ADDUSER(8)               (Version 3.118)               ADDUSER(8)

     NAME
          adduser, addgroup - add a user or group to the system

     SYNOPSIS
          adduser [options] [--home DIR] [--shell SHELL] [--no-
          create-home] [--uid ID] [--firstuid ID] [--lastuid ID]
          [--ingroup GROUP | --gid ID] [--disabled-password]
          [--disabled-login] [--gecos G

          adduser --system [options] [--home DIR] [--shell SHELL]
          [--no-create-home] [--uid ID] [--group | --ingroup GROUP |
          --gid ID] [--disabled-password] [--disabled-login] [--gecos
          GECOS] user

          addgroup [options] [--gid ID] group

          addgroup --system [options] [--gid ID] group

          adduser [options] user group

        COMMON OPTIONS
          [--quiet] [--debug] [--force-badname] [--help|-h] [--ver-
          sion] [--conf FILE]

     DESCRIPTION
          adduser and addgroup add users and groups to the system
          according to command line options and configuration informa-
          tion in /etc/adduser.conf. They are friendlier front ends to
          the low level tools like useradd, groupadd and usermod pro-
          grams, by default choosing Debian policy conformant UID and
          GID values, creating a home directory with skeletal configu-
          ration, running a custom script, and other features.
          adduser and addgroup can be run in one of five modes:

        Add a normal user
          If called with one non-option argument and without the
          --system or --group options, adduser will add a normal user.

          adduser will choose the first available UID from the range
          specified for normal users in the configuration file.  The
          UID can be overridden with the --uid option.

          The range specified in the configuration file may be over-
          ridden with the --firstuid and --lastuid options.

          By default, each user in Debian GNU/Linux is given a corre-
          sponding group with the same name.  Usergroups allow group
          writable directories to be easily maintained by placing the
          appropriate users in the new group, setting the set-group-ID
          bit in the directory, and ensuring that all users use a

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          umask of 002.  If this option is turned off by setting
          USERGROUPS to no, all users' GIDs are set to USERS_GID.
          Users' primary groups can also be overridden from the com-
          mand line with the --gid or --ingroup options to set the
          group by id or name, respectively.  Also, users can be added
          to one or more groups defined in adduser.conf either by set-
          ting ADD_EXTRA_GROUPS to 1 in adduser.conf, or by passing
          --add_extra_groups on the commandline.

          adduser will create a home directory subject to DHOME,
          GROUPHOMES, and LETTERHOMES.  The home directory can be
          overridden from the command line with the --home option, and
          the shell with the --shell option. The home directory's
          set-group-ID bit is set if USERGROUPS is yes so that any
          files created in the user's home directory will have the
          correct group.

          adduser will copy files from SKEL into the home directory
          and prompt for finger (gecos) information and a password.
          The gecos may also be set with the --gecos option.  With the
          --disabled-login option, the account will be created but
          will be disabled until a password is set. The
          --disabled-password option will not set a password, but
          login is still possible (for example with SSH RSA keys).

          If the file /usr/local/sbin/adduser.local exists, it will be
          executed after the user account has been set up in order to
          do any local setup.  The arguments passed to adduser.local
          are:
          username uid gid home-directory
          The environment variable VERBOSE is set according to the
          following rule:

          0 if --quiet is specified

          1 if neither
               --quiet nor --debug is specified

          2 if --debug is specified

               (The same applies to the variable DEBUG, but DEBUG is
               deprecated and will be removed in a later version of
               adduser.)

        Add a system user
          If called with one non-option argument and the --system
          option, adduser will add a system user. If a user with the
          same name already exists in the system uid range (or, if the
          uid is specified, if a user with that uid already exists),
          adduser will exit with a warning. This warning can be sup-
          pressed by adding --quiet.

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          adduser will choose the first available UID from the range
          specified for system users in the configuration file
          (FIRST_SYSTEM_UID and LAST_SYSTEM_UID). If you want to have
          a specific UID, you can specify it using the --uid option.

          By default, system users are placed in the nogroup group.
          To place the new system user in an already existing group,
          use the --gid or --ingroup options.  To place the new system
          user in a new group with the same ID, use the --group
          option.

          A home directory is created by the same rules as for normal
          users.  The new system user will have the shell
          /usr/sbin/nologin (unless overridden with the --shell
          option), and have logins disabled.  Skeletal configuration
          files are not copied.

