NTFSCLONE(8)             (February 2013)             NTFSCLONE(8)

     NAME
          ntfsclone - Efficiently clone, image, restore or rescue an
          NTFS

     SYNOPSIS
          ntfsclone [OPTIONS] SOURCE
          ntfsclone --save-image [OPTIONS] SOURCE
          ntfsclone --restore-image [OPTIONS] SOURCE
          ntfsclone --metadata [OPTIONS] SOURCE

     DESCRIPTION
          ntfsclone will efficiently clone (copy, save, backup,
          restore) or rescue an NTFS filesystem to a sparse file,
          image, device (partition) or standard output.  It works at
          disk sector level and copies only the used data. Unused disk
          space becomes zero (cloning to sparse file), encoded with
          control codes (saving in special image format), left
          unchanged (cloning to a disk/partition) or filled with zeros
          (cloning to standard output).

          ntfsclone can be useful to make backups, an exact snapshot
          of an NTFS filesystem and restore it later on, or for devel-
          opers to test NTFS read/write functionality,
          troubleshoot/investigate users' issues using the clone with-
          out the risk of destroying the original filesystem.

          The clone, if not using the special image format, is an
          exact copy of the original NTFS filesystem from sector to
          sector thus it can be also mounted just like the original
          NTFS filesystem.  For example if you clone to a file and the
          kernel has loopback device and NTFS support then the file
          can be mounted as

               mount -t ntfs -o loop ntfsclone.img

        Windows Cloning
          If you want to copy, move or restore a system or boot parti-
          tion to another computer, or to a different disk or parti-
          tion (e.g. hda1->hda2, hda1->hdb1 or to a different disk
          sector offset) then you will need to take extra care.

          Usually, Windows will not be able to boot, unless you copy,
          move or restore NTFS to the same partition which starts at
          the same sector on the same type of disk having the same
          BIOS legacy cylinder setting as the original partition and
          disk had.

          The ntfsclone utility guarantees to make an exact copy of
          NTFS but it won't deal with booting issues. This is by

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          design: ntfsclone is a filesystem, not system utility. Its
          aim is only NTFS cloning, not Windows cloning. Hereby ntfs-
          clone can be used as a very fast and reliable build block
          for Windows cloning but itself it's not enough.

        Sparse Files
          A file is sparse if it has unallocated blocks (holes). The
          reported size of such files are always higher than the disk
          space consumed by them.  The du command can tell the real
          disk space used by a sparse file.  The holes are always read
          as zeros. All major Linux filesystem like, ext2, ext3, reis-
          erfs, Reiser4, JFS and XFS, supports sparse files but for
          example the ISO 9600 CD-ROM filesystem doesn't.

        Handling Large Sparse Files
          As of today Linux provides inadequate support for managing
          (tar, cp, gzip, gunzip, bzip2, bunzip2, cat, etc) large
          sparse files.  The only main Linux filesystem having support
          for efficient sparse file handling is XFS by the
          XFS_IOC_GETBMAPX ioctl(2).  However none of the common util-
          ities supports it.  This means when you tar, cp, gzip,
          bzip2, etc a large sparse file they will always read the
          entire file, even if you use the "sparse support" options.

          bzip2(1) compresses large sparse files much better than
          gzip(1) but it does so also much slower. Moreover neither of
          them handles large sparse files efficiently during uncom-
          pression from disk space usage point of view.

          At present the most efficient way, both speed and
          space-wise, to compress and uncompress large sparse files by
          common tools would be using tar(1) with the options -S (han-
          dle sparse files "efficiently") and -j (filter the archive
          through bzip2). Although tar still reads and analyses the
          entire file, it doesn't pass on the large data blocks having
          only zeros to filters and it also avoids writing large
          amount of zeros to the disk needlessly. But since tar can't
          create an archive from the standard input, you can't do this
          in-place by just reading ntfsclone standard output. Even
          more sadly, using the -S option results serious data loss
          since the end of 2004 and the GNU tar maintainers didn't
          release fixed versions until the present day.

