sane(7)                   (03 Jan 2020)                   sane(7)

          sane - Scanner Access Now Easy: API for accessing scanners

          SANE is an application programming interface (API) that pro-
          vides standardized access to any raster image scanner hard-
          ware. The standardized interface makes it possible to write
          just one driver for each scanner device instead of one
          driver for each scanner and application.

          While SANE is primarily targeted at a UNIX environment, the
          standard has been carefully designed to make it possible to
          implement the API on virtually any hardware or operating

          This manual page provides a summary of the information
          available about SANE.

          If you have trouble getting your scanner detected, read the
          PROBLEMS section.

          An application that uses the SANE interface is called a SANE
          frontend. A driver that implements the SANE interface is
          called a SANE backend. A meta backend provides some means to
          manage one or more other backends.

          The package sane-backends contains backends, documentation,
          networking support, and the command line frontend
          scanimage(1).  The frontends xscanimage(1), xcam(1), and
          scanadf(1) are included in the package sane-frontends.  Both
          packages can be downloaded from the SANE homepage
          (  Information about other
          frontends and backends can also be found on the SANE home-

          The following sections provide short descriptions and links
          to more information about several aspects of SANE. A name
          with a number in parenthesis (e.g.  sane-dll(5)) points to a
          manual page. In this case man 5 sane-dll will display the
          page. Entries like /usr/share/doc/libsane/README are refer-
          ences to text files that were copied to the SANE

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          documentation directory (/usr/share/doc/libsane/) during
          installation. Everything else is a URL to a resource on the

          SANE homepage
            Information on all aspects of SANE including a tutorial
            and a link to the SANE FAQ can be found on the SANE home-

          SANE device lists
            The SANE device lists contain information about the status
            of SANE support for a specific device. If your scanner is
            not listed there (either supported or unsupported), please
            contact us. See section HOW CAN YOU HELP SANE for details.
            There are lists for specific releases of SANE, for the
            current development version and a search engine:
            .}f The lists are also installed on your system at

          SANE mailing list
            There is a mailing list for the purpose of discussing the
            SANE standard and its implementations: sane-devel.
            Despite its name, the list is not only intended for devel-
            opers, but also for users. There are also some more lists
            for special topics. However, for users, sane-devel is the
            right list. How to subscribe and unsubscribe:

          SANE IRC channel
            The IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channel #sane can be found
            on the Freenode network ( It's for dis-
            cussing SANE problems, talking about development and gen-
            eral SANE related chatting. Before asking for help, please
            read the other documentation mentioned in this manual
            page. The channel's topic is also used for announcements
            of problems with SANE infrastructure (mailing lists, web
            server, etc.).

          Compiling and installing SANE
            Look at /usr/share/doc/libsane/README and the os-dependent
            README files for information about compiling and
            installing SANE.

          SCSI configuration
            For information about various systems and SCSI controllers
            see sane-scsi(5).

          USB configuration
            For information about USB configuration see sane-usb(5).

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            Command-line frontend. See scanimage(1).

            SANE network daemon that allows remote clients to access
            image acquisition devices available on the local host. See

            Command-line tool to find SCSI and USB scanners and deter-
            mine their UNIX device files. See sane-find-scanner(1).

          Also, have a look at the sane-frontends package (which
          includes xscanimage(1), xcam(1), and scanadf(1)) and the
          frontend information page at

            Supports Abaton flatbed scanners such as the Scan 300/GS
            (8bit, 256 levels of gray) and the Scan 300/S (black and
            white, untested). See sane-abaton(5) for details.

            Supports AGFA Focus scanners and the Siemens S9036
            (untested).  See sane-agfafocus(5) for details.

            Supports Apple flatbed scanners including the following
            scanners: AppleScanner, OneScanner and ColorOneScanner.
            See sane-apple(5) for details.

            Supports several Artec/Ultima SCSI flatbed scanners as
            well as the BlackWidow BW4800SP and the Plustek 19200S.
            See sane-artec(5) for details.

            Supports the Artec E+ 48U scanner and re-badged models
            like Tevion MD 9693, Medion MD 9693, Medion MD 9705 and
            Trust Easy Webscan 19200. See sane-artec_eplus48u(5) for

            Supports the Artec AS6E parallel port interface scanner.
            See sane-as6e(5) for details.

