NEWUSERS(8)               (02/07/2020)                NEWUSERS(8)

     NAME
          newusers - update and create new users in batch

     SYNOPSIS
          newusers [options] [file]

     DESCRIPTION
          The newusers command reads a file (or the standard input by
          default) and uses this information to update a set of
          existing users or to create new users. Each line is in the
          same format as the standard password file (see passwd(5))
          with the exceptions explained below:

          pw_name:pw_passwd:pw_uid:pw_gid:pw_gecos:pw_dir:pw_shell

          pw_name
              This is the name of the user.

              It can be the name of a new user or the name of an
              existing user (or a user created before by newusers). In
              case of an existing user, the user's information will be
              changed, otherwise a new user will be created.

          pw_passwd
              This field will be encrypted and used as the new value
              of the encrypted password.

          pw_uid
              This field is used to define the UID of the user.

              If the field is empty, a new (unused) UID will be
              defined automatically by newusers.

              If this field contains a number, this number will be
              used as the UID.

              If this field contains the name of an existing user (or
              the name of a user created before by newusers), the UID
              of the specified user will be used.

              If the UID of an existing user is changed, the files
              ownership of the user's file should be fixed manually.

          pw_gid
              This field is used to define the primary group ID for
              the user.

              If this field contains the name of an existing group (or
              a group created before by newusers), the GID of this
              group will be used as the primary group ID for the user.

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              If this field is a number, this number will be used as
              the primary group ID of the user. If no groups exist
              with this GID, a new group will be created with this
              GID, and the name of the user.

              If this field is empty, a new group will be created with
              the name of the user and a GID will be automatically
              defined by newusers to be used as the primary group ID
              for the user and as the GID for the new group.

              If this field contains the name of a group which does
              not exist (and was not created before by newusers), a
              new group will be created with the specified name and a
              GID will be automatically defined by newusers to be used
              as the primary group ID for the user and GID for the new
              group.

          pw_gecos
              This field is copied in the GECOS field of the user.

          pw_dir
              This field is used to define the home directory of the
              user.

              If this field does not specify an existing directory,
              the specified directory is created, with ownership set
              to the user being created or updated and its primary
              group.

              If the home directory of an existing user is changed,
              newusers does not move or copy the content of the old
              directory to the new location. This should be done
              manually.

          pw_shell
              This field defines the shell of the user. No checks are
              performed on this field.

          newusers first tries to create or change all the specified
          users, and then write these changes to the user or group
          databases. If an error occurs (except in the final writes to
          the databases), no changes are committed to the databases.

          During this first pass, users are created with a locked
          password (and passwords are not changed for the users which
          are not created). A second pass is used to update the
          passwords using PAM. Failures to update a password are
          reported, but will not stop the other password updates.

          This command is intended to be used in a large system
          environment where many accounts are updated at a single
          time.

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     OPTIONS
          The options which apply to the newusers command are:

          --badname
              Allow names that do not conform to standards.

          -h, --help
              Display help message and exit.

          -r, --system
              Create a system account.

              System users will be created with no aging information
              in /etc/shadow, and their numeric identifiers are chosen
              in the SYS_UID_MIN-SYS_UID_MAX range, defined in
              login.defs, instead of UID_MIN-UID_MAX (and their GID
              counterparts for the creation of groups).

          -R, --root CHROOT_DIR
              Apply changes in the CHROOT_DIR directory and use the
              configuration files from the CHROOT_DIR directory.

     CAVEATS
          The input file must be protected since it contains
          unencrypted passwords.

     CONFIGURATION
          The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs
          change the behavior of this tool:

          GID_MAX (number), GID_MIN (number)
              Range of group IDs used for the creation of regular
              groups by useradd, groupadd, or newusers.

              The default value for GID_MIN (resp.  GID_MAX) is 1000
              (resp. 60000).

