screen,  then  hit the ``u'' key several times
          quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding is usually
          needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

        Basic Capabilities

          The number of columns on each line for the terminal is given
          by  the  cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT,
          then the number of lines on the screen is given by the lines
          capability.   If  the terminal wraps around to the beginning
          of the next line when it reaches the right margin,  then  it
          should  have  the  am capability.  If the terminal can clear
          its screen, leaving the cursor in the  home  position,  then
          this is given by the clear string capability.  If the termi-
          nal overstrikes (rather than  clearing  a  position  when  a
          character  is  struck over) then it should have the os capa-
          bility.  If the terminal is a  printing  terminal,  with  no
          soft copy unit, give it both hc
          and os.  (os applies to storage  scope  terminals,  such  as
          TEKTRONIX  4010  series, as well as hard copy and APL termi-
          nals.)  If there is a code to move the cursor  to  the  left
          edge  of  the  current row, give this as cr.  (Normally this
          will be carriage return, control/M.)  If there is a code  to
          produce  an  audible  signal  (bell, beep, etc) give this as
          bel.

          If there is a code to move the cursor one  position  to  the
          left  (such as backspace) that capability should be given as
          cub1.  Similarly, codes to move to the right, up,  and  down
          should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and cud1.  These local cursor
          motions should not alter the text they pass over, for  exam-
          ple, you would not normally use ``cuf1= '' because the space
          would erase the character moved over.

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          A very important point here is that the local cursor motions
          encoded  in terminfo are undefined at the left and top edges
          of a CRT terminal.  Programs should never attempt  to  back-
          space  around  the  left edge, unless bw is given, and never
          attempt to go up locally off the top.  In  order  to  scroll
          text  up, a program will go to the bottom left corner of the
          screen and send the ind (index) string.

          To scroll text down, a program goes to the top  left  corner
          of  the screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The
          strings ind and ri are undefined when not on  their  respec-
          tive corners of the screen.

          Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences  are  indn
          and  rin  which have the same semantics as ind and ri except
          that they take one parameter, and scroll  that  many  lines.
          They  are  also  undefined except at the appropriate edge of
          the screen.

          The am capability tells whether the  cursor  sticks  at  the
          right  edge of the screen when text is output, but this does
          not necessarily apply to a cuf1 from the last  column.   The
          only  local motion which is defined from the left edge is if
          bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge will move to the
          right  edge  of  the  previous row.  If bw is not given, the
          effect is undefined.  This  is  useful  for  drawing  a  box
          around the edge of the screen, for example.  If the terminal
          has switch selectable automatic margins, the  terminfo  file
          usually  assumes that this is on; i.e., am.  If the terminal
          has a command which moves to the first column  of  the  next
          line,  that  command can be given as nel (newline).  It does
          not matter if the command clears the remainder of  the  cur-
          rent  line, so if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still
          be possible to craft a working nel out of  one  or  both  of
          them.

          These  capabilities  suffice  to  describe   hard-copy   and
          ``glass-tty''  terminals.   Thus  the  model  33 teletype is
          described as

          33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
                  bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

          while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

          adm3|3|lsi adm3,
                  am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
                  ind=^J, lines#24,

        Parameterized Strings

          Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters  in

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          the  terminal  are described by a parameterized string capa-
          bility, with printf-like escapes such  as  %x  in  it.   For
          example, to address the cursor, the cup
          capability is given, using two parameters: the row and  col-
          umn to address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero
          and refer to the physical screen visible to the user, not to
          any  unseen  memory.)   If  the terminal has memory relative
          cursor addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

          The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes  to
          manipulate  it.   Typically  a sequence will push one of the
          parameters onto the stack and then print it in some  format.
          Print  (e.g.,  "%d")  is  a special case.  Other operations,
          including "%t" pop their operand  from  the  stack.   It  is
          noted  that  more  complex  operations  are often necessary,
          e.g., in the sgr string.

          The % encodings have the following meanings:

          %%   outputs ``%''

          %[[:]flags][width[.precision]][doxXs]
               as in printf(3), flags are  [-+#]  and  space.   Use  a
               ``:''  to  allow the next character to be a ``-'' flag,
               avoiding interpreting ``%-'' as an operator.

          %c   print pop() like %c in printf

          %s   print pop() like %s in printf

          %p[1-9]
               push i'th parameter

          %P[a-z]
               set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

          %g[a-z]/
               get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

          %P[A-Z]
               set static variable [a-z] to pop()

          %g[A-Z]
               get static variable [a-z] and push it

               The terms ``static'' and  ``dynamic''  are  misleading.
               Historically,  these  are  simply two different sets of
               variables, whose values are not reset between calls  to
               tparm(3X).   However,  that  fact  is not documented in
               other implementations.  Relying on  it  will  adversely
               impact portability to other implementations.

     Page 22                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          %'c' char constant c

          %{nn}
               integer constant nn

          %l   push strlen(pop)

          %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
               arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

          %&, %|, %^
               bit operations (AND, OR and  exclusive-OR):  push(pop()
               op pop())

          %=, %>, %<
               logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

          %A, %O
               logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

          %!, %~
               unary operations (logical and bit complement):  push(op
               pop())

          %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

          %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
               This  forms  an  if-then-else.   The  %e  elsepart   is
               optional.  Usually the %? expr part pushes a value onto
               the stack, and %t pops it from the stack, testing if it
               is  nonzero  (true).   If  it  is zero (false), control
               passes to the %e (else) part.

               It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
               %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

               where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

               Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see  the  struc-
               ture of if-then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be
               very complicated when written  on  one  line.   The  -f
               option  splits  the  string  into  lines with the parts
               indented.

          Binary operations are in postfix form with the  operands  in
          the  usual  order.   That  is,  to  get  x-5  one  would use
          "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and  %g  variables  are  persistent  across
          escape-string evaluations.

          Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and  column  12,
          needs to be sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note
          that the order of the rows and columns is inverted here, and

     Page 23                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          that the row and column are printed as two digits.  Thus its
          cup capability is ``cup=6\E&%p2%2dc%p1%2dY''.

