SGDISK(8)                    (1.0.8)                    SGDISK(8)

     NAME
          sgdisk - Command-line GUID partition table (GPT) manipulator
          for Linux and Unix

     SYNOPSIS
          sgdisk [ options ] device

     DESCRIPTION
          GPT fdisk is a text-mode menu-driven package for creation
          and manipulation of partition tables. It consists of two
          programs: the text-mode interactive gdisk and the
          command-line sgdisk. Either program will automatically con-
          vert an old-style Master Boot Record (MBR) partition table
          or BSD disklabel stored without an MBR carrier partition to
          the newer Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) Partition Table
          (GPT) format, or will load a GUID partition table. This man
          page documents the command-line sgdisk program.

          Some advanced data manipulation and recovery options require
          you to understand the distinctions between the main and
          backup data, as well as between the GPT headers and the par-
          tition tables. For information on MBR vs. GPT, as well as
          GPT terminology and structure, see the extended gdisk docu-
          mentation at http://www.rodsbooks.com/gdisk/ or consult
          Wikipedia.

          The sgdisk program employs a user interface that's based
          entirely on the command line, making it suitable for use in
          scripts or by experts who want to make one or two quick
          changes to a disk. (The program may query the user when cer-
          tain errors are encountered, though.) The program's name is
          based on sfdisk, but the user options of the two programs
          are entirely different from one another.

          Ordinarily, sgdisk operates on disk device files, such as
          /dev/sda or /dev/hda under Linux, /dev/disk0 under Mac OS X,
          or /dev/ad0 or /dev/da0 under FreeBSD. The program can also
          operate on disk image files, which can be either copies of
          whole disks (made with dd, for instance) or raw disk images
          used by emulators such as QEMU or VMWare. Note that only raw
          disk images are supported; sgdisk cannot work on compressed
          or other advanced disk image formats.

          The MBR partitioning system uses a combination of
          cylinder/head/sector (CHS) addressing and logical block
          addressing (LBA). The former is klunky and limiting. GPT
          drops CHS addressing and uses 64-bit LBA mode exclusively.
          Thus, GPT data structures, and therefore sgdisk, do not need
          to deal with CHS geometries and all the problems they

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          create.

          For best results, you should use an OS-specific partition
          table program whenever possible. For example, you should
          make Mac OS X partitions with the Mac OS X Disk Utility pro-
          gram and Linux partitions with the Linux gdisk, sgdisk, or
          GNU Parted programs.

          Upon start, sgdisk attempts to identify the partition type
          in use on the disk. If it finds valid GPT data, sgdisk will
          use it. If sgdisk finds a valid MBR or BSD disklabel but no
          GPT data, it will attempt to convert the MBR or disklabel
          into GPT form. (BSD disklabels are likely to have unusable
          first and/or final partitions because they overlap with the
          GPT data structures, though.) GPT fdisk can identify, but
          not use data in, Apple Partition Map (APM) disks, which are
          used on 680x0- and PowerPC-based Macintoshes. If you specify
          any option that results in changes to an MBR or BSD diskla-
          bel, sgdisk ignores those changes unless the -g (--mbr-
          togpt), -z (--zap), or -Z (--zap-all) option is used. If you
          use the -g option, sgdisk replaces the MBR or disklabel with
          a GPT. This action is potentially dangerous! Your system may
          become unbootable, and partition type codes may become cor-
          rupted if the disk uses unrecognized type codes. Boot prob-
          lems are particularly likely if you're multi-booting with
          any GPT-unaware OS.

          The MBR-to-GPT conversion will leave at least one gap in the
          partition numbering if the original MBR used logical parti-
          tions. These gaps are harmless, but you can eliminate them
          by using the -s (--sort) option, if you like. (Doing this
          may require you to update your /etc/fstab file.)

          When creating a fresh partition table, certain considera-
          tions may be in order:

          *    For data (non-boot) disks, and for boot disks used on
               BIOS-based computers with GRUB as the boot loader, par-
               titions may be created in whatever order and in what-
               ever sizes are desired.

