SOCKET(7)                 (2020-08-13)                  SOCKET(7)

          socket - Linux socket interface

          #include <sys/socket.h>

          sockfd = socket(int socket_family, int socket_type, int

          This manual page describes the Linux networking socket layer
          user interface.  The BSD compatible sockets are the uniform
          interface between the user process and the network protocol
          stacks in the kernel.  The protocol modules are grouped into
          protocol families such as AF_INET, AF_IPX, and AF_PACKET,
          and socket types such as SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_DGRAM.  See
          socket(2) for more information on families and types.

        Socket-layer functions
          These functions are used by the user process to send or
          receive packets and to do other socket operations.  For more
          information see their respective manual pages.

          socket(2) creates a socket, connect(2) connects a socket to
          a remote socket address, the bind(2) function binds a socket
          to a local socket address, listen(2) tells the socket that
          new connections shall be accepted, and accept(2) is used to
          get a new socket with a new incoming connection.
          socketpair(2) returns two connected anonymous sockets
          (implemented only for a few local families like AF_UNIX)

          send(2), sendto(2), and sendmsg(2) send data over a socket,
          and recv(2), recvfrom(2), recvmsg(2) receive data from a
          socket.  poll(2) and select(2) wait for arriving data or a
          readiness to send data.  In addition, the standard I/O oper-
          ations like write(2), writev(2), sendfile(2), read(2), and
          readv(2) can be used to read and write data.

          getsockname(2) returns the local socket address and
          getpeername(2) returns the remote socket address.
          getsockopt(2) and setsockopt(2) are used to set or get
          socket layer or protocol options.  ioctl(2) can be used to
          set or read some other options.

          close(2) is used to close a socket.  shutdown(2) closes
          parts of a full-duplex socket connection.

          Seeking, or calling pread(2) or pwrite(2) with a nonzero
          position is not supported on sockets.

          It is possible to do nonblocking I/O on sockets by setting

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          the O_NONBLOCK flag on a socket file descriptor using
          fcntl(2).  Then all operations that would block will (usu-
          ally) return with EAGAIN (operation should be retried
          later); connect(2) will return EINPROGRESS error.  The user
          can then wait for various events via poll(2) or select(2).
          tab(:) allbox; c s s l l l.  I/O events Event:Poll
          flag:Occurrence Read:POLLIN:T{ New data arrived.  T}
          Read:POLLIN:T{ A connection setup has been completed (for
          connection-oriented sockets) T} Read:POLLHUP:T{ A disconnec-
          tion request has been initiated by the other end.  T}
          Read:POLLHUP:T{ A connection is broken (only for
          connection-oriented protocols).  When the socket is written
          SIGPIPE is also sent.  T} Write:POLLOUT:T{ Socket has enough
          send buffer space for writing new data.  T} Read/Write:T{
          POLLIN |
          POLLOUT T}:T{ An outgoing connect(2) finished.  T}
          Read/Write:POLLERR:An asynchronous error occurred.
          Read/Write:POLLHUP:The other end has shut down one direc-
          tion.  Exception:POLLPRI:T{ Urgent data arrived.  SIGURG is
          sent then.  T}

          An alternative to poll(2) and select(2) is to let the kernel
          inform the application about events via a SIGIO signal.  For
          that the O_ASYNC flag must be set on a socket file descrip-
          tor via fcntl(2) and a valid signal handler for SIGIO must
          be installed via sigaction(2).  See the Signals discussion

        Socket address structures
          Each socket domain has its own format for socket addresses,
          with a domain-specific address structure.  Each of these
          structures begins with an integer "family" field (typed as
          sa_family_t) that indicates the type of the address struc-
          ture.  This allows the various system calls (e.g.,
          connect(2), bind(2), accept(2), getsockname(2),
          getpeername(2)), which are generic to all socket domains, to
          determine the domain of a particular socket address.