          The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and  column  sent
          preceded  by a ^T, with the row and column simply encoded in
          binary, ``cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c''.  Terminals  which  use  ``%c''
          need  to be able to backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move
          the cursor up one line on the screen (cuu1).  This is neces-
          sary because it is not always safe to transmit \n ^D and \r,
          as the system may change or discard them.  (The library rou-
          tines  dealing  with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are
          never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be
          essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

          A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column
          offset  by a blank character, thus ``cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%'
          '%+%c''.  After  sending  ``\E='',  this  pushes  the  first
          parameter,  pushes  the  ASCII  value for a space (32), adds
          them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two  pre-
          vious  values)  and outputs that value as a character.  Then
          the same is done for the  second  parameter.   More  complex
          arithmetic is possible using the stack.

        Cursor Motions

          If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor  (to  very
          upper left corner of screen) then this can be given as home;
          similarly a fast way of getting to the lower left-hand  cor-
          ner  can be given as ll; this may involve going up with cuu1
          from the home position, but a program should never  do  this
          itself  (unless  ll  does) because it can make no assumption
          about the effect of moving up from the home position.   Note
          that  the  home position is the same as addressing to (0,0):
          to the top left corner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus,
          the \EH sequence on HP terminals cannot be used for home.)

          If the terminal has row or column absolute  cursor  address-
          ing, these can be given as single parameter capabilities hpa
          (horizontal position absolute) and  vpa  (vertical  position
          absolute).   Sometimes  these are shorter than the more gen-
          eral two parameter sequence (as with the hp2645) and can  be
          used in preference to cup.  If there are parameterized local
          motions (e.g., move n spaces to  the  right)  these  can  be
          given  as  cud,  cub,  cuf,  and cuu with a single parameter
          indicating how many spaces to  move.   These  are  primarily
          useful  if  the terminal does not have cup, such as the TEK-
          TRONIX 4025.

          If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a
          program that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and
          exit this mode can  be  given  as  smcup  and  rmcup.   This
          arises,  for  example,  from terminals like the Concept with

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          more than one page of memory.  If the terminal has only mem-
          ory  relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
          sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into
          the  terminal  for cursor addressing to work properly.  This
          is also used for the TEKTRONIX 4025, where  smcup  sets  the
          command  character  to  be the one used by terminfo.  If the
          smcup sequence will not restore the screen  after  an  rmcup
          sequence is output (to the state prior to outputting rmcup),
          specify nrrmc.

        Area Clears

          If the terminal can clear from the current position  to  the
          end of the line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should
          be given as el.  If the terminal can clear from  the  begin-
          ning  of the line to the current position inclusive, leaving
          the cursor where it is, this should be given as el1.  If the
          terminal  can  clear from the current position to the end of
          the display, then this should be given as ed.   Ed  is  only
          defined  from  the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be
          simulated by a request to delete a large number of lines, if
          a true ed
          is not available.)

        Insert/delete line and vertical motions

          If the terminal can open a new blank line  before  the  line
          where  the  cursor  is, this should be given as il1; this is
          done only from the first position of  a  line.   The  cursor
          must  then  appear on the newly blank line.  If the terminal
          can delete the line which the cursor is on, then this should
          be  given  as dl1; this is done only from the first position
          on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1
          and dl1 which take a single parameter and insert  or  delete
          that many lines can be given as il and dl.

          If the terminal has a settable scrolling  region  (like  the
          vt100) the command to set this can be described with the csr
          capability, which takes two parameters: the top  and  bottom
          lines  of  the  scrolling  region.   The cursor position is,
          alas, undefined after using this command.

          It is possible to get the effect of insert  or  delete  line
          using  csr  on a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save
          and restore cursor) commands may be useful for ensuring that
          your synthesized insert/delete string does not move the cur-
          sor.  (Note that the  ncurses(3NCURSES)  library  does  this
          synthesis   automatically,   so   you   need   not   compose
          insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

          Yet another way to construct insert and delete might  be  to
          use  a  combination  of  index  with the memory-lock feature

     Page 25                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          found on some terminals (like the  HP-700/90  series,  which
          however also has insert/delete).

          Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can  also
          be  done  using  ri  or ind on many terminals without a true
          insert/delete line, and is often faster  even  on  terminals
          with those features.

          The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should  be  set  if  each
          scrolling  window  is  effectively  a view port on a screen-
          sized canvas.  To test for this capability, create a  scrol-
          ling  region in the middle of the screen, write something to
          the bottom line, move the cursor to the top of  the  region,
          and  do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off
          the bottom of the region by the ri re-appears,  then  scrol-
          ling  is  non-destructive.   System  V and XSI Curses expect
          that ind, ri, indn, and rin will simulate destructive scrol-
          ling;  their  documentation  cautions  you not to define csr
          unless this is true.  This  curses  implementation  is  more
          liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndsrc
          is defined.

          If the terminal has the ability to define a window  as  part
          of  memory, which all commands affect, it should be given as
          the parameterized string wind.  The four parameters are  the
          starting  and  ending  lines  in memory and the starting and
          ending columns in memory, in that order.

          If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da
          capability  should  be  given;  if  display  memory  can  be
          retained below, then db should  be  given.   These  indicate
          that  deleting a line or scrolling may bring non-blank lines
          up from below or that scrolling back with ri may bring  down
          non-blank lines.

        Insert/Delete Character

          There are two basic  kinds  of  intelligent  terminals  with
          respect  to  insert/delete  character which can be described
          using terminfo.
          The most common insert/delete  character  operations  affect
          only the characters on the current line and shift characters
          off the end of the line rigidly.  Other terminals,  such  as
          the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer Owl, make a distinction
          between typed and untyped blanks  on  the  screen,  shifting
          upon  an  insert  or  delete only to an untyped blank on the
          screen which  is  either  eliminated,  or  expanded  to  two
          untyped blanks.