          *    Boot disks for EFI-based systems require an EFI System
               Partition (gdisk internal code 0xEF00) formatted as
               FAT-32. I recommended making this partition 550 MiB.
               (Smaller ESPs are common, but some EFIs have flaky FAT
               drivers that necessitate a larger partition for reli-
               able operation.) Boot-related files are stored here.
               (Note that GNU Parted identifies such partitions as
               having the "boot flag" set.)

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          *    Some boot loaders for BIOS-based systems make use of a
               BIOS Boot Partition (gdisk internal code 0xEF02), in
               which the secondary boot loader is stored, possibly
               without the benefit of a filesystem. (GRUB2 may option-
               ally use such a partition.) This partition can typi-
               cally be quite small (roughly 32 to 200 KiB, although 1
               MiB is more common in practice), but you should consult
               your boot loader documentation for details.

          *    If Windows is to boot from a GPT disk, a partition of
               type Microsoft Reserved (sgdisk internal code 0x0C01)
               is recommended. This partition should be about 128 MiB
               in size. It ordinarily follows the EFI System Partition
               and immediately precedes the Windows data partitions.
               (Note that GNU Parted creates all FAT partitions as
               this type, which actually makes the partition unusable
               for normal file storage in both Windows and Mac OS X.)

          *    Some OSes' GPT utilities create some blank space (typi-
               cally 128 MiB) after each partition. The intent is to
               enable future disk utilities to use this space. Such
               free space is not required of GPT disks, but creating
               it may help in future disk maintenance.

     OPTIONS
          Some options take no arguments, others take one argument
          (typically a partition number), and others take compound
          arguments with colon delimitation. For instance, -n (--new)
          takes a partition number, a starting sector number, and an
          ending sector number, as in sgdisk -n 2:2000:50000 /dev/sdc,
          which creates a new partition, numbered 2, starting at sec-
          tor 2000 an ending at sector 50,000, on /dev/sdc.

          Unrelated options may be combined; however, some such combi-
          nations will be nonsense (such as deleting a partition and
          then changing its GUID type code).  sgdisk interprets
          options in the order in which they're entered, so effects
          can vary depending on order. For instance, sgdisk -s -d 2
          sorts the partition table entries and then deletes partition
          2 from the newly-sorted list; but sgdisk -d 2 -s deletes the
          original partition 2 and then sorts the modified partition
          table.

          Error checking and opportunities to correct mistakes in
          sgdisk are minimal. Although the program endeavors to keep
          the GPT data structures legal, it does not prompt for veri-
          fication before performing its actions. Unless you require a
          command-line-driven program, you should use the interactive
          gdisk instead of sgdisk, since gdisk allows you to quit

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          without saving your changes, should you make a mistake.

          Although sgdisk is based on the same partition-manipulation
          code as gdisk, sgdisk implements fewer features than its
          interactive sibling. Options available in sgdisk are:

          -a, --set-alignment=value
               Set the sector alignment multiple. GPT fdisk aligns the
               start of partitions to sectors that are multiples of
               this value, which defaults to 1 MiB (2048 on disks with
               512-byte sectors) on freshly formatted disks. This
               alignment value is necessary to obtain optimum perfor-
               mance with Western Digital Advanced Format and similar
               drives with larger physical than logical sector sizes,
               with some types of RAID arrays, and with SSD devices.

     --attributes=list|[partnum:show|or|nand|xor|=|set|clear|toggle|get[:bitnum|hexbitmask]]
          -A,  View or set partition attributes. Use list to see
               defined (known) attribute values. Omit the partition
               number (and even the device filename) when using this
               option. The others require a partition number. The show
               and get options show the current attribute settings
               (all attributes or for a particular bit, respectively).
               The or, nand, xor, =, set, clear, and toggle options
               enable you to change the attribute bit value. The set,
               clear, toggle, and get options work on a bit number;
               the others work on a hexadecimal bit mask. For example,
               type sgdisk -A 4:set:2 /dev/sdc to set the bit 2
               attribute (legacy BIOS bootable) on partition 4 on
               /dev/sdc.

          -b, --backup=file
               Save partition data to a backup file. You can back up
               your current in-memory partition table to a disk file
               using this option. The resulting file is a binary file
               consisting of the protective MBR, the main GPT header,
               the backup GPT header, and one copy of the partition
               table, in that order. Note that the backup is of the
               current in-memory data structures, so if you launch the
               program, make changes, and then use this option, the
               backup will reflect your changes. If the GPT data
               structures are damaged, the backup may not accurately
               reflect the damaged state; instead, they will reflect
               GPT fdisk's first-pass interpretation of the GPT.