        The Special Image Format
          It's also possible, actually it's recommended, to save an
          NTFS filesystem to a special image format.  Instead of rep-
          resenting unallocated blocks as holes, they are encoded
          using control codes. Thus, the image saves space without
          requiring sparse file support. The image format is ideal for
          streaming filesystem images over the network and similar,
          and can be used as a replacement for Ghost or Partition
          Image if it is combined with other tools. The downside is

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          that you can't mount the image directly, you need to restore
          it first.

          To save an image using the special image format, use the -s
          or the --save-image option. To restore an image, use the -r
          or the --restore-image option. Note that you can restore
          images from standard input by using '-' as the SOURCE file.

        Metadata-only Cloning
          One of the features of ntfsclone is that, it can also save
          only the NTFS metadata using the option -m or --metadata and
          the clone still will be mountable. In this case all
          non-metadata file content will be lost and reading them back
          will result always zeros.

          The metadata-only image can be compressed very well, usually
          to not more than 1-8 MB thus it's easy to transfer for
          investigation, troubleshooting.

          In this mode of ntfsclone, NONE of the user's data is saved,
          including the resident user's data embedded into metadata.
          All is filled with zeros.  Moreover all the file timestamps,
          deleted and unused spaces inside the metadata are filled
          with zeros. Thus this mode is inappropriate for example for
          forensic analyses.  This mode may be combined with
          --save-image to create a special image format file instead
          of a sparse file.

          Please note, filenames are not wiped out. They might contain
          sensitive information, so think twice before sending such an
          image to anybody.

     OPTIONS
          Below is a summary of all the options that ntfsclone
          accepts.  Nearly all options have two equivalent names.  The
          short name is preceded by - and the long name is preceded by
          -- . Any single letter options, that don't take an argument,
          can be combined into a single command, e.g.  -fv is equiva-
          lent to -f -v . Long named options can be abbreviated to any
          unique prefix of their name.

          -o, --output FILE
               Clone NTFS to the non-existent FILE. If FILE is '-'
               then clone to the standard output. This option cannot
               be used for creating a partition, use --overwrite for
               an existing partition.

          -O, --overwrite FILE
               Clone NTFS to FILE, which can be an existing partition
               or a regular file which will be overwritten if it
               exists.

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          -s, --save-image
               Save to the special image format. This is the most
               efficient way space and speed-wise if imaging is done
               to the standard output, e.g. for image compression,
               encryption or streaming through a network.

          -r, --restore-image
               Restore from the special image format specified by
               SOURCE argument. If the SOURCE is '-' then the image is
               read from the standard input.

          -n, --no-action
               Test the consistency of a saved image by simulating its
               restoring without writing anything. The NTFS data con-
               tained in the image is not tested.  The option
               --restore-image must also be present, and the options
               --output and --overwrite must be omitted.

          --rescue
               Ignore disk read errors so disks having bad sectors,
               e.g. dying disks, can be rescued the most efficiently
               way, with minimal stress on them. Ntfsclone works at
               the lowest, sector level in this mode too thus more
               data can be rescued.  The contents of the unreadable
               sectors are filled by character '?' and the beginning
               of such sectors are marked by "BadSectoR\0".

          -m, --metadata
               Clone ONLY METADATA (for NTFS experts). Only cloning to
               a (sparse) file is allowed, unless used the option
               --save-image is also used.  You can't metadata-only
               clone to a device.

          --ignore-fs-check
               Ignore the result of the filesystem consistency check.
               This option is allowed to be used only with the
               --metadata option, for the safety of user's data. The
               clusters which cause the inconsistency are saved too.

          -t, --preserve-timestamps
               Do not wipe the timestamps, to be used only with the
               --metadata option.

          --full-logfile
               Include the Windows log file in the copy. This is only
               useful for extracting metadata, saving or cloning a
               file system which was not properly unmounted from Win-
               dows.