          You can determine the kind of terminal you have by  clearing
          the screen and then typing text separated by cursor motions.
          Type ``abc    def'' using local cursor motions (not  spaces)

     Page 26                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          between the ``abc'' and the ``def''.  Then position the cur-
          sor before the ``abc'' and put the terminal in insert  mode.
          If  typing  characters  causes the rest of the line to shift
          rigidly and characters to fall off the end, then your termi-
          nal  does  not  distinguish between blanks and untyped posi-
          tions.  If the ``abc'' shifts over to the ``def'' which then
          move  together  around  the end of the current line and onto
          the next as you insert, you have the second type  of  termi-
          nal,  and  should  give  the capability in, which stands for
          ``insert null''.

          While these are two logically separate attributes (one  line
          versus  multi-line  insert  mode,  and  special treatment of
          untyped spaces) we have seen no terminals whose insert  mode
          cannot be described with the single attribute.

          Terminfo can describe both terminals which  have  an  insert
          mode,  and  terminals which send a simple sequence to open a
          blank position on  the  current  line.   Give  as  smir  the
          sequence to get into insert mode.  Give as rmir the sequence
          to leave insert mode.  Now give as ich1 any sequence  needed
          to be sent just before sending the character to be inserted.
          Most terminals with a true insert mode will not  give  ich1;
          terminals  which  send  a sequence to open a screen position
          should give it here.

          If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable
          to  ich1.   Technically, you should not give both unless the
          terminal actually requires both to be used  in  combination.
          Accordingly,  some  non-curses  applications get confused if
          both are present; the symptom is doubled  characters  in  an
          update using insert.  This requirement is now rare; most ich
          sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert
          modes do not require ich1 before each character.  Therefore,
          the new curses actually assumes this is the  case  and  uses
          either  rmir/smir or ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).
          If you have to write an entry to be used  under  new  curses
          for  a  terminal  old  enough  to  need  both,  include  the
          rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

          If post insert padding is needed, give this as a  number  of
          milliseconds  in  ip  (a string option).  Any other sequence
          which may need to be sent after an insert of a single  char-
          acter  may also be given in ip.  If your terminal needs both
          to be placed into an ``insert mode'' and a special  code  to
          precede  each  inserted  character,  then both smir/rmir and
          ich1 can be given, and both will be used.  The ich  capabil-
          ity,  with one parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1
          n times.

          If padding is necessary between characters typed  while  not
          in  insert  mode,  give  this  as  a  number of milliseconds

     Page 27                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          padding in rmp.

          It is occasionally necessary to move around while in  insert
          mode  to  delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there
          is a tab after the insertion position).   If  your  terminal
          allows motion while in insert mode you can give the capabil-
          ity mir to speed up inserting in this  case.   Omitting  mir
          will   affect   only   speed.    Some   terminals   (notably
          Datamedia's) must not have mir  because  of  the  way  their
          insert mode works.

          Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single  character,
          dch  with  one  parameter,  n,  to  delete n characters, and
          delete mode by giving smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete
          mode  (any  mode the terminal needs to be placed in for dch1
          to work).

          A command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting  n
          blanks  without  moving the cursor) can be given as ech with
          one parameter.

        Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells

          If  your  terminal  has  one  or  more  kinds   of   display
          attributes,  these can be represented in a number of differ-
          ent ways.  You should choose one display  form  as  standout
          mode,  representing a good, high contrast, easy-on-the-eyes,
          format for highlighting error messages and  other  attention
          getters.   (If  you  have a choice, reverse video plus half-
          bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The  sequences  to
          enter  and  exit  standout  mode are given as smso and rmso,
          respectively.  If the code to change into or out of standout
          mode  leaves  one or even two blank spaces on the screen, as
          the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then xmc should be given to
          tell how many spaces are left.

          Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be  given
          as  smul  and rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code
          to underline the current character and move the  cursor  one
          space  to the right, such as the Microterm Mime, this can be
          given as uc.

          Other  capabilities  to  enter  various  highlighting  modes
          include blink
          (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright)  dim  (dim  or  half-
          bright)  invis (blanking or invisible text) prot (protected)
          rev (reverse video) sgr0  (turn  off  all  attribute  modes)
          smacs  (enter  alternate character set mode) and rmacs (exit
          alternate character set mode).   Turning  on  any  of  these
          modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

          If there is a sequence  to  set  arbitrary  combinations  of

     Page 28                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          modes,  this should be given as sgr (set attributes), taking
          9 parameters.  Each parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the
          corresponding attribute is on or off.  The 9 parameters are,
          in order: standout, underline, reverse,  blink,  dim,  bold,
          blank, protect, alternate character set.  Not all modes need
          be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding sep-
          arate attribute commands exist.

          For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

          center;   l   l   l   l   l   l   lw18   lw14   l.     tparm
          parameter     attribute escape sequence

          none none \E[0m                     p1   standout  \E[0;1;7m
          p2   underline \E[0;4m                p3   reverse   \E[0;7m
          p4   blink     \E[0;5m        p5   dim  not        available
          p6   bold \E[0;1m  p7   invis     \E[0;8m p8   protect   not
          used p9   altcharset     ^O (off) ^N (on)

          We begin each escape sequence by turning  off  any  existing
          modes, since there is no quick way to determine whether they
          are active.  Standout is set up to  be  the  combination  of
          reverse  and  bold.   The vt220 terminal has a protect mode,
          though it is not commonly used in sgr  because  it  protects
          characters  on  the  screen  from  the host's erasures.  The
          altcharset mode also is different in that it is either ^O or
          ^N,  depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are
          turned on, the resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

          Some sequences are common to different modes.  For  example,
          ;7  is  output  when  either  p1  or p3 is true, that is, if
          either standout or reverse modes are turned on.

