NETEM(8)               (25 November 2011)                NETEM(8)

          NetEm - Network Emulator

          tc qdisc ... dev DEVICE ]  add netem OPTIONS

          OPTIONS := [ LIMIT ] [ DELAY ] [

          LIMIT :=  limit packets

          DELAY :=  delay TIME [ JITTER [ CORRELATION ]]]
                 [ distribution { uniform | normal |

          LOSS :=  loss { random PERCENT [ CORRELATION ]  |
                         state p13 [ p31 [ p32 [
                         gemodel p [ r [ 1-h [  [ ecn ]

          CORRUPT :=  corrupt PERCENT [ CORRELATION ]]

          DUPLICATION :=  duplicate PERCENT [ CORRELATION ]]

          REORDERING :=  reorder PERCENT [ CORRELATION ] [ gap
          DISTANCE ]


          SLOT :=  slot { MIN_DELAY [ MAX_DELAY ] |
                         distribution { uniform | normal FILE } DELAY
          JITTER }
                       [ packets PACKETS ] [  bytes BYTES ]

          NetEm is an enhancement of the Linux traffic control facili-
          ties that allow to add delay, packet loss, duplication and
          more other characteristics to packets outgoing from a
          selected network interface. NetEm is built using the exist-
          ing Quality Of Service (QOS) and Differentiated Services
          (diffserv) facilities in the Linux kernel.

     netem OPTIONS
          netem has the following options:

        limit packets
          maximum number of packets the qdisc may hold queued at a

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          adds the chosen delay to the packets outgoing to chosen net-
          work interface. The optional parameters allows to introduce
          a delay variation and a correlation.  Delay and jitter val-
          ues are expressed in ms while correlation is percentage.

          allow the user to choose the delay distribution. If not
          specified, the default distribution is Normal. Additional
          parameters allow to consider situations in which network has
          variable delays depending on traffic flows concurring on the
          same path, that causes several delay peaks and a tail.

        loss random
          adds an independent loss probability to the packets outgoing
          from the chosen network interface. It is also possible to
          add a correlation, but this option is now deprecated due to
          the noticed bad behavior.

        loss state
          adds packet losses according to the 4-state Markov using the
          transition probabilities as input parameters. The parameter
          p13 is mandatory and if used alone corresponds to the Ber-
          noulli model. The optional parameters allows to extend the
          model to 2-state (p31), 3-state (p23 and p32) and 4-state
          (p14).  State 1 corresponds to good reception, State 4 to
          independent losses, State 3 to burst losses and State 2 to
          good reception within a burst.

        loss gemodel
          adds packet losses according to the Gilbert-Elliot loss
          model or its special cases (Gilbert, Simple Gilbert and Ber-
          noulli). To use the Bernoulli model, the only needed parame-
          ter is p while the others will be set to the default values
          r=1-p, 1-h=1 and 1-k=0. The parameters needed for the Simple
          Gilbert model are two (p and r), while three parameters (p,
          r, 1-h) are needed for the Gilbert model and four (p, r, 1-h
          and 1-k) are needed for the Gilbert-Elliot model. As known,
          p and r are the transition probabilities between the bad and
          the good states, 1-h is the loss probability in the bad
          state and 1-k is the loss probability in the good state.

          can be used optionally to mark packets instead of dropping
          them. A loss model has to be used for this to be enabled.

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          allows the emulation of random noise introducing an error in
          a random position for a chosen percent of packets. It is
          also possible to add a correlation through the proper param-

          using this option the chosen percent of packets is dupli-
          cated before queuing them. It is also possible to add a cor-
          relation through the proper parameter.

          to use reordering, a delay option must be specified. There
          are two ways to use this option (assuming 'delay 10ms' in
          the options list).

          reorder 25% 50% gap 5
          in this first example, the first 4 (gap - 1) packets are
          delayed by 10ms and subsequent packets are sent immediately
          with a probability of 0.25 (with correlation of 50% ) or
          delayed with a probability of 0.75. After a packet is
          reordered, the process restarts i.e. the next 4 packets are
          delayed and subsequent packets are sent immediately or
          delayed based on reordering probability. To cause a repeat-
          able pattern where every 5th packet is reordered reliably, a
          reorder probability of 100% can be used.

          reorder 25% 50%
          in this second example 25% of packets are sent immediately
          (with correlation of 50%) while the others are delayed by 10

          delay packets based on packet size and is a replacement for
          TBF. Rate can be specified in common units (e.g. 100kbit).
          Optional PACKETOVERHEAD (in bytes) specify an per packet
          overhead and can be negative. A positive value can be used
          to simulate additional link layer headers. A negative value
          can be used to artificial strip the Ethernet header (e.g.
          -14) and/or simulate a link layer header compression scheme.
          The third parameter - an unsigned value - specify the cell-
          size. Cellsize can be used to simulate link layer schemes.
          ATM for example has an payload cellsize of 48 bytes and 5
          byte per cell header. If a packet is 50 byte then ATM must
          use two cells: 2 * 48 bytes payload including 2 * 5 byte
          header, thus consume 106 byte on the wire. The last optional
          value CELLOVERHEAD can be used to specify per cell overhead
          - for our ATM example 5.  CELLOVERHEAD can be negative, but
          use negative values with caution.

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          Note that rate throttling is limited by several factors: the
          kernel clock granularity avoid a perfect shaping at a spe-
          cific level. This will show up in an artificial packet com-
          pression (bursts). Another influence factor are network
          adapter buffers which can also add artificial delay.

          defer delivering accumulated packets to within a slot. Each
          available slot can be configured with a minimum delay to
          acquire, and an optional maximum delay.  Alternatively it
          can be configured with the distribution similar to
          distribution for delay option. Slot delays can be specified
          in nanoseconds, microseconds, milliseconds or seconds (e.g.
          800us). Values for the optional parameters BYTES will limit
          the number of bytes delivered per slot, and/or PACKETS will
          limit the number of packets delivered per slot.

          These slot options can provide a crude approximation of
          bursty MACs such as DOCSIS, WiFi, and LTE.

          Note that slotting is limited by several factors: the kernel
          clock granularity, as with a rate, and attempts to deliver
          many packets within a slot will be smeared by the timer res-
          olution, and by the underlying native bandwidth also.

          It is possible to combine slotting with a rate, in which
          case complex behaviors where either the rate, or the slot
          limits on bytes or packets per slot, govern the actual
          delivered rate.

          The main known limitation of Netem are related to timer
          granularity, since Linux is not a real-time operating sys-

          tc qdisc add dev eth0 root netem rate 5kbit 20 100 5
              delay all outgoing packets on device eth0 with a rate of
              5kbit, a per packet overhead of 20 byte, a cellsize of
              100 byte and a per celloverhead of 5 byte:

              Hemminger S. , "Network Emulation with NetEm", Open
              Source Development Lab, April 2005

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              Netem page from Linux foundation,

              Salsano S., Ludovici F., Ordine A., "Definition of a
              general and intuitive loss model for packet networks and
              its implementation in the Netem module in the Linux ker-
              nel", available at

          tc(8), tc-tbf(8)

          Netem was written by Stephen Hemminger at Linux foundation
          and is based on NISTnet.  This manpage was created by Fabio
          Ludovici <fabio.ludovici at yahoo dot it> and Hagen Paul
          Pfeifer <>

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