          -B, --byte-swap-name=partnum
               Swap the byte order for the name of the specified par-
               tition. Some partitioning tools, including GPT fdisk

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               1.0.7 and earlier, can write the partition name in the
               wrong byte order on big-endian computers, such as the
               IBM s390 mainframes and PowerPC-based Macs. This fea-
               ture corrects this problem.

          -c, --change-name=partnum:name
               Change the GPT name of a partition. This name is
               encoded as a UTF-16 string, but proper entry and dis-
               play of anything beyond basic ASCII values requires
               suitable locale and font support. For the most part,
               Linux ignores the partition name, but it may be impor-
               tant in some OSes. If you want to set a name that
               includes a space, enclose it in quotation marks, as in
               sgdisk -c 1:"Sample Name" /dev/sdb. Note that the GPT
               name of a partition is distinct from the filesystem
               name, which is encoded in the filesystem's data struc-
               tures.

          -C, --recompute-chs
               Recompute CHS values in protective or hybrid MBR. This
               option can sometimes help if a disk utility, OS, or
               BIOS doesn't like the CHS values used by the partitions
               in the protective or hybrid MBR. In particular, the GPT
               specification requires a CHS value of 0xFFFFFF for
               over-8GiB partitions, but this value is technically
               illegal by the usual standards. Some BIOSes hang if
               they encounter this value. This option will recompute a
               more normal CHS value -- 0xFEFFFF for over-8GiB parti-
               tions, enabling these BIOSes to boot.

          -d, --delete=partnum
               Delete a partition. This action deletes the entry from
               the partition table but does not disturb the data
               within the sectors originally allocated to the parti-
               tion on the disk. If a corresponding hybrid MBR parti-
               tion exists, gdisk deletes it, as well, and expands any
               adjacent 0xEE (EFI GPT) MBR protective partition to
               fill the new free space.

          -D, --display-alignment
               Display current sector alignment value. Partitions will
               be created on multiples of the sector value reported by
               this option. You can change the alignment value with
               the -a option.

          -e, --move-second-header
               Move backup GPT data structures to the end of the disk.

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               Use this option if you've added disks to a RAID array,
               thus creating a virtual disk with space that follows
               the backup GPT data structures. This command moves the
               backup GPT data structures to the end of the disk,
               where they belong.

          -E, --end-of-largest
               Displays the sector number of the end of the largest
               available block of sectors on the disk. A script may
               store this value and pass it back as part of -n's
               option to create a partition. If no unallocated sectors
               are available, this function returns the value 0.

          -f, --first-in-largest
               Displays the sector number of the start of the largest
               available block of sectors on the disk. A script may
               store this value and pass it back as part of -n's
               option to create a partition. If no unallocated sectors
               are available, this function returns the value 0. Note
               that this parameter is blind to partition alignment;
               when you actually create a partition, its start point
               might be changed from this value.

          -F, --first-aligned-in-largest
               Similar to -f (--first-in-largest), except returns the
               sector number with the current alignment correction
               applied. Use this function if you need to compute the
               actual partition start point rather than a theoretical
               start point or the actual start point if you set the
               alignment value to 1.

          -g, --mbrtogpt
               Convert an MBR or BSD disklabel disk to a GPT disk. As
               a safety measure, use of this option is required on MBR
               or BSD disklabel disks if you intend to save your
               changes, in order to prevent accidentally damaging such
               disks.

          -G, --randomize-guids
               Randomize the disk's GUID and all partitions' unique
               GUIDs (but not their partition type code GUIDs). This
               function may be used after cloning a disk in order to
               render all GUIDs once again unique.

          -h, --hybrid
               Create a hybrid MBR. This option takes from one to

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               three partition numbers, separated by colons, as argu-
               ments. You may optionally specify a final partition
               "EE" to indicate that the EFI GPT (type 0xEE) should be
               placed last in the table, otherwise it will be placed
               first, followed by the partition(s) you specify.  Their
               type codes are based on the GPT fdisk type codes
               divided by 0x0100, which is usually correct for Windows
               partitions. If the active/bootable flag should be set,
               you must do so in another program, such as fdisk. The
               gdisk program offers additional hybrid MBR creation
               options.