          Writing out the above sequences, along with their  dependen-
          cies yields

          center; l l  l  l  l  l  lw18  lw14  l.   sequence  when  to
          output terminfo translation

          \E[0 always    \E[0  ;1   if  p1  or  p6    %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
          ;4   if  p2     %?%p2%|%t;4%;  ;5   if  p4     %?%p4%|%t;5%;
          ;7   if     p1     or     p3    %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;     ;8   if
          p7     %?%p7%|%t;8%;  m    always    m  ^N  or ^O  if p9 ^N,
          else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

          Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:

              sgr=\E[0%?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;%?%p2%t;4%;%?%p4%t;5%;
                  %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;%?%p7%t;8%;m%?%p9%t\016%e\017%;,

          Remember that if you specify  sgr,  you  must  also  specify
          sgr0.  Also, some implementations rely on sgr being given if

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          sgr0 is, Not all terminfo entries necessarily  have  an  sgr
          string,  however.   Many  terminfo  entries are derived from
          termcap entries which have no sgr string.  The only drawback
          to  adding  an  sgr string is that termcap also assumes that
          sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

          Terminals with the ``magic  cookie''  glitch  (xmc)  deposit
          special   ``cookies''   when   they   receive   mode-setting
          sequences, which affect the display  algorithm  rather  than
          having  extra bits for each character.  Some terminals, such
          as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode when  they
          move  to  a  new  line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs
          using standout mode should exit standout mode before  moving
          the cursor or sending a newline, unless the msgr capability,
          asserting that it is safe to move in standout mode, is  pre-
          sent.

          If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate
          an error quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given
          as flash; it must not move the cursor.

          If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when
          it  is  not on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-
          blinking underline into an easier to find block or  blinking
          underline)  give  this sequence as cvvis.  If there is a way
          to make the cursor completely invisible, give that as civis.
          The  capability  cnorm  should  be  given  which  undoes the
          effects of both of these modes.

          If your terminal correctly generates  underlined  characters
          (with no special codes needed) even though it does not over-
          strike, then you should give the capability ul.  If a  char-
          acter  overstriking  another  leaves  both characters on the
          screen, specify the capability os.  If overstrikes are eras-
          able  with  a blank, then this should be indicated by giving
          eo.

        Keypad and Function Keys

          If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes  when  the
          keys  are pressed, this information can be given.  Note that
          it is not possible to handle terminals where the keypad only
          works  in local (this applies, for example, to the unshifted
          HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be set to transmit or  not
          transmit,  give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Otherwise the
          keypad is assumed to always transmit.

          The codes sent by the left arrow,  right  arrow,  up  arrow,
          down  arrow,  and  home  keys  can be given as kcub1, kcuf1,
          kcuu1, kcud1, and khome respectively.  If there are function
          keys  such  as  f0, f1, ..., f10, the codes they send can be
          given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If  these  keys  have  labels

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          other  than  the  default  f0 through f10, the labels can be
          given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

          The codes transmitted by certain other special keys  can  be
          given:

          +o   kll (home down),

          +o   kbs (backspace),

          +o   ktbc (clear all tabs),

          +o   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

          +o   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

          +o   kdch1 (delete character),

          +o   kdl1 (delete line),

          +o   krmir (exit insert mode),

          +o   kel (clear to end of line),

          +o   ked (clear to end of screen),

          +o   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

          +o   kil1 (insert line),

          +o   knp (next page),

          +o   kpp (previous page),

          +o   kind (scroll forward/down),

          +o   kri (scroll backward/up),

          +o   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

          In addition, if the keypad has  a  3  by  3  array  of  keys
          including  the  four  arrow keys, the other five keys can be
          given as ka1, ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3.  These keys are useful
          when the effects of a 3 by 3 directional pad are needed.

          Strings to program function keys  can  be  given  as  pfkey,
          pfloc, and pfx.  A string to program screen labels should be
          specified as pln.  Each of these strings takes  two  parame-
          ters:  the function key number to program (from 0 to 10) and
          the string to program it with.  Function key numbers out  of
          this  range  may program undefined keys in a terminal depen-
          dent manner.  The difference  between  the  capabilities  is

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          that  pfkey  causes pressing the given key to be the same as
          the user typing the given string; pfloc causes the string to
          be  executed  by  the  terminal in local; and pfx causes the
          string to be transmitted to the computer.

          The capabilities nlab, lw and lh define the number  of  pro-
          grammable  screen  labels  and  their  width and height.  If
          there are commands to turn the labels on and off, give  them
          in smln and rmln.  smln is normally output after one or more
          pln sequences to make sure that the change becomes visible.

        Tabs and Initialization

          A few capabilities are used only for tabs:

          +o   If the  terminal  has  hardware  tabs,  the  command  to
              advance to the next tab stop can be given as ht (usually
              control/I).

          +o   A ``back-tab'' command which moves leftward to the  pre-
              ceding tab stop can be given as cbt.

              By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that  tabs
              are  being  expanded  by  the computer rather than being
              sent to the terminal, programs should not use ht or  cbt
              even  if  they  are present, since the user may not have
              the tab stops properly set.

          +o   If the terminal has hardware tabs  which  are  initially
              set  every n spaces when the terminal is powered up, the
              numeric parameter it is given,  showing  the  number  of
              spaces the tabs are set to.

              The it capability is normally used by the  tset  command
              to  determine  whether  to set the mode for hardware tab
              expansion, and whether to set the  tab  stops.   If  the
              terminal has tab stops that can be saved in non-volatile
              memory, the terminfo description can  assume  that  they
              are properly set.

          Other capabilities include

          +o   is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings for the termi-
              nal,

          +o   iprog, the path name of a program to be run to  initial-
              ize the terminal,

          +o   and if, the name of a file containing  long  initializa-
              tion strings.

          These strings are expected to set the  terminal  into  modes

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          consistent  with the rest of the terminfo description.  They
          are normally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the
          tput  program,  each  time  the  user logs in.  They will be
          printed in the following order:

               run the program
                    iprog

               output
                    is1 and
                    is2

               set the margins using
                    mgc or
                    smglp and smgrp or
                    smgl and smgr

               set tabs using
                    tbc and hts

               print the file
                    if

               and finally output
                    is3.