          To allow any type of socket address to be passed to inter-
          faces in the sockets API, the type struct sockaddr is
          defined.  The purpose of this type is purely to allow cast-
          ing of domain-specific socket address types to a "generic"
          type, so as to avoid compiler warnings about type mismatches
          in calls to the sockets API.

          In addition, the sockets API provides the data type struct
          sockaddr_storage. This type is suitable to accommodate all
          supported domain-specific socket address structures; it is
          large enough and is aligned properly.  (In particular, it is
          large enough to hold IPv6 socket addresses.)  The structure
          includes the following field, which can be used to identify
          the type of socket address actually stored in the structure:

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                  sa_family_t ss_family;

          The sockaddr_storage structure is useful in programs that
          must handle socket addresses in a generic way (e.g., pro-
          grams that must deal with both IPv4 and IPv6 socket

        Socket options
          The socket options listed below can be set by using
          setsockopt(2) and read with getsockopt(2) with the socket
          level set to SOL_SOCKET for all sockets.  Unless otherwise
          noted, optval is a pointer to an int.

               Returns a value indicating whether or not this socket
               has been marked to accept connections with listen(2).
               The value 0 indicates that this is not a listening
               socket, the value 1 indicates that this is a listening
               socket.  This socket option is read-only.

          SO_ATTACH_FILTER (since Linux 2.2), SO_ATTACH_BPF (since Linux
               Attach a classic BPF (SO_ATTACH_FILTER) or an extended
               BPF (SO_ATTACH_BPF) program to the socket for use as a
               filter of incoming packets.  A packet will be dropped
               if the filter program returns zero.  If the filter pro-
               gram returns a nonzero value which is less than the
               packet's data length, the packet will be truncated to
               the length returned.  If the value returned by the fil-
               ter is greater than or equal to the packet's data
               length, the packet is allowed to proceed unmodified.

               The argument for SO_ATTACH_FILTER is a sock_fprog
               structure, defined in <linux/filter.h>:

                   struct sock_fprog {
                       unsigned short      len;
                       struct sock_filter *filter;

               The argument for SO_ATTACH_BPF is a file descriptor
               returned by the bpf(2) system call and must refer to a
               program of type BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER.

               These options may be set multiple times for a given
               socket, each time replacing the previous filter pro-
               gram.  The classic and extended versions may be called
               on the same socket, but the previous filter will always
               be replaced such that a socket never has more than one
               filter defined.

               Both classic and extended BPF are explained in the

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               kernel source file Documentation/networking/filter.txt

               For use with the SO_REUSEPORT option, these options
               allow the user to set a classic BPF
               (SO_ATTACH_REUSEPORT_CBPF) or an extended BPF
               (SO_ATTACH_REUSEPORT_EBPF) program which defines how
               packets are assigned to the sockets in the reuseport
               group (that is, all sockets which have SO_REUSEPORT set
               and are using the same local address to receive pack-

               The BPF program must return an index between 0 and N-1
               representing the socket which should receive the packet
               (where N is the number of sockets in the group).  If
               the BPF program returns an invalid index, socket selec-
               tion will fall back to the plain SO_REUSEPORT mecha-

               Sockets are numbered in the order in which they are
               added to the group (that is, the order of bind(2) calls
               for UDP sockets or the order of listen(2) calls for TCP
               sockets).  New sockets added to a reuseport group will
               inherit the BPF program.  When a socket is removed from
               a reuseport group (via close(2)), the last socket in
               the group will be moved into the closed socket's posi-

               These options may be set repeatedly at any time on any
               socket in the group to replace the current BPF program
               used by all sockets in the group.

               SO_ATTACH_REUSEPORT_CBPF takes the same argument type
               the same argument type as SO_ATTACH_BPF.

               UDP support for this feature is available since Linux
               4.5; TCP support is available since Linux 4.6.

