start-stop-daemon(8)      (2021-04-13)       start-stop-daemon(8)

          start-stop-daemon - start and stop system daemon programs

          start-stop-daemon [option...] command

          start-stop-daemon is used to control the creation and
          termination of system-level processes.  Using one of the
          matching options, start-stop-daemon can be configured to
          find existing instances of a running process.

          Note: Unless --pid or --pidfile are specified, start-stop-
          daemon behaves similar to killall(1).  start-stop-daemon
          will scan the process table looking for any processes which
          match the process name, parent pid, uid, and/or gid (if
          specified). Any matching process will prevent --start from
          starting the daemon. All matching processes will be sent the
          TERM signal (or the one specified via --signal or --retry)
          if --stop is specified. For daemons which have long-lived
          children which need to live through a --stop, you must
          specify a pidfile.

          -S, --start [--] arguments
              Check for the existence of a specified process.  If such
              a process exists, start-stop-daemon does nothing, and
              exits with error status 1 (0 if --oknodo is specified).
              If such a process does not exist, it starts an instance,
              using either the executable specified by --exec or, if
              specified, by --startas.  Any arguments given after --
              on the command line are passed unmodified to the program
              being started.

          -K, --stop
              Checks for the existence of a specified process.  If
              such a process exists, start-stop-daemon sends it the
              signal specified by --signal, and exits with error
              status 0.  If such a process does not exist, start-
              stop-daemon exits with error status 1 (0 if --oknodo is
              specified). If --retry is specified, then start-stop-
              daemon will check that the process(es) have terminated.

          -T, --status
              Check for the existence of a specified process, and
              returns an exit status code, according to the LSB Init
              Script Actions (since version 1.16.1).

          -H, --help
              Show usage information and exit.

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          -V, --version
              Show the program version and exit.

        Matching options
          --pid pid
              Check for a process with the specified pid (since
              version 1.17.6).  The pid must be a number greater than

          --ppid ppid
              Check for a process with the specified parent pid ppid
              (since version 1.17.7).  The ppid must be a number
              greater than 0.

          -p, --pidfile pidfile
              Check whether a process has created the file pidfile.

              Note: Using this matching option alone might cause
              unintended processes to be acted on, if the old process
              terminated without being able to remove the pidfile.

              Warning: Using this match option with a world-writable
              pidfile or using it alone with a daemon that writes the
              pidfile as an unprivileged (non-root) user will be
              refused with an error (since version 1.19.3) as this is
              a security risk, because either any user can write to
              it, or if the daemon gets compromised, the contents of
              the pidfile cannot be trusted, and then a privileged
              runner (such as an init script executed as root) would
              end up acting on any system process.  Using /dev/null is
              exempt from these checks.

          -x, --exec executable
              Check for processes that are instances of this
              executable. The executable argument should be an
              absolute pathname.

              Note: This might not work as intended with interpreted
              scripts, as the executable will point to the
              interpreter. Take into account processes running from
              inside a chroot will also be matched, so other match
              restrictions might be needed.

          -n, --name process-name
              Check for processes with the name process-name. The
              process-name is usually the process filename, but it
              could have been changed by the process itself.

              Note: On most systems this information is retrieved from
              the process comm name from the kernel, which tends to
              have a relatively short length limit (assuming more than

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              15 characters is non-portable).

          -u, --user username|uid
              Check for processes owned by the user specified by
              username or uid.

              Note: Using this matching option alone will cause all
              processes matching the user to be acted on.

        Generic options
          -g, --group group|gid
              Change to group or gid when starting the process.

          -s, --signal signal
              With --stop, specifies the signal to send to processes
              being stopped (default TERM).

          -R, --retry timeout|schedule
              With --stop, specifies that start-stop-daemon is to
              check whether the process(es) do finish. It will check
              repeatedly whether any matching processes are running,
              until none are. If the processes do not exit it will
              then take further action as determined by the schedule.

              If timeout is specified instead of schedule, then the
              schedule signal/timeout/KILL/timeout is used, where
              signal is the signal specified with --signal.

              schedule is a list of at least two items separated by
              slashes (/); each item may be -signal-number or
              [-]signal-name, which means to send that signal, or
              timeout, which means to wait that many seconds for
              processes to exit, or forever, which means to repeat the
              rest of the schedule forever if necessary.

              If the end of the schedule is reached and forever is not
              specified, then start-stop-daemon exits with error
              status 2.  If a schedule is specified, then any signal
              specified with --signal is ignored.

          -a, --startas pathname
              With --start, start the process specified by pathname.
              If not specified, defaults to the argument given to

          -t, --test
              Print actions that would be taken and set appropriate
              return value, but take no action.

          -o, --oknodo
              Return exit status 0 instead of 1 if no actions are
              (would be) taken.