          Most initialization is  done  with  is2.   Special  terminal
          modes  can  be set up without duplicating strings by putting
          the common sequences in is2 and special  cases  in  is1  and
          is3.

          A set of sequences that does a harder reset from  a  totally
          unknown  state  can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analo-
          gous to is1 , is2 , if and is3 respectively.  These  strings
          are  output by reset option of tput, or by the reset program
          (an alias of tset), which is used  when  the  terminal  gets
          into  a  wedged state.  Commands are normally placed in rs1,
          rs2 rs3 and rf only if they produce annoying effects on  the
          screen  and are not necessary when logging in.  For example,
          the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would  nor-
          mally  be  part  of is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of
          the screen and is not normally needed since the terminal  is
          usually already in 80-column mode.

          The reset program writes strings including iprog,  etc.,  in
          the same order as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead
          of is1, etc.  If any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset  capabil-
          ity  strings  are missing, the reset program falls back upon
          the corresponding initialization capability string.

          If there are commands to set and clear tab stops,  they  can
          be  given  as  tbc  (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          stop in the current column of every row).  If a more complex
          sequence  is needed to set the tabs than can be described by
          this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

          The tput reset command uses the same capability  strings  as
          the  reset  command,  although  the  two  programs (tput and
          reset) provide different command-line options.

          In practice, these terminfo capabilities are not often  used
          in  initialization of tabs (though they are required for the
          tabs program):

          +o   Almost all hardware terminals (at least those which sup-
              ported tabs) initialized those to every eight columns:

              The only exception was the AT&T 2300 series,  which  set
              tabs to every five columns.

          +o   In particular,  developers  of  the  hardware  terminals
              which  are  commonly  used as models for modern terminal
              emulators  provided  documentation  demonstrating   that
              eight columns were the standard.

          +o   Because of this, the  terminal  initialization  programs
              tput  and  tset  use  the  tbc  (clear_all_tabs) and hts
              (set_tab)  capabilities  directly  only  when   the   it
              (init_tabs)  capability  is  set  to  a value other than
              eight.

        Delays and Padding

          Many older  and  slower  terminals  do  not  support  either
          XON/XOFF  or  DTR handshaking, including hard copy terminals
          and some very archaic  CRTs  (including,  for  example,  DEC
          VT100s).  These may require padding characters after certain
          cursor motions and screen changes.

          If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for  flow  control
          (that  is,  it  automatically emits ^S back to the host when
          its input buffers are close to full), set xon.   This  capa-
          bility suppresses the emission of padding.  You can also set
          it for memory-mapped console devices effectively that do not
          have  a  speed  limit.   Padding information should still be
          included so that routines can make  better  decisions  about
          relative costs, but actual pad characters will not be trans-
          mitted.

          If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at
          baud  rates below the value of pb.  If the entry has no pad-
          ding baud rate, then whether padding is emitted  or  not  is
          completely controlled by xon.

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          If the terminal requires other than a null (zero)  character
          as  a  pad,  then  this can be given as pad.  Only the first
          character of the pad
          string is used.

        Status Lines     Some terminals have an extra ``status  line''
          which is not normally used by software (and thus not counted
          in the terminal's lines capability).

          The  simplest  case  is  a  status  line  which  is  cursor-
          addressable but not part of the main scrolling region on the
          screen; the Heathkit H19 has a status line of this kind,  as
          would a 24-line VT100 with a 23-line scrolling region set up
          on initialization.  This situation is indicated  by  the  hs
          capability.

          Some terminals with status lines need special  sequences  to
          access  the status line.  These may be expressed as a string
          with single parameter tsl which takes the cursor to a  given
          zero-origin  column  on the status line.  The capability fsl
          must return to the main-screen cursor positions  before  the
          last  tsl.   You  may  need to embed the string values of sc
          (save cursor) and rc (restore cursor)  in  tsl  and  fsl  to
          accomplish this.

          The status line is normally assumed to be the same width  as
          the width of the terminal.  If this is untrue, you can spec-
          ify it with the numeric capability wsl.

          A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified
          as dsl.

          The  boolean  capability   eslok   specifies   that   escape
          sequences, tabs, etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

          The ncurses implementation does not yet  use  any  of  these
          capabilities.   They  are  documented here in case they ever
          become important.

        Line Graphics

          Many terminals have  alternate  character  sets  useful  for
          forms-drawing.   Terminfo  and  curses have built-in support
          for most of the drawing characters supported by  the  VT100,
          with  some  characters  from  the  AT&T  4410v1 added.  This
          alternate character set may be specified by the  acsc  capa-
          bility.

          center; l l l l l l l l l l _ _ _ _ _ lw25 lw10 lw6  lw6  l.
          Glyph     ACS  Ascii     acsc acsc
          Name Name Default   Char Value        arrow         pointing
          right     ACS_RARROW     >    +    0x2b    arrow    pointing

     Page 35                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          left ACS_LARROW     <    ,    0x2c      arrow       pointing
          up   ACS_UARROW     ^    -    0x2d       arrow      pointing
          down ACS_DARROW     v    .    0x2e       solid        square
          block  ACS_BLOCK #    0    0x30                      diamond
              ACS_DIAMOND    +    `    0x60       checker        board
          (stipple)  ACS_CKBOARD    :    a    0x61    degree    symbol
              ACS_DEGREE     \    f    0x66                 plus/minus
              ACS_PLMINUS    #    g    0x67          board          of
          squares    ACS_BOARD #    h    0x68      lantern      symbol
              ACS_LANTERN    #    i    0x69         lower        right
          corner  ACS_LRCORNER   +    j    0x6a      upper       right
          corner  ACS_URCORNER   +    k    0x6b       upper       left
          corner   ACS_ULCORNER   +    l    0x6c      lower       left
          corner   ACS_LLCORNER   +    m    0x6d    large    plus   or
          crossover  ACS_PLUS  +    n    0x6e     scan     line      1
              ACS_S1     ~    o    0x6f  scan  line  3          ACS_S3
            -    p    0x70               horizontal               line
              ACS_HLINE -    q    0x71   scan  line  7          ACS_S7
            -    r    0x72     scan     line     9              ACS_S9
            _    s    0x73                 tee                pointing
          right  ACS_LTEE  +    t    0x74         tee         pointing
          left   ACS_RTEE  +    u    0x75      tee     pointing     up
              ACS_BTEE  +    v    0x76          tee           pointing
          down   ACS_TTEE  +    w    0x77         vertical        line
              ACS_VLINE |    x    0x78             less-than-or-equal-
          to    ACS_LEQUAL     <    y    0x79   greater-than-or-equal-
          to ACS_GEQUAL     >    z    0x7a          greek           pi
              ACS_PI    *    {    0x7b                       not-equal
              ACS_NEQUAL     !    |    0x7c     UK     pound      sign
              ACS_STERLING   f    }    0x7d                     bullet
              ACS_BULLET     o    ~    0x7e