               Bind this socket to a particular device like lqeth0rq, as
               specified in the passed interface name.  If the name is
               an empty string or the option length is zero, the
               socket device binding is removed.  The passed option is
               a variable-length null-terminated interface name string
               with the maximum size of IFNAMSIZ.  If a socket is
               bound to an interface, only packets received from that
               particular interface are processed by the socket.  Note
               that this works only for some socket types, particu-
               larly AF_INET sockets.  It is not supported for packet
               sockets (use normal bind(2) there).

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               Before Linux 3.8, this socket option could be set, but
               could not retrieved with getsockopt(2).  Since Linux
               3.8, it is readable.  The optlen argument should con-
               tain the buffer size available to receive the device
               name and is recommended to be IFNAMSIZ bytes.  The real
               device name length is reported back in the optlen argu-

               Set or get the broadcast flag.  When enabled, datagram
               sockets are allowed to send packets to a broadcast
               address.  This option has no effect on stream-oriented

               Enable BSD bug-to-bug compatibility.  This is used by
               the UDP protocol module in Linux 2.0 and 2.2.  If
               enabled, ICMP errors received for a UDP socket will not
               be passed to the user program.  In later kernel ver-
               sions, support for this option has been phased out:
               Linux 2.4 silently ignores it, and Linux 2.6 generates
               a kernel warning (printk()) if a program uses this
               option.  Linux 2.0 also enabled BSD bug-to-bug compati-
               bility options (random header changing, skipping of the
               broadcast flag) for raw sockets with this option, but
               that was removed in Linux 2.2.

               Enable socket debugging.  Allowed only for processes
               with the CAP_NET_ADMIN capability or an effective user
               ID of 0.

          SO_DETACH_FILTER (since Linux 2.2), SO_DETACH_BPF (since Linux
               These two options, which are synonyms, may be used to
               remove the classic or extended BPF program attached to
               a socket with either SO_ATTACH_FILTER or SO_ATTACH_BPF.
               The option value is ignored.

          SO_DOMAIN (since Linux 2.6.32)
               Retrieves the socket domain as an integer, returning a
               value such as AF_INET6.  See socket(2) for details.
               This socket option is read-only.

               Get and clear the pending socket error.  This socket
               option is read-only.  Expects an integer.

               Don't send via a gateway, send only to directly con-
               nected hosts.  The same effect can be achieved by set-
               ting the MSG_DONTROUTE flag on a socket send(2)

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               operation.  Expects an integer boolean flag.

          SO_INCOMING_CPU (gettable since Linux 3.19, settable since Linux
               Sets or gets the CPU affinity of a socket.  Expects an
               integer flag.

                   int cpu = 1;
                   setsockopt(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_INCOMING_CPU, &cpu,

               Because all of the packets for a single stream (i.e.,
               all packets for the same 4-tuple) arrive on the single
               RX queue that is associated with a particular CPU, the
               typical use case is to employ one listening process per
               RX queue, with the incoming flow being handled by a
               listener on the same CPU that is handling the RX queue.
               This provides optimal NUMA behavior and keeps CPU
               caches hot.

          SO_INCOMING_NAPI_ID (gettable since Linux 4.12)
               Returns a system-level unique ID called NAPI ID that is
               associated with a RX queue on which the last packet
               associated with that socket is received.

               This can be used by an application to split the incom-
               ing flows among worker threads based on the RX queue on
               which the packets associated with the flows are
               received.  It allows each worker thread to be associ-
               ated with a NIC HW receive queue and service all the
               connection requests received on that RX queue.  This
               mapping between a app thread and a HW NIC queue stream-
               lines the flow of data from the NIC to the application.

               Enable sending of keep-alive messages on connection-
               oriented sockets.  Expects an integer boolean flag.

