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          pam_namespace - PAM module for configuring namespace for a

 [debug] [unmnt_remnt] [unmnt_only]
                           [require_selinux] [gen_hash]
                           [unmount_on_close] [use_current_context]
                           [use_default_context] [mount_private]

          The pam_namespace PAM module sets up a private namespace for
          a session with polyinstantiated directories. A
          polyinstantiated directory provides a different instance of
          itself based on user name, or when using SELinux, user name,
          security context or both. If an executable script
          /etc/security/namespace.init exists, it is used to
          initialize the instance directory after it is set up and
          mounted on the polyinstantiated directory. The script
          receives the polyinstantiated directory path, the instance
          directory path, flag whether the instance directory was
          newly created (0 for no, 1 for yes), and the user name as
          its arguments.

          The pam_namespace module disassociates the session namespace
          from the parent namespace. Any mounts/unmounts performed in
          the parent namespace, such as mounting of devices, are not
          reflected in the session namespace. To propagate selected
          mount/unmount events from the parent namespace into the
          disassociated session namespace, an administrator may use
          the special shared-subtree feature. For additional
          information on shared-subtree feature, please refer to the
          mount(8) man page and the shared-subtree description at

              A lot of debug information is logged using syslog

              For programs such as su and newrole, the login session
              has already setup a polyinstantiated namespace. For
              these programs, polyinstantiation is performed based on
              new user id or security context, however the command
              first needs to undo the polyinstantiation performed by
              login. This argument instructs the command to first undo
              previous polyinstantiation before proceeding with new

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              polyinstantiation based on new id/context

              For trusted programs that want to undo any existing bind
              mounts and process instance directories on their own,
              this argument allows them to unmount currently mounted
              instance directories

              If selinux is not enabled, return failure

              Instead of using the security context string for the
              instance name, generate and use its md5 hash.

              If a line in the configuration file corresponding to a
              polyinstantiated directory contains format error, skip
              that line process the next line. Without this option,
              pam will return an error to the calling program
              resulting in termination of the session.

              Instance parent directories by default are expected to
              have the restrictive mode of 000. Using this option, an
              administrator can choose to ignore the mode of the
              instance parent. This option should be used with caution
              as it will reduce security and isolation goals of the
              polyinstantiation mechanism.

              Explicitly unmount the polyinstantiated directories
              instead of relying on automatic namespace destruction
              after the last process in a namespace exits. This option
              should be used only in case it is ensured by other means
              that there cannot be any processes running in the
              private namespace left after the session close. It is
              also useful only in case there are multiple pam session
              calls in sequence from the same process.

              Useful for services which do not change the SELinux
              context with setexeccon call. The module will use the
              current SELinux context of the calling process for the
              level and context polyinstantiation.

              Useful for services which do not use pam_selinux for
              changing the SELinux context with setexeccon call. The
              module will use the default SELinux context of the user
              for the level and context polyinstantiation.

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              This option can be used on systems where the / mount
              point or its submounts are made shared (for example with
              a mount --make-rshared / command). The module will mark
              the whole directory tree so any mount and unmount
              operations in the polyinstantiation namespace are
              private. Normally the pam_namespace will try to detect
              the shared / mount point and make the polyinstantiated
              directories private automatically. This option has to be
              used just when only a subtree is shared and / is not.

              Note that mounts and unmounts done in the private
              namespace will not affect the parent namespace if this
              option is used or when the shared / mount point is

          Only the session module type is provided. The module must
          not be called from multithreaded processes.

              Namespace setup was successful.

              Unexpected system error occurred while setting up

              Unexpected namespace configuration error occurred.

              Main configuration file

              Directory for additional configuration files

              Init script for instance directories

          For the <service>s you need polyinstantiation (login for
          example) put the following line in /etc/pam.d/<service> as
          the last line for session group:

          session required [arguments]

          To use polyinstantiation with graphical display manager gdm,
          insert the following line, before exit 0, in

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          This allows gdm to restart after each session and
          appropriately adjust namespaces of display manager and the X
          server. If polyinstantiation of /tmp is desired along with
          the graphical environment, then additional configuration
          changes are needed to address the interaction of X server
          and font server namespaces with their use of /tmp to create
          communication sockets. Please use the initialization script
          /etc/security/namespace.init to ensure that the X server and
          its clients can appropriately access the communication
          socket X0. Please refer to the sample instructions provided
          in the comment section of the instance initialization script
          /etc/security/namespace.init. In addition, perform the
          following changes to use graphical environment with
          polyinstantiation of /tmp:

                    1. Disable the use of font server by commenting out "FontPath"
                       line in /etc/X11/xorg.conf. If you do want to use the font server
                       then you will have to augment the instance initialization
                       script to appropriately provide /tmp/.font-unix from the
                       polyinstantiated /tmp.
                    2. Ensure that the gdm service is setup to use pam_namespace,
                       as described above, by modifying /etc/pam.d/gdm.
                    3. Ensure that the display manager is configured to restart X server
                       with each new session. This default setup can be verified by
                       making sure that /usr/share/gdm/defaults.conf contains
                       "AlwaysRestartServer=true", and it is not overridden by

          namespace.conf(5), pam.d(5), mount(8), pam(7).

          The namespace setup scheme was designed by Stephen Smalley,
          Janak Desai and Chad Sellers. The pam_namespace PAM module
          was developed by Janak Desai <>, Chad
          Sellers <> and Steve Grubb
          <>. Additional improvements by Xavier Toth
          <> and Tomas Mraz <>.

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