          A few notes apply to the table itself:

          +o   X/Open Curses incorrectly states that  the  mapping  for
              lantern is uppercase ``I'' although Unix implementations
              use the lowercase ``i'' mapping.

          +o   The DEC VT100 implemented graphics using  the  alternate
              character  set  feature, temporarily switching modes and
              sending characters in the range 0x60 (96) to 0x7e  (126)
              (the acsc Value column in the table).

          +o   The AT&T terminal added graphics characters outside that
              range.

              Some of the characters within the range do not match the
              VT100;  presumably  they were used in the AT&T terminal:
              board of squares  replaces  the  VT100  newline  symbol,
              while  lantern  symbol  replaces  the VT100 vertical tab
              symbol.  The other VT100 symbols for control  characters
              (horizontal  tab, carriage return and line-feed) are not

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

              (re)used in curses.

          The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add
          a  column  to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving
          the  character  which  (when  emitted  between   smacs/rmacs
          switches)  will  be  rendered  as the corresponding graphic.
          Then read off the VT100/your terminal character pairs  right
          to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

        Color Handling

          The curses library functions init_pair and init_color manip-
          ulate  the  color  pairs  and color values discussed in this
          section (see curs_color(3X) for details on these and related
          functions).

          Most color terminals are either ``Tektronix-like'' or  ``HP-
          like'':

          +o   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N col-
              ors  (where  N is usually 8), and can set character-cell
              foreground and background characters independently, mix-
              ing them into N * N color-pairs.

          +o   On HP-like terminals, the user must set each color  pair
              up  separately  (foreground and background are not inde-
              pendently settable).  Up to M color-pairs may be set  up
              from  2*M  different  colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals
              are Tektronix-like.

          Some basic color capabilities are independent of  the  color
          method.   The  numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify
          the maximum numbers of colors and color-pairs  that  can  be
          displayed  simultaneously.   The  op  (original pair) string
          resets foreground and background  colors  to  their  default
          values for the terminal.  The oc string resets all colors or
          color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.   Some
          terminals  (including  many  PC  terminal  emulators)  erase
          screen areas with the current background color  rather  than
          the  power-up  default  background;  these  should  have the
          boolean capability bce.

          While the curses library works with color pairs  (reflecting
          the  inability  of  some devices to set foreground and back-
          ground colors independently), there are  separate  capabili-
          ties for setting these features:

          +o   To change the current foreground or background color  on
              a  Tektronix-type  terminal,  use  setaf (set ANSI fore-
              ground) and setab (set ANSI  background)  or  setf  (set
              foreground)  and  setb (set background).  These take one
              parameter, the color  number.   The  SVr4  documentation

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              describes only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says that "If
              the terminal supports ANSI escape sequences to set back-
              ground and foreground, they should be coded as setaf and
              setab, respectively.

          +o   If the terminal supports other escape sequences  to  set
              background  and foreground, they should be coded as setf
              and setb, respectively.  The vidputs and the refresh(3X)
              functions  use  the setaf and setab capabilities if they
              are defined.

          The setaf/setab and setf/setb  capabilities  take  a  single
          numeric  argument  each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab
          are portably defined as follows (the middle  column  is  the
          symbolic  #define  available in the header for the curses or
          ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware is  free  to  map
          these  as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal loca-
          tions in color space.

          center; l c c c l l n l.  Color     #define    Value     RGB
          black     COLOR_BLACK    0    0,             0,            0
          red  COLOR_RED      1    max,0,0
          green     COLOR_GREEN    2    0,max,0
          yellow    COLOR_YELLOW   3    max,max,0
          blue COLOR_BLUE     4    0,0,max
          magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA  5    max,0,max
          cyan COLOR_CYAN     6    0,max,max
          white     COLOR_WHITE    7    max,max,max

          The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond  to
          a  different  mapping,  i.e.,  center;  l  c  c  c  l l n l.
          Color     #define                              Value     RGB
          black     COLOR_BLACK    0    0,             0,            0
          blue COLOR_BLUE     1    0,0,max
          green     COLOR_GREEN    2    0,max,0
          cyan COLOR_CYAN     3    0,max,max
          red  COLOR_RED      4    max,0,0
          magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA  5    max,0,max
          yellow    COLOR_YELLOW   6    max,max,0
          white     COLOR_WHITE    7    max,max,max

          It is important to not confuse the two sets of  color  capa-
          bilities;  otherwise  red/blue  will  be interchanged on the
          display.

          On an HP-like terminal, use scp  with  a  color-pair  number
          parameter to set which color pair is current.

          Some terminals allow the color values to be modified:

          +o   On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may  be
              present to indicate that colors can be modified.  If so,

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              the initc capability will take a color number (0 to col-
              ors  -  1)and  three  more parameters which describe the
              color.  These three parameters default to  being  inter-
              preted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean
              capability hls is present, they are instead as HLS (Hue,
              Lightness,   Saturation)   indices.    The   ranges  are
              terminal-dependent.