            Supports several Avision based scanners including the
            original Avision scanners (like AV 630, AV 620, ...) as

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            well as the HP ScanJet 53xx and 74xx series, Fujitsu Scan-
            Partner, some Mitsubishi and Minolta film-scanners.  See
            sane-avision(5) for details.

            Supports Bell+Howell Copiscan II series document scanners.
            See sane-bh(5) for details.

            Supports the CanoScan 300, CanoScan 600, and CanoScan
            2700F SCSI flatbed scanners. See sane-canon(5) for

            Supports the CanoScan 630u and 636u USB scanners.  See
            sane-canon630u(5) for details.

            Supports the Canon DR-Series ADF SCSI and USB scanners.
            See sane-canon_dr(5) for details.

            Supports the CanoScan LiDE 70 USB scanner. See
            sane-canon_lide70(5) for details.

            Supports the CanoScan FB330P, FB630P, N340P and N640P par-
            allel port scanners.  See sane-canon_pp(5) for details.

            Support for Corex Cardscan USB scanners. See
            sane-cardscan(5) for details.

          coolscan coolscan2 coolscan3
            Supports Nikon Coolscan film-scanners. See
            sane-coolscan(5), sane-coolscan2(5) and sane-coolscan3(5)
            for details.

            Supports Epson-based Fujitsu USB scanners. See
            sane-epjitsu(5) for details.

            Supports Epson SCSI, parallel port and USB flatbed scan-
            ners. See sane-epson(5) for details.

            Supports scanners through the eSCL protocol. See
            sane-escl(5) for details.

            Supports most Fujitsu SCSI and USB, flatbed and adf

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            scanners. See sane-fujitsu(5) for details.

            Supports several scanners based on the Genesys Logic
            GL646, GL841, GL843, GL847 and GL124 chips like the Medion
            6471 and Hewlett-Packard 2300c.
             See sane-genesys(5) for details.

            Supports scanners based on the Grandtech GT-6801 and GT-
            6816 chips like the Artec Ultima 2000 and several Mustek
            BearPaw CU and TA models. Some Genius, Lexmark, Medion,
            Packard Bell, Plustek, and Trust scanners are also sup-
            ported. See sane-gt68xx(5) for details.

            Supports Hewlett-Packard ScanJet scanners which utilize
            SCL (Scanner Control Language by HP). See sane-hp(5) for

            Supports the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 5S scanner. See
            sane-hpsj5s(5) for details.

            Supports the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 3500 series. See
            sane-hp3500(5) for details.

            Supports the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 3900 series. See
            sane-hp3900(5) for details.

            Supports the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 4200 series. See
            sane-hp4200(5) for details.

            Supports the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 54XXC series. See
            sane-hp5400(5) for details.

            Supports the Hewlett-Packard LaserJet M1005 scanner. See
            sane-hpljm1005(5) for details.

            Supports the Ricoh IS450 family of SCSI scanners. See
            sane-hs2p(5) for details.

            Supports some IBM and Ricoh SCSI scanners. See sane-ibm(5)
            for details.

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            Supports some large Kodak scanners. See sane-kodak(5) for

            Supports Kodak AiO printer/scanners. See sane-kodakaio(5)
            for details.

            Supports Panasonic KV-S102xC scanners. See sane-kvs1025(5)
            for details.

            Supports the LEO S3 and the Across FS-1130, which is a
            re-badged LEO FS-1130 scanner. See sane-leo(5) for

            Supports the Lexmark X1100 series of USB scanners. See
            sane-lexmark(5) for details.

            Supports the Mustek BearPaw 1200F USB flatbed scanner. See
            sane-ma1509(5) for details.

            Supports the KONICA MINOLTA magicolor 1690MF multi-
            function printer/scanner/fax. See sane-magicolor(5) for

            Supports some Panasonic KVSS high speed scanners. See
            sane-matsushita(5) for details.

            Supports "second generation" Microtek scanners with SCSI-1
            command set. See sane-microtek(5) for details.

            Supports some Microtek scanners with a SCSI-2 command set.
            See sane-microtek2(5) for details.

            Supports most Mustek SCSI flatbed scanners including the
            Paragon and ScanExpress series and the 600 II N and 600 II
            EP (non-SCSI). Some Trust scanners are also supported. See
            sane-mustek(5) for details.

            Supports Mustek parallel port flatbed scanners. See
            sane-mustek_pp(5) for details.

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            Supports some Mustek ScanExpress USB flatbed scanners. See
            sane-mustek_usb(5) for details.