          -i, --info=partnum
               Show detailed partition information. The summary infor-
               mation produced by the -p command necessarily omits
               many details, such as the partition's unique GUID and
               the translation of sgdisk's internal partition type
               code to a plain type name. The -i option displays this
               information for a single partition.

          -j, --adjust-main-table=sector
               Adjust the location of the main partition table. This
               value is normally 2, but it may need to be increased in
               some cases, such as when a system-on-chip (SoC) is
               hard-coded to read boot code from sector 2. I recommend
               against adjusting this value unless doing so is abso-
               lutely necessary.

          -l, --load-backup=file
               Load partition data from a backup file. This option is
               the reverse of the -b option. Note that restoring par-
               tition data from anything but the original disk is not
               recommended. This option will work even if the disk's
               original partition table is bad; however, most other
               options on the same command line will be ignored.

          -L, --list-types
               Display a summary of partition types. GPT uses a GUID
               to identify partition types for particular OSes and
               purposes. For ease of data entry, sgdisk compresses
               these into two-byte (four-digit hexadecimal) values
               that are related to their equivalent MBR codes. Specif-
               ically, the MBR code is multiplied by hexadecimal
               0x0100. For instance, the code for Linux swap space in
               MBR is 0x82, and it's 0x8200 in gdisk. A one-to-one
               correspondence is impossible, though. Most notably, the
               codes for all varieties of FAT and NTFS partition cor-
               respond to a single GPT code (entered as 0x0700 in

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               sgdisk). Some OSes use a single MBR code but employ
               many more codes in GPT. For these, sgdisk adds code
               numbers sequentially, such as 0xa500 for a FreeBSD
               disklabel, 0xa501 for FreeBSD boot, 0xa502 for FreeBSD
               swap, and so on. Note that these two-byte codes are
               unique to gdisk and sgdisk. This option does not
               require you to specify a valid disk device filename.

          -m, --gpttombr
               Convert disk from GPT to MBR form. This option takes
               from one to four partition numbers, separated by
               colons, as arguments. Their type codes are based on the
               GPT fdisk type codes divided by 0x0100. If the
               active/bootable flag should be set, you must do so in
               another program, such as fdisk.  The gdisk program
               offers additional MBR conversion options. It is not
               possible to convert more than four partitions from GPT
               to MBR form or to convert partitions that start above
               the 2TiB mark or that are larger than 2TiB.

          -n, --new=partnum:start:end
               Create a new partition. You enter a partition number,
               starting sector, and an ending sector. Both start and
               end sectors can be specified in absolute terms as sec-
               tor numbers or as positions measured in kibibytes (K),
               mebibytes (M), gibibytes (G), tebibytes (T), or
               pebibytes (P); for instance, 40M specifies a position
               40MiB from the start of the disk. You can specify loca-
               tions relative to the start or end of the specified
               default range by preceding the number by a '+' or '-'
               symbol, as in +2G to specify a point 2GiB after the
               default start sector, or -200M to specify a point
               200MiB before the last available sector. A start or end
               value of 0 specifies the default value, which is the
               start of the largest available block for the start sec-
               tor and the end of the same block for the end sector. A
               partnum value of 0 causes the program to use the first
               available partition number. Subsequent uses of the -A
               (--attributes), -c (--change-name), -t (--typecode),
               and -u (--partition-guid) options may also use 0 to
               refer to the same partition.

          -N, --largest-new=num
               Create a new partition that fills the largest available
               block of space on the disk. You can use the -a
               (--set-alignment) option to adjust the alignment, if
               desired. A num value of 0 causes the program to use the
               first available partition number.

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          -o, --clear
               Clear out all partition data. This includes GPT header
               data, all partition definitions, and the protective
               MBR. Note that this operation will, like most other
               operations, fail on a damaged disk. If you want to pre-
               pare a disk you know to be damaged for GPT use, you
               should first wipe it with -Z and then partition it nor-
               mally. This option will work even if the disk's origi-
               nal partition table is bad; however, most other options
               on the same command line will be ignored.

