NTFSUNDELETE(8)          (November 2005)          NTFSUNDELETE(8)

     NAME
          ntfsundelete - recover a deleted file from an NTFS volume.

     SYNOPSIS
          ntfsundelete [options] device

     DESCRIPTION
          ntfsundelete has three modes of operation: scan, undelete
          and copy.

        Scan
          The default mode, scan simply reads an NTFS Volume and looks
          for files that have been deleted.  Then it will print a list
          giving the inode number, name and size.

        Undelete
          The undelete mode takes the files either matching the regu-
          lar expression (option -m) or  specified by the
          inode-expressions and recovers as much of the data as possi-
          ble.   It saves the result to another location.  Partly for
          safety, but mostly because NTFS write support isn't fin-
          ished.

        Copy
          This is a wizard's option.  It will save a portion of the
          MFT to a file.  This probably only be useful when debugging
          ntfsundelete

        Notes
          ntfsundelete only ever reads from the NTFS Volume.
          ntfsundelete will never change the volume.

     CAVEATS
        Miracles
          ntfsundelete cannot perform the impossible.

          When a file is deleted the MFT Record is marked as not in
          use and the bitmap representing the disk usage is updated.
          If the power isn't turned off immediately, the free space,
          where the file used to live, may become overwritten.  Worse,
          the MFT Record may be reused for another file.  If this hap-
          pens it is impossible to tell where the file was on disk.

          Even if all the clusters of a file are not in use, there is
          no guarantee that they haven't been overwritten by some
          short-lived file.

        Locale
          In NTFS all the filenames are stored as Unicode.  They will
          be converted into the current locale for display by

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          ntfsundelete.  The utility has successfully displayed some
          Chinese pictogram filenames and then correctly recovered
          them.

        Extended MFT Records
          In rare circumstances, a single MFT Record will not be large
          enough to hold the metadata describing a file (a file would
          have to be in hundreds of fragments for this to happen).  In
          these cases one MFT record may hold the filename, but
          another will hold the information about the data.
          ntfsundelete will not try and piece together such records.
          It will simply show unnamed files with data.

        Compressed and Encrypted Files
          ntfsundelete cannot recover compressed or encrypted files.
          When scanning for them, it will display as being 0% recover-
          able.

        The Recovered File's Size and Date
          To recover a file ntfsundelete has to read the file's meta-
          data.  Unfortunately, this isn't always intact.  When a file
          is deleted, the metadata can be left in an inconsistent
          state. e.g.  the file size may be zero; the dates of the
          file may be set to the time it was deleted, or random.
          To be safe ntfsundelete will pick the largest file size it
          finds and write that to disk.  It will also try and set the
          file's date to the last modified date.  This date may be the
          correct last modified date, or something unexpected.

     OPTIONS
          Below is a summary of all the options that ntfsundelete
          accepts.  Nearly all options have two equivalent names.  The
          short name is preceded by - and the long name is preceded by
          --.  Any single letter options, that don't take an argument,
          can be combined into a single command, e.g.  -fv is equiva-
          lent to -f -v.  Long named options can be abbreviated to any
          unique prefix of their name.

          -b, --byte NUM
               If any clusters of the file cannot be recovered, the
               missing parts will be filled with this byte.  The
               default is zeros.

          -C, --case
               When scanning an NTFS volume, any filename matching
               (using the --match option) is case-insensitive.  This
               option makes the matching case-sensitive.

          -c, --copy RANGE
               This wizard's option will write a block of MFT FILE
               records to a file.  The default file is mft which will
               be created in the current directory.  This option can

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               be combined with the --output and --destination
               options.

          -d, --destination DIR
               This option controls where to put the output file of
               the --undelete and --copy options.

          -f, --force
               This will override some sensible defaults, such as not
               overwriting an existing file.  Use this option with
               caution.

          -h, --help
               Show a list of options with a brief description of each
               one.

          -i, --inodes RANGE
               Recover the files with these inode numbers.  RANGE can
               be a single inode number, several numbers separated by
               commas "," or a range separated by a dash "-".