               Sets or gets the SO_LINGER option.  The argument is a
               linger structure.

                   struct linger {
                       int l_onoff;    /* linger active */
                       int l_linger;   /* how many seconds to linger for */

               When enabled, a close(2) or shutdown(2) will not return
               until all queued messages for the socket have been suc-
               cessfully sent or the linger timeout has been reached.
               Otherwise, the call returns immediately and the closing
               is done in the background.  When the socket is closed

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               as part of exit(2), it always lingers in the back-

               When set, this option will prevent changing the filters
               associated with the socket.  These filters include any
               set using the socket options SO_ATTACH_FILTER,

               The typical use case is for a privileged process to set
               up a raw socket (an operation that requires the
               CAP_NET_RAW capability), apply a restrictive filter,
               set the SO_LOCK_FILTER option, and then either drop its
               privileges or pass the socket file descriptor to an
               unprivileged process via a UNIX domain socket.

               Once the SO_LOCK_FILTER option has been enabled,
               attempts to change or remove the filter attached to a
               socket, or to disable the SO_LOCK_FILTER option will
               fail with the error EPERM.

          SO_MARK (since Linux 2.6.25)
               Set the mark for each packet sent through this socket
               (similar to the netfilter MARK target but socket-
               based).  Changing the mark can be used for mark-based
               routing without netfilter or for packet filtering.
               Setting this option requires the CAP_NET_ADMIN capabil-

               If this option is enabled, out-of-band data is directly
               placed into the receive data stream.  Otherwise, out-
               of-band data is passed only when the MSG_OOB flag is
               set during receiving.

               Enable or disable the receiving of the SCM_CREDENTIALS
               control message.  For more information see unix(7).

               Enable or disable the receiving of the SCM_SECURITY
               control message.  For more information see unix(7).

          SO_PEEK_OFF (since Linux 3.4)
               This option, which is currently supported only for
               unix(7) sockets, sets the value of the "peek offset"
               for the recv(2) system call when used with MSG_PEEK

               When this option is set to a negative value (it is set
               to -1 for all new sockets), traditional behavior is

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               provided: recv(2) with the MSG_PEEK flag will peek data
               from the front of the queue.

               When the option is set to a value greater than or equal
               to zero, then the next peek at data queued in the
               socket will occur at the byte offset specified by the
               option value.  At the same time, the "peek offset" will
               be incremented by the number of bytes that were peeked
               from the queue, so that a subsequent peek will return
               the next data in the queue.

               If data is removed from the front of the queue via a
               call to recv(2) (or similar) without the MSG_PEEK flag,
               the "peek offset" will be decreased by the number of
               bytes removed.  In other words, receiving data without
               the MSG_PEEK flag will cause the "peek offset" to be
               adjusted to maintain the correct relative position in
               the queued data, so that a subsequent peek will
               retrieve the data that would have been retrieved had
               the data not been removed.

               For datagram sockets, if the "peek offset" points to
               the middle of a packet, the data returned will be
               marked with the MSG_TRUNC flag.

               The following example serves to illustrate the use of
               SO_PEEK_OFF.  Suppose a stream socket has the following
               queued input data:


               The following sequence of recv(2) calls would have the
               effect noted in the comments:

                   int ov = 4;                  // Set peek offset to 4
                   setsockopt(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_PEEK_OFF, &ov, sizeof(ov));

                   recv(fd, buf, 2, MSG_PEEK);  // Peeks "cc"; offset set to 6
                   recv(fd, buf, 2, MSG_PEEK);  // Peeks "dd"; offset set to 8
                   recv(fd, buf, 2, 0);         // Reads "aa"; offset set to 6
                   recv(fd, buf, 2, MSG_PEEK);  // Peeks "ee"; offset set to 8

               Return the credentials of the peer process connected to
               this socket.  For further details, see unix(7).

          SO_PEERSEC (since Linux 2.6.2)
               Return the security context of the peer socket con-
               nected to this socket.  For further details, see
               unix(7) and ip(7).


