GITCREDENTIALS(7)         (08/17/2021)          GITCREDENTIALS(7)

     NAME
          gitcredentials - Providing usernames and passwords to Git

     SYNOPSIS
          git config credential.https://example.com.username myusername
          git config credential.helper "$helper $options"

     DESCRIPTION
          Git will sometimes need credentials from the user in order
          to perform operations; for example, it may need to ask for a
          username and password in order to access a remote repository
          over HTTP. This manual describes the mechanisms Git uses to
          request these credentials, as well as some features to avoid
          inputting these credentials repeatedly.

     REQUESTING CREDENTIALS
          Without any credential helpers defined, Git will try the
          following strategies to ask the user for usernames and
          passwords:

           1. If the GIT_ASKPASS environment variable is set, the
              program specified by the variable is invoked. A suitable
              prompt is provided to the program on the command line,
              and the usercqs input is read from its standard output.

           2. Otherwise, if the core.askPass configuration variable is
              set, its value is used as above.

           3. Otherwise, if the SSH_ASKPASS environment variable is
              set, its value is used as above.

           4. Otherwise, the user is prompted on the terminal.

     AVOIDING REPETITION
          It can be cumbersome to input the same credentials over and
          over. Git provides two methods to reduce this annoyance:

           1. Static configuration of usernames for a given
              authentication context.

           2. Credential helpers to cache or store passwords, or to
              interact with a system password wallet or keychain.

          The first is simple and appropriate if you do not have
          secure storage available for a password. It is generally
          configured by adding this to your config:

              [credential "https://example.com"]
                      username = me

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          Credential helpers, on the other hand, are external programs
          from which Git can request both usernames and passwords;
          they typically interface with secure storage provided by the
          OS or other programs.

          To use a helper, you must first select one to use. Git
          currently includes the following helpers:

          cache
              Cache credentials in memory for a short period of time.
              See git-credential-cache(1) for details.

          store
              Store credentials indefinitely on disk. See git-
              credential-store(1) for details.

          You may also have third-party helpers installed; search for
          credential-* in the output of git help -a, and consult the
          documentation of individual helpers. Once you have selected
          a helper, you can tell Git to use it by putting its name
          into the credential.helper variable.

           1. Find a helper.

                  $ git help -a | grep credential-
                  credential-foo

           2. Read its description.

                  $ git help credential-foo

           3. Tell Git to use it.

                  $ git config --global credential.helper foo

     CREDENTIAL CONTEXTS
          Git considers each credential to have a context defined by a
          URL. This context is used to look up context-specific
          configuration, and is passed to any helpers, which may use
          it as an index into secure storage.

          For instance, imagine we are accessing
          https://example.com/foo.git. When Git looks into a config
          file to see if a section matches this context, it will
          consider the two a match if the context is a more-specific
          subset of the pattern in the config file. For example, if
          you have this in your config file:

              [credential "https://example.com"]

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                      username = foo

          then we will match: both protocols are the same, both hosts
          are the same, and the "pattern" URL does not care about the
          path component at all. However, this context would not
          match:

              [credential "https://kernel.org"]
                      username = foo

          because the hostnames differ. Nor would it match
          foo.example.com; Git compares hostnames exactly, without
          considering whether two hosts are part of the same domain.
          Likewise, a config entry for http://example.com would not
          match: Git compares the protocols exactly. However, you may
          use wildcards in the domain name and other pattern matching
          techniques as with the http.<url>.* options.

          If the "pattern" URL does include a path component, then
          this too must match exactly: the context
          https://example.com/bar/baz.git will match a config entry
          for https://example.com/bar/baz.git (in addition to matching
          the config entry for https://example.com) but will not match
          a config entry for https://example.com/bar.

     CONFIGURATION OPTIONS
          Options for a credential context can be configured either in
          credential.* (which applies to all credentials), or
          credential.<url>.*, where <url> matches the context as
          described above.

          The following options are available in either location:

          helper
              The name of an external credential helper, and any
              associated options. If the helper name is not an
              absolute path, then the string git credential- is
              prepended. The resulting string is executed by the shell
              (so, for example, setting this to foo --option=bar will
              execute git credential-foo --option=bar via the shell.
              See the manual of specific helpers for examples of their
              use.