          -O, --print-mbr
               Display basic MBR partition summary data. This includes
               partition numbers, starting and ending sector numbers,
               partition sizes, MBR partition types codes, and parti-
               tion names. This option is useful mainly for diagnosing
               partition table problems, particularly on disks with
               hybrid MBRs.

          -p, --print
               Display basic GPT partition summary data. This includes
               partition numbers, starting and ending sector numbers,
               partition sizes, sgdisk's partition types codes, and
               partition names. For additional information, use the -i
               (--info) option.

          -P, --pretend
               Pretend to make specified changes. In-memory GPT data
               structures are altered according to other parameters,
               but changes are not written to disk.

          -r, --transpose
               Swap two partitions' entries in the partition table.
               One or both partitions may be empty, although swapping
               two empty partitions is pointless. For instance, if
               partitions 1-4 are defined, transposing 1 and 5 results
               in a table with partitions numbered from 2-5. Transpos-
               ing partitions in this way has no effect on their disk
               space allocation; it only alters their order in the
               partition table.

          -R, --replicate=second_device_filename
               Replicate the main device's partition table on the
               specified second device.  Note that the replicated par-
               tition table is an exact copy, including all GUIDs; if
               the device should have its own unique GUIDs, you should
               use the -G option on the new disk.

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          -s, --sort
               Sort partition entries. GPT partition numbers need not
               match the order of partitions on the disk. If you want
               them to match, you can use this option.  Note that some
               partitioning utilities sort partitions whenever they
               make changes. Such changes will be reflected in your
               device filenames, so you may need to edit /etc/fstab if
               you use this option.

          -t, --typecode=partnum:{hexcode|GUID}
               Change a single partition's type code. You enter the
               type code using either a two-byte hexadecimal number,
               as described earlier, or a fully-specified GUID value,
               such as EBD0A0A2-B9E5-4433-87C0-68B6B72699C7.

          -T, --transform-bsd=partnum
               Transform BSD partitions into GPT partitions. This
               option works on BSD disklabels held within GPT (or con-
               verted MBR) partitions. Converted partitions' type
               codes are likely to need manual adjustment. sgdisk will
               attempt to convert BSD disklabels stored on the main
               disk when launched, but this conversion is likely to
               produce first and/or last partitions that are unusable.
               The many BSD variants means that the probability of
               sgdisk being unable to convert a BSD disklabel is high
               compared to the likelihood of problems with an MBR con-
               version.

          -u, --partition-guid=partnum:guid
               Set the partition unique GUID for an individual parti-
               tion. The GUID may be a complete GUID or 'R' to set a
               random GUID.

          -U, --disk-guid=guid
               Set the GUID for the disk. The GUID may be a complete
               GUID or 'R' to set a random GUID.

          --usage
               Print a brief summary of available options.

          -v, --verify
               Verify disk. This option checks for a variety of prob-
               lems, such as incorrect CRCs and mismatched main and
               backup data. This option does not automatically correct
               most problems, though; for that, you must use options
               on the recovery & transformation menu. If no problems

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               are found, this command displays a summary of unallo-
               cated disk space. This option will work even if the
               disk's original partition table is bad; however, most
               other options on the same command line will be ignored.

          -V, --version
               Display program version information. This option may be
               used without specifying a device filename.

          -z, --zap
               Zap (destroy) the GPT data structures and then exit.
               Use this option if you want to repartition a GPT disk
               using fdisk or some other GPT-unaware program. This
               option destroys only the GPT data structures; it leaves
               the MBR intact. This makes it useful for wiping out GPT
               data structures after a disk has been repartitioned for
               MBR using a GPT-unaware utility; however, there's a
               risk that it will damage boot loaders or even the start
               of the first or end of the last MBR partition. If you
               use it on a valid GPT disk, the MBR will be left with
               an inappropriate EFI GPT (0xEE) partition definition,
               which you can delete using another utility.

          -Z, --zap-all
               Zap (destroy) the GPT and MBR data structures and then
               exit. This option works much like -z, but as it wipes
               the MBR as well as the GPT, it's more suitable if you
               want to repartition a disk after using this option, and
               completely unsuitable if you've already repartitioned
               the disk.