            Supports scanners using the SQ113 chipset like the Mustek
            BearPaw 2448 TA Pro USB flatbed scanner. See
            sane-mustek_usb2(5) for details.

            Supports the NEC PC-IN500/4C SCSI scanner. See sane-nec(5)
            for details.

            Supports the Agfa Snapscan Touch and the HP ScanJet 3300c,
            3400c, and 4300c USB flatbed scanners. See sane-niash(5)
            for details.

            Supports the Primax PagePartner. See sane-p5(5) for

            Supports Pacific Image Electronics (PIE) and Devcom SCSI
            flatbed scanners. See sane-pie(5) for details.

            Supports Canon PIXMA MP series (multi-function devices),
            Canon imageCLASS series (laser devices), Canon MAXIFY
            series and some Canon CanoScan series. See sane-pixma(5)
            for details.

            Supports USB flatbed scanners that use the National Semi-
            conductor LM983[1/2/3] chipset aka Merlin. Scanners using
            this LM983x chips include some models from Plustek,
            KYE/Genius, Hewlett-Packard, Mustek, Umax, Epson, and
            Canon. See sane-plustek(5) for details.

            Supports Plustek parallel port flatbed scanners using the
            Plustek ASIC P96001, P96003, P98001 and P98003, which
            includes some models from Plustek, KYE/Genius, Primax. See
            sane-plustek_pp(5) for details.

            Supports the Ricoh flatbed scanners IS50 and IS60. See
            sane-ricoh(5) for details.

            Supports the Ricoh flatbed scanners: SG-3100SNw, SP-100SU,
            and SP-111SU. See sane-ricoh2(5) for details.

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            Supports Siemens 9036 flatbed scanners. See sane-s9036(5)
            for details.

            Supports the Sceptre S1200 flatbed scanner. See
            sane-sceptre(5) for details.

            Supports Sharp SCSI scanners. See sane-sharp(5) for

            Supports the Microtek ScanMaker 3600 USB scanner. See
            sane-sm3600(5) for details.

            Supports the Microtek ScanMaker 3840 USB scanner.  See
            sane-sm3840(5) for details.

            Supports AGFA SnapScan flatbed scanners including some
            which are rebadged to other brands. See sane-snapscan(5)
            for details.

            Supports the Fujitsu FCPA ScanPartner 15C flatbed scanner.
            See sane-sp15c(5) for details.

            Supports the Siemens ST400 and ST800. See sane-st400(5)
            for details.

            Supports Tamarack Artiscan flatbed scanners. See
            sane-tamarack(5) for details.

          teco1 teco2 teco3
            Supports some TECO scanners, usually sold under the Rel-
            isys, Trust, Primax, Piotech, Dextra names. See
            sane-teco1(5), sane-teco2(5) and sane-teco3(5) for

            Supports USB flatbed scanners based on Plustek's ASIC
            98003 (parallel-port ASIC) and a GeneSys Logics' USB-
            parport bridge chip like the Plustek OpticPro U(T)12. See
            sane-u12(5) for details.

            Supports UMAX-SCSI-scanners and some Linotype Hell SCSI-
            scanners. See sane-umax(5) for details.

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            Supports Umax parallel port flatbed scanners and the HP
            3200C. See sane-umax_pp(5) for details.

            Supports the UMAX Astra 1220U (USB) flatbed scanner (and
            also the UMAX Astra 2000U, sort of). See sane-umax1220u(5)
            for details.

            Supports multiple Samsung-based Samsung, Xerox, and Dell
            scanners. See sane-xerox_mfp(5) for details.

          Also, have a look at the backend information page at
          the list of projects in /usr/share/doc/libsane/PROJECTS.

            Supports the Kodak DC210 Digital Camera. See

            Supports the Kodak DC240 Digital Camera. See dc240(5).

            Supports Kodak DC20/DC25 Digital Cameras. See dc25(5).

            Supports the Polaroid Digital Microscope Camera. See

            Supports digital cameras supported by the gphoto2 library
            package.  (See for more information
            and a list of supported cameras.)  Gphoto2 supports over
            140 different camera models.  However, please note that
            more development and testing is needed before all of these
            cameras will be supported by SANE backend.  See

            Supports Connectix QuickCam cameras. See qcam(5).