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               Set the protocol-defined priority for all packets to be
               sent on this socket.  Linux uses this value to order
               the networking queues: packets with a higher priority
               may be processed first depending on the selected device
               queueing discipline.  Setting a priority outside the
               range 0 to 6 requires the CAP_NET_ADMIN capability.

          SO_PROTOCOL (since Linux 2.6.32)
               Retrieves the socket protocol as an integer, returning
               a value such as IPPROTO_SCTP.  See socket(2) for
               details.  This socket option is read-only.

               Sets or gets the maximum socket receive buffer in
               bytes.  The kernel doubles this value (to allow space
               for bookkeeping overhead) when it is set using
               setsockopt(2), and this doubled value is returned by
               getsockopt(2).  The default value is set by the
               /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default file, and the maximum
               allowed value is set by the /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max
               file.  The minimum (doubled) value for this option is

          SO_RCVBUFFORCE (since Linux 2.6.14)
               Using this socket option, a privileged (CAP_NET_ADMIN)
               process can perform the same task as SO_RCVBUF, but the
               rmem_max limit can be overridden.

               Specify the minimum number of bytes in the buffer until
               the socket layer will pass the data to the protocol
               (SO_SNDLOWAT) or the user on receiving (SO_RCVLOWAT).
               These two values are initialized to 1.  SO_SNDLOWAT is
               not changeable on Linux (setsockopt(2) fails with the
               error ENOPROTOOPT).  SO_RCVLOWAT is changeable only
               since Linux 2.4.

               Before Linux 2.6.28 select(2), poll(2), and epoll(7)
               did not respect the SO_RCVLOWAT setting on Linux, and
               indicated a socket as readable when even a single byte
               of data was available.  A subsequent read from the
               socket would then block until SO_RCVLOWAT bytes are
               available.  Since Linux 2.6.28, select(2), poll(2), and
               epoll(7) indicate a socket as readable only if at least
               SO_RCVLOWAT bytes are available.

               Specify the receiving or sending timeouts until report-
               ing an error.  The argument is a struct timeval. If an
               input or output function blocks for this period of
               time, and data has been sent or received, the return
               value of that function will be the amount of data

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               transferred; if no data has been transferred and the
               timeout has been reached, then -1 is returned with
               errno set to EAGAIN or EWOULDBLOCK, or EINPROGRESS (for
               connect(2)) just as if the socket was specified to be
               nonblocking.  If the timeout is set to zero (the
               default), then the operation will never timeout.  Time-
               outs only have effect for system calls that perform
               socket I/O (e.g., read(2), recvmsg(2), send(2),
               sendmsg(2)); timeouts have no effect for select(2),
               poll(2), epoll_wait(2), and so on.

               Indicates that the rules used in validating addresses
               supplied in a bind(2) call should allow reuse of local
               addresses.  For AF_INET sockets this means that a
               socket may bind, except when there is an active listen-
               ing socket bound to the address.  When the listening
               socket is bound to INADDR_ANY with a specific port then
               it is not possible to bind to this port for any local
               address.  Argument is an integer boolean flag.

          SO_REUSEPORT (since Linux 3.9)
               Permits multiple AF_INET or AF_INET6 sockets to be
               bound to an identical socket address.  This option must
               be set on each socket (including the first socket)
               prior to calling bind(2) on the socket.  To prevent
               port hijacking, all of the processes binding to the
               same address must have the same effective UID.  This
               option can be employed with both TCP and UDP sockets.

               For TCP sockets, this option allows accept(2) load dis-
               tribution in a multi-threaded server to be improved by
               using a distinct listener socket for each thread.  This
               provides improved load distribution as compared to tra-
               ditional techniques such using a single accept(2)ing
               thread that distributes connections, or having multiple
               threads that compete to accept(2) from the same socket.

               For UDP sockets, the use of this option can provide
               better distribution of incoming datagrams to multiple
               processes (or threads) as compared to the traditional
               technique of having multiple processes compete to
               receive datagrams on the same socket.