              If there are multiple instances of the credential.helper
              configuration variable, each helper will be tried in
              turn, and may provide a username, password, or nothing.
              Once Git has acquired both a username and a password, no
              more helpers will be tried.

              If credential.helper is configured to the empty string,

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              this resets the helper list to empty (so you may
              override a helper set by a lower-priority config file by
              configuring the empty-string helper, followed by
              whatever set of helpers you would like).

          username
              A default username, if one is not provided in the URL.

          useHttpPath
              By default, Git does not consider the "path" component
              of an http URL to be worth matching via external
              helpers. This means that a credential stored for
              https://example.com/foo.git will also be used for
              https://example.com/bar.git. If you do want to
              distinguish these cases, set this option to true.

     CUSTOM HELPERS
          You can write your own custom helpers to interface with any
          system in which you keep credentials.

          Credential helpers are programs executed by Git to fetch or
          save credentials from and to long-term storage (where
          "long-term" is simply longer than a single Git process;
          e.g., credentials may be stored in-memory for a few minutes,
          or indefinitely on disk).

          Each helper is specified by a single string in the
          configuration variable credential.helper (and others, see
          git-config(1)). The string is transformed by Git into a
          command to be executed using these rules:

           1. If the helper string begins with "!", it is considered a
              shell snippet, and everything after the "!" becomes the
              command.

           2. Otherwise, if the helper string begins with an absolute
              path, the verbatim helper string becomes the command.

           3. Otherwise, the string "git credential-" is prepended to
              the helper string, and the result becomes the command.

          The resulting command then has an "operation" argument
          appended to it (see below for details), and the result is
          executed by the shell.

          Here are some example specifications:

              # run "git credential-foo"
              [credential]
                      helper = foo

              # same as above, but pass an argument to the helper

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              [credential]
                      helper = "foo --bar=baz"

              # the arguments are parsed by the shell, so use shell
              # quoting if necessary
              [credential]
                      helper = "foo --bar='whitespace arg'"

              # you can also use an absolute path, which will not use the git wrapper
              [credential]
                      helper = "/path/to/my/helper --with-arguments"

              # or you can specify your own shell snippet
              [credential "https://example.com"]
                      username = your_user
                      helper = "!f() { test \"$1\" = get && echo \"password=$(cat $HOME/.secret)\"; }; f"

          Generally speaking, rule (3) above is the simplest for users
          to specify. Authors of credential helpers should make an
          effort to assist their users by naming their program
          "git-credential-$NAME", and putting it in the $PATH or
          $GIT_EXEC_PATH during installation, which will allow a user
          to enable it with git config credential.helper $NAME.

          When a helper is executed, it will have one "operation"
          argument appended to its command line, which is one of:

          get
              Return a matching credential, if any exists.

          store
              Store the credential, if applicable to the helper.

          erase
              Remove a matching credential, if any, from the helpercqs
              storage.

          The details of the credential will be provided on the
          helpercqs stdin stream. The exact format is the same as the
          input/output format of the git credential plumbing command
          (see the section INPUT/OUTPUT FORMAT in git-credential(1)
          for a detailed specification).

          For a get operation, the helper should produce a list of
          attributes on stdout in the same format (see git-
          credential(1) for common attributes). A helper is free to
          produce a subset, or even no values at all if it has nothing
          useful to provide. Any provided attributes will overwrite
          those already known about by Gitcqs credential subsystem.

          While it is possible to override all attributes, well

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          behaving helpers should refrain from doing so for any
          attribute other than username and password.

          If a helper outputs a quit attribute with a value of true or
          1, no further helpers will be consulted, nor will the user
          be prompted (if no credential has been provided, the
          operation will then fail).

          Similarly, no more helpers will be consulted once both
          username and password had been provided.

          For a store or erase operation, the helpercqs output is
          ignored.

          If a helper fails to perform the requested operation or
          needs to notify the user of a potential issue, it may write
          to stderr.

          If it does not support the requested operation (e.g., a
          read-only store), it should silently ignore the request.

          If a helper receives any other operation, it should silently
          ignore the request. This leaves room for future operations
          to be added (older helpers will just ignore the new
          requests).

     GIT
          Part of the git(1) suite

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