            Supports webcams with a stv680 chip. See stv680(5) for

          Also, have a look at the backend information page at
          the list of projects in /usr/share/doc/libsane/PROJECTS.

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            Implements a SANE backend that provides access to an arbi-
            trary number of other SANE backends by dynamic loading.
            See sane-dll(5).

            The SANE network daemon saned(8) provides access to scan-
            ners located on different computers in connection with the
            net backend. See sane-net(5) and saned(8).

            PNM image reader pseudo-backend. The purpose of this back-
            end is primarily to aid in debugging of SANE frontends.
            See sane-pnm(5).

            Supports scanners that use the PINT (Pint Is Not Twain)
            device driver.  The PINT driver is being actively devel-
            oped on the OpenBSD platform, and has been ported to a few
            other *NIX-like operating systems. See sane-pint(5).

            Tests frontends and the SANE installation.  It provides
            test pictures and various test options. See sane-test(5).

            Provides generic access to video cameras and similar
            equipment using the V4L (Video for Linux) API. See

          Also, have a look at the backend information page at
          the list of projects in /usr/share/doc/libsane/PROJECTS.

          By default, all SANE backends (drivers) are loaded dynami-
          cally by the sane-dll meta backend. If you have any ques-
          tions about the dynamic loading, read sane-dll(5).  SANE
          frontends can also be linked to other backends directly by
          copying or linking a backend to in

          It's not hard to write a SANE backend. It can take some
          time, however. You should have basic knowledge of C and
          enough patience to work through the documentation and find
          out how your scanner works. Appended is a list of some docu-
          ments that help to write backends and frontends.

          The SANE standard defines the application programming

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          interface (API) that is used to communicate between fron-
          tends and backends. It can be found at

          There is some more information for programmers in
          /usr/share/doc/libsane/backend-writing.txt. Most of the
          internal SANE routines (sanei) are documented using doxygen:
 Before a new backend or
          frontend project is started, have a look at
          /usr/share/doc/libsane/PROJECTS for projects that are
          planned or not yet included into the SANE distribution and
          at our bug-tracking system:
          http://www.  .}f

          There are some links on how to find out about the protocol
          of a scanner:

          If you start writing a backend or frontend or any other part
          of SANE, please contact the sane-devel mailing list for
          coordination so that work is not duplicated.

               The backend configuration files.

               The static libraries implementing the backends.

               The shared libraries implementing the backends (present
               on systems that support dynamic loading).

               SANE documentation: The READMEs, text files for back-
               ends etc.

          If your device isn't found but you know that it is sup-
          ported, make sure that it is detected by your operating sys-
          tem. For SCSI and USB scanners, use the sane-find-scanner(1)
          utility.  It prints one line for each scanner it has
          detected and some comments (#).  If sane-find-scanner(1)
          finds your scanner only as root but not as normal user, the
          permissions for the device files are not adjusted correctly.
          If the scanner isn't found at all, the operating system
          hasn't detected it and may need some help. Depending on the
          type of your scanner, read sane-usb(5) or sane-scsi(5).  If
          your scanner (or other device) is not connected over the

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          SCSI bus or USB, read the backend's manual page for details
          on how to set it up.

          Is your scanner detected by the operating system but not by
          SANE?  Try scanimage -L. If the scanner is not found, check
          that the backend's name is mentioned in
          /etc/sane.d/dll.conf. Some backends are commented out by
          default. Remove the comment sign for your backend in this
          case. Also some backends aren't compiled at all if one of
          their prerequisites are missing. Examples include dc210,
          dc240, canon_pp, hpsj5s, gphoto2, pint, qcam, v4l, net,
          sm3600, snapscan, pnm. If you need one of these backends and
          it isn't available, read the build instructions in the
          README file and the individual manual pages of the backends.

          Another reason for not being detected by scanimage -L may be
          a missing or incorrect configuration in the backend's con-
          figuration file. While SANE tries to automatically find most
          scanners, some can't be setup correctly without the inter-
          vention of the administrator. Also on some operating systems
          auto-detection may not work. Check the backend's manual page
          for details.

          If your scanner is still not found, try setting the various
          environment variables that are available to assist in debug-
          ging.  The environment variables are documented in the rele-
          vant manual pages.  For example, to get the maximum amount
          of debug information when testing a Mustek SCSI scanner, set
          environment variables SANE_DEBUG_DLL, SANE_DEBUG_MUSTEK, and
          SANE_DEBUG_SANEI_SCSI to 128 and then invoke scanimage -L.
          The debug messages for the dll backend tell if the mustek
          backend was found and loaded at all. The mustek messages
          explain what the mustek backend is doing while the SCSI
          debugging shows the low level handling. If you can't find
          out what's going on by checking the messages carefully, con-
          tact the sane-devel mailing list for help (see REPORTING
          BUGS below).