          SO_RXQ_OVFL (since Linux 2.6.33)
               Indicates that an unsigned 32-bit value ancillary mes-
               sage (cmsg) should be attached to received skbs indi-
               cating the number of packets dropped by the socket
               since its creation.

          SO_SELECT_ERR_QUEUE (since Linux 3.10)
               When this option is set on a socket, an error condition

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               on a socket causes notification not only via the
               exceptfds set of select(2).  Similarly, poll(2) also
               returns a POLLPRI whenever an POLLERR event is

               Background: this option was added when waking up on an
               error condition occurred only via the readfds and
               writefds sets of select(2).  The option was added to
               allow monitoring for error conditions via the exceptfds
               argument without simultaneously having to receive noti-
               fications (via readfds) for regular data that can be
               read from the socket.  After changes in Linux 4.16, the
               use of this flag to achieve the desired notifications
               is no longer necessary.  This option is nevertheless
               retained for backwards compatibility.

               Sets or gets the maximum socket send buffer in bytes.
               The kernel doubles this value (to allow space for book-
               keeping overhead) when it is set using setsockopt(2),
               and this doubled value is returned by getsockopt(2).
               The default value is set by the
               /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default file and the maximum
               allowed value is set by the /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max
               file.  The minimum (doubled) value for this option is

          SO_SNDBUFFORCE (since Linux 2.6.14)
               Using this socket option, a privileged (CAP_NET_ADMIN)
               process can perform the same task as SO_SNDBUF, but the
               wmem_max limit can be overridden.

               Enable or disable the receiving of the SO_TIMESTAMP
               control message.  The timestamp control message is sent
               with level SOL_SOCKET and a cmsg_type of SCM_TIMESTAMP.
               The cmsg_data field is a struct timeval indicating the
               reception time of the last packet passed to the user in
               this call.  See cmsg(3) for details on control mes-

          SO_TIMESTAMPNS (since Linux 2.6.22)
               Enable or disable the receiving of the SO_TIMESTAMPNS
               control message.  The timestamp control message is sent
               with level SOL_SOCKET and a cmsg_type of
               SCM_TIMESTAMPNS.  The cmsg_data field is a struct
               timespec indicating the reception time of the last
               packet passed to the user in this call.  The clock used
               for the timestamp is CLOCK_REALTIME.  See cmsg(3) for
               details on control messages.

               A socket cannot mix SO_TIMESTAMP and SO_TIMESTAMPNS:

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               the two modes are mutually exclusive.

               Gets the socket type as an integer (e.g., SOCK_STREAM).
               This socket option is read-only.

          SO_BUSY_POLL (since Linux 3.11)
               Sets the approximate time in microseconds to busy poll
               on a blocking receive when there is no data.  Increas-
               ing this value requires CAP_NET_ADMIN.  The default for
               this option is controlled by the
               /proc/sys/net/core/busy_read file.

               The value in the /proc/sys/net/core/busy_poll file
               determines how long select(2) and poll(2) will busy
               poll when they operate on sockets with SO_BUSY_POLL set
               and no events to report are found.

               In both cases, busy polling will only be done when the
               socket last received data from a network device that
               supports this option.

               While busy polling may improve latency of some applica-
               tions, care must be taken when using it since this will
               increase both CPU utilization and power usage.

          When writing onto a connection-oriented socket that has been
          shut down (by the local or the remote end) SIGPIPE is sent
          to the writing process and EPIPE is returned.  The signal is
          not sent when the write call specified the MSG_NOSIGNAL

          When requested with the FIOSETOWN fcntl(2) or SIOCSPGRP
          ioctl(2), SIGIO is sent when an I/O event occurs.  It is
          possible to use poll(2) or select(2) in the signal handler
          to find out which socket the event occurred on.  An alterna-
          tive (in Linux 2.2) is to set a real-time signal using the
          F_SETSIG fcntl(2); the handler of the real time signal will
          be called with the file descriptor in the si_fd field of its
          siginfo_t. See fcntl(2) for more information.