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          -q, --quiet
              Do not print informational messages; only display error

          -c, --chuid username|uid[:group|gid]
              Change to this username/uid before starting the process.
              You can also specify a group by appending a :, then the
              group or gid in the same way as you would for the
              chown(1) command (user:group).  If a user is specified
              without a group, the primary GID for that user is used.
              When using this option you must realize that the primary
              and supplemental groups are set as well, even if the
              --group option is not specified. The --group option is
              only for groups that the user isn't normally a member of
              (like adding per process group membership for generic
              users like nobody).

          -r, --chroot root
              Change directory and chroot to root before starting the
              process. Please note that the pidfile is also written
              after the chroot.

          -d, --chdir path
              Change directory to path before starting the process.
              This is done after the chroot if the -r|--chroot option
              is set. When not specified, start-stop-daemon will
              change directory to the root directory before starting
              the process.

          -b, --background
              Typically used with programs that don't detach on their
              own. This option will force start-stop-daemon to fork
              before starting the process, and force it into the

              Warning: start-stop-daemon cannot check the exit status
              if the process fails to execute for any reason. This is
              a last resort, and is only meant for programs that
              either make no sense forking on their own, or where it's
              not feasible to add the code for them to do this

              Wait for the background process to send a readiness
              notification before considering the service started
              (since version 1.19.3).  This implements parts of the
              systemd readiness protocol, as specified in the
              sd_notify(3) man page.  The following variables are

                  The program is ready to give service, so we can exit

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                  The program requests to extend the timeout by number
                  microseconds.  This will reset the current timeout
                  to the specified value.

                  The program is exiting with an error.  Do the same
                  and print the user-friendly string for the errno

          --notify-timeout timeout
              Set a timeout for the --notify-await option (since
              version 1.19.3).  When the timeout is reached, start-
              stop-daemon will exit with an error code, and no
              readiness notification will be awaited.  The default is
              60 seconds.

          -C, --no-close
              Do not close any file descriptor when forcing the daemon
              into the background (since version 1.16.5).  Used for
              debugging purposes to see the process output, or to
              redirect file descriptors to log the process output.
              Only relevant when using --background.

          -O, --output pathname
              Redirect stdout and stderr to pathname when forcing the
              daemon into the background (since version 1.20.6).  Only
              relevant when using --background.

          -N, --nicelevel int
              This alters the priority of the process before starting

          -P, --procsched policy:priority
              This alters the process scheduler policy and priority of
              the process before starting it (since version 1.15.0).
              The priority can be optionally specified by appending a
              : followed by the value. The default priority is 0. The
              currently supported policy values are other, fifo and

          -I, --iosched class:priority
              This alters the IO scheduler class and priority of the
              process before starting it (since version 1.15.0).  The
              priority can be optionally specified by appending a :
              followed by the value. The default priority is 4, unless
              class is idle, then priority will always be 7. The
              currently supported values for class are idle, best-
              effort and real-time.

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          -k, --umask mask
              This sets the umask of the process before starting it
              (since version 1.13.22).

          -m, --make-pidfile
              Used when starting a program that does not create its
              own pid file. This option will make start-stop-daemon
              create the file referenced with --pidfile and place the
              pid into it just before executing the process. Note, the
              file will only be removed when stopping the program if
              --remove-pidfile is used.

              Note: This feature may not work in all cases. Most
              notably when the program being executed forks from its
              main process. Because of this, it is usually only useful
              when combined with the --background option.

              Used when stopping a program that does not remove its
              own pid file (since version 1.17.19).  This option will
              make start-stop-daemon remove the file referenced with
              --pidfile after terminating the process.

          -v, --verbose
              Print verbose informational messages.

          0   The requested action was performed. If --oknodo was
              specified, it's also possible that nothing had to be
              done.  This can happen when --start was specified and a
              matching process was already running, or when --stop was
              specified and there were no matching processes.

          1   If --oknodo was not specified and nothing was done.

          2   If --stop and --retry were specified, but the end of the
              schedule was reached and the processes were still

          3   Any other error.

          When using the --status command, the following status codes
          are returned:

          0   Program is running.

          1   Program is not running and the pid file exists.

          3   Program is not running.

          4   Unable to determine program status.

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          Start the food daemon, unless one is already running (a
          process named food, running as user food, with pid in

           start-stop-daemon --start --oknodo --user food --name food \
                  --pidfile /run/ --startas /usr/sbin/food \
                  --chuid food -- --daemon

          Send SIGTERM to food and wait up to 5 seconds for it to

           start-stop-daemon --stop --oknodo --user food --name food \
                  --pidfile /run/ --retry 5

          Demonstration of a custom schedule for stopping food:

           start-stop-daemon --stop --oknodo --user food --name food \
                  --pidfile /run/ --retry=TERM/30/KILL/5

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