          --new-serial, or

          --new-half-serial

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               Set a new random serial number to the clone. The serial
               number is a 64 bit number used to identify the device
               during the mounting process, so it has to be changed to
               enable the original file system and the clone to be
               mounted at the same time on the same computer.

               The option --new-half-serial only changes the upper
               part of the serial number, keeping the lower part which
               is used by Windows unchanged.

               The options --new-serial and --new-half-serial can only
               be used when cloning a file system of restoring from an
               image.

               The serial number is not the volume UUID used by Win-
               dows to locate files which have been moved to another
               volume.

          -f, --force
               Forces ntfsclone to proceed if the filesystem is marked
               "dirty" for consistency check.

          -q, --quiet
               Do not display any progress-bars during operation.

          -h, --help
               Show a list of options with a brief description of each
               one.

     EXIT CODES
          The exit code is 0 on success, non-zero otherwise.

     EXAMPLES
          Clone NTFS on /dev/hda1 to /dev/hdc1:

               ntfsclone --overwrite /dev/hdc1 /dev/hda1

          Save an NTFS to a file in the special image format:

               ntfsclone --save-image --output backup.img /dev/hda1

          Restore an NTFS from a special image file to its original
          partition:

               ntfsclone --restore-image --overwrite /dev/hda1
               backup.img

          Save an NTFS into a compressed image file:

               ntfsclone --save-image -o - /dev/hda1 |

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          Restore an NTFS volume from a compressed image file:

               gunzip -c backup.img.gz | \
               ntfsclone --restore-image --overwrite /dev/hda1 -

          Backup an NTFS volume to a remote host, using ssh. Please
          note, that ssh may ask for a password!

               ntfsclone --save-image --output - /dev/hda1 |
               gzip -c | ssh host 'cat

          Restore an NTFS volume from a remote host via ssh. Please
          note, that ssh may ask for a password!

               ssh host 'cat backup.img.gz' | gunzip
               ntfsclone --restore-image --overwrite /dev/hda1 -

          Stream an image file from a web server and restore it to a
          partition:

               wget -qO - http://server/backup.img | \
               ntfsclone --restore-image --overwrite /dev/hda1 -

          Clone an NTFS volume to a non-existent file:

               ntfsclone --output ntfs-clone.img /dev/hda1

          Pack NTFS metadata for NTFS experts. Please note that bzip2
          runs very long but results usually at least 10 times smaller
          archives than gzip on a sparse file.

               ntfsclone --metadata --output ntfsmeta.img /dev/hda1
               bzip2 ntfsmeta.img

               Or, outputting to a compressed image :
               ntfsclone -mst --output - /dev/hda1 |

          Unpacking NTFS metadata into a sparse file:

               bunzip2 -c ntfsmeta.img.bz2 | \
               cp --sparse=always /proc/self/fd/0 ntfsmeta.img

     KNOWN ISSUES
          There are no known problems with ntfsclone.  If you think
          you have found a problem then please send an email describ-
          ing it to the development team: ntfs-3g-devel@lists.sf.net

          Sometimes it might appear ntfsclone froze if the clone is on
          ReiserFS and even CTRL-C won't stop it. This is not a bug in
          ntfsclone, however it's due to ReiserFS being extremely in-
          efficient creating large sparse files and not handling sig-

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          nals during this operation. This ReiserFS problem was im-
          proved in kernel 2.4.22.  XFS, JFS and ext3 don't have this
          problem.

     AUTHORS
          ntfsclone was written by Szabolcs Szakacsits with contribu-
          tions from Per Olofsson (special image format support) and
          Anton Altaparmakov.  It was ported to ntfs-3g by Erik Lars-
          son and Jean-Pierre Andre.

     AVAILABILITY
          ntfsclone is part of the ntfs-3g package and is available
          at:
          http://www.tuxera.com/community/

     SEE ALSO
          ntfsresize(8) ntfsprogs(8) xfs_copy(8) debugreiserfs(8)
          e2image(8)

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