          Under some circumstances (e.g., multiple processes accessing
          a single socket), the condition that caused the SIGIO may
          have already disappeared when the process reacts to the sig-
          nal.  If this happens, the process should wait again because
          Linux will resend the signal later.

        /proc interfaces
          The core socket networking parameters can be accessed via
          files in the directory /proc/sys/net/core/.

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               contains the default setting in bytes of the socket
               receive buffer.

               contains the maximum socket receive buffer size in
               bytes which a user may set by using the SO_RCVBUF
               socket option.

               contains the default setting in bytes of the socket
               send buffer.

               contains the maximum socket send buffer size in bytes
               which a user may set by using the SO_SNDBUF socket

               configure the token bucket filter used to load limit
               warning messages caused by external network events.

               Maximum number of packets in the global input queue.

               Maximum length of ancillary data and user control data
               like the iovecs per socket.

          These operations can be accessed using ioctl(2):

              error = ioctl(ip_socket, ioctl_type,

               Return a struct timeval with the receive timestamp of
               the last packet passed to the user.  This is useful for
               accurate round trip time measurements.  See
               setitimer(2) for a description of struct timeval. This
               ioctl should be used only if the socket options
               SO_TIMESTAMP and SO_TIMESTAMPNS are not set on the
               socket.  Otherwise, it returns the timestamp of the
               last packet that was received while SO_TIMESTAMP and
               SO_TIMESTAMPNS were not set, or it fails if no such
               packet has been received, (i.e., ioctl(2) returns -1
               with errno set to ENOENT).

               Set the process or process group that is to receive
               SIGIO or SIGURG signals when I/O becomes possible or
               urgent data is available.  The argument is a pointer to
               a pid_t. For further details, see the description of

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               F_SETOWN in fcntl(2).

               Change the O_ASYNC flag to enable or disable asyn-
               chronous I/O mode of the socket.  Asynchronous I/O mode
               means that the SIGIO signal or the signal set with
               F_SETSIG is raised when a new I/O event occurs.

               Argument is an integer boolean flag.  (This operation
               is synonymous with the use of fcntl(2) to set the
               O_ASYNC flag.)

               Get the current process or process group that receives
               SIGIO or SIGURG signals, or 0 when none is set.

          Valid fcntl(2) operations:

               The same as the SIOCGPGRP ioctl(2).

               The same as the SIOCSPGRP ioctl(2).

          SO_BINDTODEVICE was introduced in Linux 2.0.30.  SO_PASSCRED
          is new in Linux 2.2.  The /proc interfaces were introduced
          in Linux 2.2.  SO_RCVTIMEO and SO_SNDTIMEO are supported
          since Linux 2.3.41.  Earlier, timeouts were fixed to a
          protocol-specific setting, and could not be read or written.

          Linux assumes that half of the send/receive buffer is used
          for internal kernel structures; thus the values in the cor-
          responding /proc files are twice what can be observed on the

          Linux will allow port reuse only with the SO_REUSEADDR
          option when this option was set both in the previous program
          that performed a bind(2) to the port and in the program that
          wants to reuse the port.  This differs from some implementa-
          tions (e.g., FreeBSD) where only the later program needs to
          set the SO_REUSEADDR option.  Typically this difference is
          invisible, since, for example, a server program is designed
          to always set this option.

          wireshark(1), bpf(2), connect(2), getsockopt(2),
          setsockopt(2), socket(2), pcap(3), address_families(7),
          capabilities(7), ddp(7), ip(7), ipv6(7), packet(7), tcp(7),
          udp(7), unix(7), tcpdump(8)

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     SOCKET(7)                 (2020-08-13)                  SOCKET(7)

          This page is part of release 5.10 of the Linux man-pages
          project.  A description of the project, information about
          reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be
          found at

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