        Add a user group
          If adduser is called with the --group option and without the
          --system option, or addgroup is called respectively, a user
          group will be added.

          A GID will be chosen from the range specified for system
          GIDS in the configuration file (FIRST_GID, LAST_GID). To
          override that mechanism you can give the GID using the --gid
          option.

          The group is created with no users.

        Add a system group
          If addgroup is called with the --system option, a system
          group will be added.

          A GID will be chosen from the range specified for system
          GIDS in the configuration file (FIRST_SYSTEM_GID,
          LAST_SYSTEM_GID). To override that mechanism you can give
          the GID using the --gid option.

          The group is created with no users.

        Add an existing user to an existing group
          If called with two non-option arguments, adduser will add an
          existing user to an existing group.

     OPTIONS
          --conf FILE
               Use FILE instead of /etc/adduser.conf.

          --disabled-login
               Do not run passwd to set the password.  The user won't
               be able to use her account until the password is set.

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          --disabled-password
               Like --disabled-login, but logins are still possible
               (for example using SSH RSA keys) but not using password
               authentication.

          --force-badname
               By default, user and group names are checked against
               the configurable regular expression NAME_REGEX speci-
               fied in the configuration file. This option forces
               adduser and addgroup to apply only a weak check for
               validity of the name.  NAME_REGEX is described in
               adduser.conf(5).

          --gecos GECOS
               Set the gecos field for the new entry generated.
               adduser will not ask for finger information if this
               option is given.

          --gid ID
               When creating a group, this option forces the new
               groupid to be the given number.  When creating a user,
               this option will put the user in that group.

          --group
               When combined with --system, a group with the same name
               and ID as the system user is created.  If not combined
               with --system, a group with the given name is created.
               This is the default action if the program is invoked as
               addgroup.

          --help
               Display brief instructions.

          --home DIR
               Use DIR as the user's home directory, rather than the
               default specified by the configuration file.  If the
               directory does not exist, it is created and skeleton
               files are copied.

          --shell SHELL
               Use SHELL as the user's login shell, rather than the
               default specified by the configuration file.

          --ingroup GROUP
               Add the new user to GROUP instead of a usergroup or the
               default group defined by USERS_GID in the configuration
               file.  This affects the users primary group.  To add
               additional groups, see the add_extra_groups option.

          --no-create-home
               Do not create the home directory, even if it doesn't
               exist.

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          --quiet
               Suppress informational messages, only show warnings and
               errors.

          --debug
               Be verbose, most useful if you want to nail down a
               problem with adduser.

          --system
               Create a system user or group.

          --uid ID
               Force the new userid to be the given number.  adduser
               will fail if the userid is already taken.

          --firstuid ID
               Override the first uid in the range that the uid is
               chosen from (overrides FIRST_UID specified in the con-
               figuration file).

          --lastuid ID
               Override the last uid in the range that the uid is cho-
               sen from ( LAST_UID )

          --add_extra_groups
               Add new user to extra groups defined in the configura-
               tion file.

          --version
               Display version and copyright information.

     EXIT VALUES
          0    The user exists as specified. This can have 2 causes:
               The user was created by adduser or the user was already
               present on the system before adduser was invoked. If
               adduser was returning 0 , invoking adduser a second
               time with the same parameters as before also returns 0.

          1    Creating the user or group failed because it was
               already present with other UID/GID than specified. The
               username or groupname was rejected because of a mis-
               match with the configured regular expressions, see
               adduser.conf(5). Adduser has been aborted by a signal.
               Or for many other yet undocumented reasons which are
               printed to console then. You may then consider to
               remove --quiet to make adduser more verbose.

     FILES
          /etc/adduser.conf
               Default configuration file for adduser and addgroup

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          /usr/local/sbin/adduser.local
               Optional custom add-ons.

     SEE ALSO
          adduser.conf(5), deluser(8), groupadd(8), useradd(8),
          usermod(8), Debian Policy 9.2.2.

     COPYRIGHT
          Copyright (C) 1997, 1998, 1999 Guy Maor. Modifications by
          Roland Bauerschmidt and Marc Haber. Additional patches by
          Joerg Hoh and Stephen Gran.
          Copyright (C) 1995 Ted Hajek, with a great deal borrowed
          from the original Debian adduser
          Copyright (C) 1994 Ian Murdock.  adduser is free software;
          see the GNU General Public Licence version 2 or later for
          copying conditions.  There is no warranty.

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