          +o   On an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability  for
              changing a color-pair value.  It will take seven parame-
              ters; a color-pair number (0 to max_pairs - 1), and  two
              triples  describing first background and then foreground
              colors.  These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue)  or
              (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

          On some color terminals,  colors  collide  with  highlights.
          You  can  register these collisions with the ncv capability.
          This is a bit-mask of attributes not to be used when  colors
          are  enabled.  The correspondence with the attributes under-
          stood by curses is as follows:

          center;    l    l    l    l     lw20     lw2     lw10     l.
          Attribute Bit  Decimal   Set by A_STANDOUT     0    1    sgr
          A_UNDERLINE    1    2    sgr A_REVERSE 2    4    sgr A_BLINK
               3    8    sgr   A_DIM            4    16   sgr   A_BOLD
               5    32   sgr       A_INVIS               6    64   sgr
          A_PROTECT 7    128  sgr         A_ALTCHARSET   8    256  sgr
          A_HORIZONTAL   9    512  sgr1       A_LEFT    10   1024 sgr1
          A_LOW     11   2048 sgr1            A_RIGHT   12   4096 sgr1
          A_TOP     13   8192 sgr1  A_VERTICAL     14   16384     sgr1
          A_ITALIC  15   32768     sitm

          For  example,  on  many  IBM  PC  consoles,  the   underline
          attribute collides with the foreground color blue and is not
          available in color mode.  These should have an ncv  capabil-
          ity of 2.

          SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and
          optimizes the output in favor of colors.

        Miscellaneous      If the terminal requires other than a  null
          (zero)  character  as  a pad, then this can be given as pad.
          Only the first character of the pad string is used.  If  the
          terminal  does  not have a pad character, specify npc.  Note
          that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC  variable;
          though the application may set this value to something other
          than a null, ncurses will test npc first and  use  napms  if
          the terminal has no pad character.

          If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be
          indicated with hu
          (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This  is  primarily

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          useful  for  superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy termi-
          nals.  If a hard-copy terminal can eject to  the  next  page
          (form feed), give this as ff (usually control/L).

          If there is a command to repeat a given  character  a  given
          number of times (to save time transmitting a large number of
          identical characters) this can be indicated with the parame-
          terized string rep.  The first parameter is the character to
          be repeated and the second is the number of times to  repeat
          it.   Thus,  tparm(repeat_char,  'x',  10)  is  the  same as
          ``xxxxxxxxxx''.

          If the terminal has a settable command  character,  such  as
          the  TEKTRONIX  4025,  this  can be indicated with cmdch.  A
          prototype command character is chosen which is used  in  all
          capabilities.  This character is given in the cmdch capabil-
          ity to identify it.  The following convention  is  supported
          on  some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for
          a CC variable, and if found, all occurrences of  the  proto-
          type  character are replaced with the character in the envi-
          ronment variable.

          Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific  kind
          of  known  terminal,  such  as  switch,  dialup,  patch, and
          network, should include the gn (generic) capability so  that
          programs  can  complain that they do not know how to talk to
          the terminal.  (This capability does not  apply  to  virtual
          terminal  descriptions  for  which  the escape sequences are
          known.)

          If the terminal has a ``meta key'' which  acts  as  a  shift
          key,  setting the 8th bit of any character transmitted, this
          fact can be indicated with  km.   Otherwise,  software  will
          assume  that  the  8th  bit is parity and it will usually be
          cleared.  If strings exist to turn this ``meta mode'' on and
          off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

          If the terminal has more lines of memory than  will  fit  on
          the  screen  at  once,  the number of lines of memory can be
          indicated with lm.  A value of lm#0 indicates that the  num-
          ber of lines is not fixed, but that there is still more mem-
          ory than fits on the screen.

          If the terminal is one of those supported by the  UNIX  vir-
          tual  terminal protocol, the terminal number can be given as
          vt.

          Media copy strings which control an auxiliary  printer  con-
          nected  to  the terminal can be given as mc0: print the con-
          tents of the screen, mc4: turn off  the  printer,  and  mc5:
          turn  on the printer.  When the printer is on, all text sent
          to the  terminal  will  be  sent  to  the  printer.   It  is

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal
          screen when the printer is on.  A variation mc5p  takes  one
          parameter,  and leaves the printer on for as many characters
          as the value of the parameter, then turns the  printer  off.
          The  parameter  should  not exceed 255.  All text, including
          mc4, is transparently passed to the printer while an mc5p is
          in effect.

        Glitches and Braindamage

          Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow ``~'' characters  to
          be displayed should indicate hz.

          Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after  an  am
          wrap, such as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

          If el
          is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely  writ-
          ing normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

          Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over
          to blanks, should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the
          variable indicating this is now ``dest_tabs_magic_smso''; in
          older  versions, it was teleray_glitch.  This glitch is also
          taken to mean that it is not possible to position the cursor
          on top of a ``magic cookie'', that to erase standout mode it
          is instead necessary to use delete  and  insert  line.   The
          ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

          The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly  transmit
          the escape or control/C characters, has xsb, indicating that
          the f1 key is used for escape and f2 for  control/C.   (Only
          certain  Superbees have this problem, depending on the ROM.)
          Note that in older terminfo versions,  this  capability  was
          called ``beehive_glitch''; it is now ``no_esc_ctl_c''.

          Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by  adding
          more capabilities of the form xx.

        Pitfalls of Long Entries

          Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date,
          no  entry  has  even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-
          table maximum.  Unfortunately, the termcap translations  are
          much  more  strictly  limited  (to 1023 bytes), thus termcap
          translations of long terminfo entries can cause problems.

          The man pages for  4.3BSD  and  older  versions  of  tgetent
          instruct  the  user  to  allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the
          termcap entry.  The entry gets null-terminated by the  term-
          cap  library,  so  that  makes the maximum safe length for a
          termcap entry 1k-1 (1023)  bytes.   Depending  on  what  the

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          application  and  the  termcap  library being used does, and
          where in the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent  is
          searching for is, several bad things can happen.