          -?, --help
               Print a summary of options.

     RETURN VALUES
          sgdisk returns various values depending on its success or
          failure:

          0    Normal program execution

          1    Too few arguments

          2    An error occurred while reading the partition table

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          3    Non-GPT disk detected and no -g option, but operation
               requires a write action

          4    An error prevented saving changes

          5    An error occurred while reading standard input (should
               never occur with sgdisk, but may with gdisk)

          8    Disk replication operation (-R) failed

     BUGS
          Known bugs and limitations include:

          *    The program compiles correctly only on Linux, FreeBSD,
               and Mac OS X. Linux versions for x86-64 (64-bit), x86
               (32-bit), and PowerPC (32-bit) have been tested, with
               the x86-64 version having seen the most testing.

          *    The FreeBSD version of the program can't write changes
               to the partition table to a disk when existing parti-
               tions on that disk are mounted. (The same problem
               exists with many other FreeBSD utilities, such as gpt,
               fdisk, and dd.) This limitation can be overcome by typ-
               ing sysctl kern.geom.debugflags=16 at a shell prompt.

          *    The fields used to display the start and end sector
               numbers for partitions in the -p option are 14 charac-
               ters wide. This translates to a limitation of about 45
               PiB. On larger disks, the displayed columns will go out
               of alignment.

          *    The program can load only up to 128 partitions (4 pri-
               mary partitions and 124 logical partitions) when con-
               verting from MBR format. This limit can be raised by
               changing the #define MAX_MBR_PARTS line in the
               basicmbr.h source code file and recompiling; however,
               such a change will require using a larger-than-normal
               partition table. (The limit of 128 partitions was cho-
               sen because that number equals the 128 partitions sup-
               ported by the most common partition table size.)

          *    Converting from MBR format sometimes fails because of
               insufficient space at the start or (more commonly) the

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               end of the disk. Resizing the partition table (using
               the 's' option in the experts' menu) can sometimes
               overcome this problem; however, in extreme cases it may
               be necessary to resize a partition using GNU Parted or
               a similar tool prior to conversion with gdisk.

          *    MBR conversions work only if the disk has correct LBA
               partition descriptors. These descriptors should be pre-
               sent on any disk over 8 GiB in size or on smaller disks
               partitioned with any but very ancient software.

          *    BSD disklabel support can create first and/or last par-
               titions that overlap with the GPT data structures. This
               can sometimes be compensated by adjusting the partition
               table size, but in extreme cases the affected
               partition(s) may need to be deleted.

          *    Because of the highly variable nature of BSD disklabel
               structures, conversions from this form may be unreli-
               able -- partitions may be dropped, converted in a way
               that creates overlaps with other partitions, or con-
               verted with incorrect start or end values. Use this
               feature with caution!

          *    Booting after converting an MBR or BSD disklabel disk
               is likely to be disrupted. Sometimes re-installing a
               boot loader will fix the problem, but other times you
               may need to switch boot loaders. Except on EFI-based
               platforms, Windows through at least Windows 7 RC
               doesn't support booting from GPT disks. Creating a
               hybrid MBR (using the 'h' option on the recovery &
               transformation menu) or abandoning GPT in favor of MBR
               may be your only options in this case.

     AUTHORS
          Primary author: Roderick W. Smith (rodsmith@rodsbooks.com)

          Contributors:

          * Yves Blusseau (1otnwmz02@sneakemail.com)

          * David Hubbard (david.c.hubbard@gmail.com)

          * Justin Maggard (justin.maggard@netgear.com)

          * Dwight Schauer (das@teegra.net)

     Page 13                 Roderick W. Smith       (printed 5/25/22)

     SGDISK(8)                    (1.0.8)                    SGDISK(8)

          * Florian Zumbiehl (florz@florz.de)

     SEE ALSO
          cfdisk(8), cgdisk(8), fdisk(8), gdisk(8), mkfs(8),
          parted(8), sfdisk(8), fixparts(8).

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table

          http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn2006/tn2166.html

          http://www.rodsbooks.com/gdisk/

     AVAILABILITY
          The sgdisk command is part of the GPT fdisk package and is
          available from Rod Smith.

     Page 14                 Roderick W. Smith       (printed 5/25/22)