          -m, --match PATTERN
               Filter the output by only looking for matching file-
               names.  The pattern can include the wildcards '?',
               match exactly one character or '*', match zero or more
               characters.  By default the matching is
               case-insensitive.  To make the search case sensitive,
               use the --case option.

          -O, --optimistic
               Recover parts of the file even if they are currently
               marked as in use.

          -o, --output FILE
               Use this option to set name of output file that
               --undelete or --copy will create.

          -P, --parent
               Display the parent directory of a deleted file.

          -p, --percentage NUM
               Filter the output of the --scan option, by only match-
               ing files with a certain amount of recoverable content.
               Please read the caveats section for

          -q, --quiet
               Reduce the amount of output to a minimum.  Naturally,
               it doesn't make sense to combine this option with
               --scan.

          -s, --scan
               Search through an NTFS volume and print a list of files

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               that could be recovered.  This is the default action of
               ntfsundelete.  This list can be filtered by filename,
               size, percentage recoverable or last modification time,
               using the --match, --size, --percent and --time
               options, respectively.

               The output of scan will be:

               Inode  Flags  %age     Date    Time    Size  Filename
                6038  FN..    93%  2002-07-17 13:42  26629  thesis.doc
               box; lB lB l l.  Flag Description F/D  File/Directory
               N/R  (Non-)Resident data stream
               C/E  Compressed/Encrypted data stream !    Missing
               attributes

               The percentage field shows how much of the file can
               potentially be recovered.

          -S, --size RANGE
               Filter the output of the --scan option, by looking for
               a particular range of file sizes.  The range may be
               specified as two numbers separated by a '-'.  The sizes
               may be abbreviated using the suffixes k, m, g, t, for
               kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes and terabytes respec-
               tively.

          -t, --time SINCE
               Filter the output of the --scan option.  Only match
               files that have been altered since this time.  The time
               must be given as number using a suffix of d, w, m, y
               for days, weeks, months or years ago.

          -T, --truncate
               If ntfsundelete is confident about the size of a
               deleted file, then it will restore the file to exactly
               that size.  The default behaviour is to round up the
               size to the nearest cluster (which will be a multiple
               of 512 bytes).

          -u, --undelete
               Select undelete mode.  You can specify the files to be
               recovered using by using --match or --inodes options.
               This option can be combined with --output,
               --destination, and --byte.

               When the file is recovered it will be given its origi-
               nal name, unless the --output option is used.

          -v, --verbose
               Increase the amount of output that ntfsundelete prints.

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          -V, --version
               Show the version number, copyright and license for
               ntfsundelete.

     EXAMPLES
          Look for deleted files on /dev/hda1.

               ntfsundelete /dev/hda1

          Look for deleted documents on /dev/hda1.

               ntfsundelete /dev/hda1 -s -m '*.doc'

          Look for deleted files between 5000 and 6000000 bytes, with
          at least 90% of the data recoverable, on /dev/hda1.

               ntfsundelete /dev/hda1 -S 5k-6m -p 90

          Look for deleted files altered in the last two days

               ntfsundelete /dev/hda1 -t 2d

          Undelete inodes 2, 5 and 100 to 131 of device /dev/sda1

               ntfsundelete /dev/sda1 -u -i 2,5,100-131

          Undelete inode number 3689, call the file 'work.doc', set it
          to recovered size and put it in the user's home directory.

               ntfsundelete /dev/hda1 -u -T -i 3689

          Save MFT Records 3689 to 3690 to a file 'debug'

               ntfsundelete /dev/hda1 -c 3689-3690 -o debug

     BUGS
          There are some small limitations to ntfsundelete, but cur-
          rently no known bugs.  If you find a bug please send an
          email describing the problem to the development team:
          ntfs-3g-devel@lists.sf.net

     AUTHORS
          ntfsundelete was written by Richard Russon and Holger
          Ohmacht, with contributions from Anton Altaparmakov.  It was
          ported to ntfs-3g by Erik Larsson and Jean-Pierre Andre.

     AVAILABILITY
          ntfsundelete is part of the ntfs-3g package and is available
          from:
          http://www.tuxera.com/community/

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     SEE ALSO
          ntfsinfo(8), ntfsprogs(8)

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