          Now that your scanner is found by scanimage -L, try to do a
          scan: scanimage >image.pnm. This command starts a scan for
          the default scanner with default settings. All the available
          options are listed by running scanimage --help. If scanning
          aborts with an error message, turn on debugging as mentioned
          above. Maybe the configuration file needs some tuning, e.g.
          to setup the path to a firmware that is needed by some scan-
          ners. See the backend's manual page for details. If you
          can't find out what's wrong, contact sane-devel.

          To check that the SANE libraries are installed correctly you
          can use the test backend, even if you don't have a scanner
          or other SANE device:

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               scanimage -d test -T

          You should get a list of PASSed tests. You can do the same
          with your backend by changing "test" to your backend's name.

          So now scanning with scanimage(1) works and you want to use
          one of the graphical frontends like xsane(1), xscanimage(1),
          or quiteinsane(1) but those frontends don't detect your
          scanner? One reason may be that you installed two versions
          of SANE.  E.g. the version that was installed by your dis-
          tribution in /usr and one you installed from source in
          /usr/local/. Make sure that only one version is installed.
          Another possible reason is, that your system's dynamic
          loader can't find the SANE libraries. For Linux, make sure
          that /etc/ contains /usr/local/lib and does not
          contain /usr/local/lib/sane. See also the documentation of
          the frontends.

          We appreciate any help we can get. Please have a look at our
          web page about contributing to SANE:

          For reporting bugs or requesting new features, please use
          our bug-tracking system:
 You can also contact
          the author of your backend directly. Usually the email
          address can be found in the /usr/share/doc/libsane/AUTHORS
          file or the backend's manpage. For general discussion about
          SANE, please use the SANE mailing list sane-devel (see
 for details).

          saned(8), sane-find-scanner(1), scanimage(1),
          sane-abaton(5), sane-agfafocus(5), sane-apple(5),
          sane-artec(5), sane-artec_eplus48u(5), sane-as6e(5),
          sane-avision(5), sane-bh(5), sane-canon(5),
          sane-canon630u(5), sane-canon_dr(5), sane-canon_pp(5),
          sane-cardscan(5), sane-coolscan(5), sane-coolscan2(5),
          sane-coolscan3(5), sane-dc210(5), sane-dc240(5),
          sane-dc25(5), sane-dll(5), sane-dmc(5), sane-epson(5),
          sane-escl(5), sane-fujitsu(5), sane-genesys(5),
          sane-gphoto2(5), sane-gt68xx(5), sane-hp(5), sane-hpsj5s(5),
          sane-hp3500(5), sane-hp3900(5), sane-hp4200(5),
          sane-hp5400(5), sane-hpljm1005(5), sane-ibm(5),
          sane-kodak(5), sane-leo(5), sane-lexmark(5), sane-ma1509(5),
          sane-matsushita(5), sane-microtek2(5), sane-microtek(5),
          sane-mustek(5), sane-mustek_pp(5), sane-mustek_usb(5),
          sane-mustek_usb2(5), sane-nec(5), sane-net(5),
          sane-niash(5), sane-pie(5), sane-pint(5), sane-plustek(5),
          sane-plustek_pp(5), sane-pnm(5), sane-qcam(5),

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          sane-ricoh(5), sane-ricoh2(5), sane-s9036(5),
          sane-sceptre(5), sane-scsi(5), sane-sharp(5),
          sane-sm3600(5), sane-sm3840(5), sane-snapscan(5),
          sane-sp15c(5), sane-st400(5), sane-stv680(5),
          sane-tamarack(5), sane-teco1(5), sane-teco2(5),
          sane-teco3(5), sane-test(5), sane-u12(5), sane-umax1220u(5),
          sane-umax(5), sane-umax_pp(5), sane-usb(5), sane-v4l(5),

          David Mosberger-Tang and many many more (see
          /usr/share/doc/libsane/AUTHORS for details).  This man page
          was written by Henning Meier-Geinitz. Quite a lot of text
          was taken from the SANE standard, several man pages, and
          README files.

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