          HOME_MODE (number)
              The mode for new home directories. If not specified, the
              UMASK is used to create the mode.

              useradd and newusers use this to set the mode of the
              home directory they create.

          MAX_MEMBERS_PER_GROUP (number)
              Maximum members per group entry. When the maximum is
              reached, a new group entry (line) is started in
              /etc/group (with the same name, same password, and same
              GID).

              The default value is 0, meaning that there are no limits
              in the number of members in a group.

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              This feature (split group) permits to limit the length
              of lines in the group file. This is useful to make sure
              that lines for NIS groups are not larger than 1024
              characters.

              If you need to enforce such limit, you can use 25.

              Note: split groups may not be supported by all tools
              (even in the Shadow toolsuite). You should not use this
              variable unless you really need it.

          PASS_MAX_DAYS (number)
              The maximum number of days a password may be used. If
              the password is older than this, a password change will
              be forced. If not specified, -1 will be assumed (which
              disables the restriction).

          PASS_MIN_DAYS (number)
              The minimum number of days allowed between password
              changes. Any password changes attempted sooner than this
              will be rejected. If not specified, -1 will be assumed
              (which disables the restriction).

          PASS_WARN_AGE (number)
              The number of days warning given before a password
              expires. A zero means warning is given only upon the day
              of expiration, a negative value means no warning is
              given. If not specified, no warning will be provided.

          SUB_GID_MIN (number), SUB_GID_MAX (number), SUB_GID_COUNT
          (number)
              If /etc/subuid exists, the commands useradd and newusers
              (unless the user already have subordinate group IDs)
              allocate SUB_GID_COUNT unused group IDs from the range
              SUB_GID_MIN to SUB_GID_MAX for each new user.

              The default values for SUB_GID_MIN, SUB_GID_MAX,
              SUB_GID_COUNT are respectively 100000, 600100000 and
              65536.

          SUB_UID_MIN (number), SUB_UID_MAX (number), SUB_UID_COUNT
          (number)
              If /etc/subuid exists, the commands useradd and newusers
              (unless the user already have subordinate user IDs)
              allocate SUB_UID_COUNT unused user IDs from the range
              SUB_UID_MIN to SUB_UID_MAX for each new user.

              The default values for SUB_UID_MIN, SUB_UID_MAX,
              SUB_UID_COUNT are respectively 100000, 600100000 and
              65536.

          SYS_GID_MAX (number), SYS_GID_MIN (number)

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              Range of group IDs used for the creation of system
              groups by useradd, groupadd, or newusers.

              The default value for SYS_GID_MIN (resp.  SYS_GID_MAX)
              is 101 (resp.  GID_MIN-1).

          SYS_UID_MAX (number), SYS_UID_MIN (number)
              Range of user IDs used for the creation of system users
              by useradd or newusers.

              The default value for SYS_UID_MIN (resp.  SYS_UID_MAX)
              is 101 (resp.  UID_MIN-1).

          UID_MAX (number), UID_MIN (number)
              Range of user IDs used for the creation of regular users
              by useradd or newusers.

              The default value for UID_MIN (resp.  UID_MAX) is 1000
              (resp. 60000).

          UMASK (number)
              The file mode creation mask is initialized to this
              value. If not specified, the mask will be initialized to
              022.

              useradd and newusers use this mask to set the mode of
              the home directory they create if HOME_MODE is not set.

              It is also used by pam_umask as the default umask value.

     FILES
          /etc/passwd
              User account information.

          /etc/shadow
              Secure user account information.

          /etc/group
              Group account information.

          /etc/gshadow
              Secure group account information.

          /etc/login.defs
              Shadow password suite configuration.

          /etc/pam.d/newusers
              PAM configuration for newusers.

          /etc/subgid
              Per user subordinate group IDs.

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          /etc/subuid
              Per user subordinate user IDs.

     SEE ALSO
          login.defs(5), passwd(1), subgid(5), subuid(5), useradd(8).

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