          Some termcap libraries print a warning message  or  exit  if
          they  find an entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do
          not; others truncate the entries to 1023 bytes.  Some appli-
          cation  programs  allocate  more than the recommended 1K for
          the termcap entry; others do not.

          Each termcap entry has two important sizes  associated  with
          it:  before  ``tc''  expansion,  and after ``tc'' expansion.
          ``tc'' is the capability that tacks on another termcap entry
          to  the  end of the current one, to add on its capabilities.
          If a termcap entry does not use the ``tc'' capability,  then
          of course the two lengths are the same.

          The ``before tc expansion'' length  is  the  most  important
          one, because it affects more than just users of that partic-
          ular terminal.  This is the length of the entry as it exists
          in  /etc/termcap,  minus  the backslash-newline pairs, which
          tgetent strips out while reading it.  Some termcap libraries
          strip  off  the  final  newline, too (GNU termcap does not).
          Now suppose:

          +o   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes
              long,

          +o   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

          +o   and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1  and
              GNU)  reads  the  whole entry into the buffer, no matter
              what its length, to see if it is the entry it wants,

          +o   and tgetent is searching for a terminal type that either
              is the long entry, appears in the termcap file after the
              long entry, or does not appear in the file  at  all  (so
              that tgetent has to search the whole termcap file).

          Then tgetent will overwrite memory, perhaps its  stack,  and
          probably  core  dump  the program.  Programs like telnet are
          particularly vulnerable; modern telnets  pass  along  values
          like  the  terminal  type  automatically.   The  results are
          almost as undesirable with a  termcap  library,  like  SunOS
          4.1.3  and  Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages when it
          reads an overly long termcap entry.  If  a  termcap  library
          truncates  long  entries,  like  OSF/1  3.0, it is immune to
          dying here but will return incorrect data for the terminal.

          The ``after tc expansion'' length will have a similar effect
          to  the  above, but only for people who actually set TERM to
          that terminal type, since tgetent only does ``tc'' expansion

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     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          once  it  is found the terminal type it was looking for, not
          while searching.

          In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than  1023  bytes
          can  cause, on various combinations of termcap libraries and
          applications, a core dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.
          If it is too long even before ``tc'' expansion, it will have
          this effect even for users of some other terminal types  and
          users whose TERM variable does not have a termcap entry.

          When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the  ncurses  imple-
          mentation  of tic(1) issues warning messages when the pre-tc
          length of a termcap translation is too long.  The -c (check)
          option also checks resolved (after tc expansion) lengths.

        Binary Compatibility     It is not wise to count on  portabil-
          ity  of binary terminfo entries between commercial UNIX ver-
          sions.  The problem is that there are at least two  versions
          of terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX) which diverged from System
          V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabilities
          to the string table that (in the binary format) collide with
          System V and XSI Curses extensions.

     EXTENSIONS

          Searching for terminal descriptions in  $HOME/.terminfo  and
          TERMINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

          Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all previous to  SVr4,
          do  not  interpret  the  %A  and  %O  operators in parameter
          strings.

          SVr4/XPG4 do not  specify  whether  msgr  licenses  movement
          while  in  an  alternate-character-set mode (such modes may,
          among other things, map CR and NL to characters that do  not
          trigger  local motions).  The ncurses implementation ignores
          msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises the  possibility  that
          an  XPG4  implementation  making the opposite interpretation
          may need terminfo entries made  for  ncurses  to  have  msgr
          turned off.

          The ncurses library  handles  insert-character  and  insert-
          character modes in a slightly non-standard way to get better
          update efficiency.  See the Insert/Delete Character  subsec-
          tion above.

          The parameter substitutions for set_clock and  display_clock
          are not documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They
          are deduced from the documentation for the AT&T  505  termi-
          nal.

          Be careful assigning  the  kmous  capability.   The  ncurses

     Page 43                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)

     terminfo(5)                                           terminfo(5)

          library  wants to interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by ter-
          minals and emulators  like  xterm  that  can  return  mouse-
          tracking information in the keyboard-input stream.

          X/Open Curses does not mention italics.   Portable  applica-
          tions  must  assume that numeric capabilities are signed 16-
          bit values.  This includes the no_color_video (ncv) capabil-
          ity.   The 32768 mask value used for italics with ncv can be
          confused with an absent or cancelled ncv.  If italics should
          work with colors, then the ncv value must be specified, even
          if it is zero.

          Different commercial ports of terminfo  and  curses  support
          different  subsets  of  the XSI Curses standard and (in some
          cases) different extension sets.  Here is a  summary,  accu-
          rate as of October 1995:

          +o   SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all  SVr4  capa-
              bilities.

          +o   SGI -- Supports the  SVr4  set,  adds  one  undocumented
              extended string capability (set_pglen).

          +o   SVr1, Ultrix -- These support  a  restricted  subset  of
              terminfo  capabilities.  The booleans end with xon_xoff;
              the numerics with  width_status_line;  and  the  strings
              with prtr_non.

          +o   HP/UX -- Supports the SVr1  subset,  plus  the  SVr[234]
              numerics  num_labels,  label_height,  label_width,  plus
              function keys 11 through 63, plus  plab_norm,  label_on,
              and  label_off, plus some incompatible extensions in the
              string table.

          +o   AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function  keys  11
              through  63,  plus a number of incompatible string table
              extensions.

          +o   OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set  and  the  AIX  exten-
              sions.

     FILES

          /etc/terminfo/?/*        files containing terminal  descrip-
                                   tions

     SEE ALSO       tabs(1),  tic(1),  infocmp(1),  ncurses(3NCURSES),
          color(3NCURSES),    curses_variables(3NCURSES),   printf(3),
          term(5).  terminfo_variables(3NCURSES).  user_caps(5).

     AUTHORS      Zeyd  M.  Ben-Halim,  Eric  S.  Raymond,  Thomas  E.
          Dickey.  Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.

     Page 44                      Plan 9             (printed 5/24/22)