RED(8)                 (13 December 2001)                  RED(8)

          red - Random Early Detection

          tc qdisc ... red limit bytes [ min bytes ] [ max bytes ]
          avpkt bytes [ burst packets ] [ ecn ] [ harddrop rate ] [
          probability chance ] [ adaptive ] [ qevent index ] [ qevent
          mark block index ]

          Random Early Detection is a classless qdisc which manages
          its queue size smartly. Regular queues simply drop packets
          from the tail when they are full, which may not be the opti-
          mal behaviour. RED also performs tail drop, but does so in a
          more gradual way.

          Once the queue hits a certain average length, packets
          enqueued have a configurable chance of being marked (which
          may mean dropped). This chance increases linearly up to a
          point called the max average queue length, although the
          queue might get bigger.

          This has a host of benefits over simple taildrop, while not
          being processor intensive. It prevents synchronous retrans-
          mits after a burst in traffic, which cause further retrans-
          mits, etc.

          The goal is to have a small queue size, which is good for
          interactivity while not disturbing TCP/IP traffic with too
          many sudden drops after a burst of traffic.

          Depending on if ECN is configured, marking either means
          dropping or purely marking a packet as overlimit.

          The average queue size is used for determining the marking
          probability. This is calculated using an Exponential
          Weighted Moving Average, which can be more or less sensitive
          to bursts.

          When the average queue size is below min bytes, no packet
          will ever be marked. When it exceeds min, the probability of
          doing so climbs linearly up to probability, until the aver-
          age queue size hits max bytes. Because probability is nor-
          mally not set to 100%, the queue size might conceivably rise
          above max bytes, so the limit parameter is provided to set a
          hard maximum for the size of the queue.

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          min  Average queue size at which marking becomes a possibil-
               ity. Defaults to max /3

          max  At this average queue size, the marking probability is
               maximal. Should be at least twice min to prevent syn-
               chronous retransmits, higher for low min. Default to
               limit /4

               Maximum probability for marking, specified as a float-
               ing point number from 0.0 to 1.0. Suggested values are
               0.01 or 0.02 (1 or 2%, respectively). Default : 0.02

               Hard limit on the real (not average) queue size in
               bytes. Further packets are dropped. Should be set
               higher than max+burst. It is advised to set this a few
               times higher than max.

               Used for determining how fast the average queue size is
               influenced by the real queue size. Larger values make
               the calculation more sluggish, allowing longer bursts
               of traffic before marking starts. Real life experiments
               support the following guideline:

               Specified in bytes. Used with burst to determine the
               time constant for average queue size calculations. 1000
               is a good value.

               This rate is used for calculating the average queue
               size after some idle time. Should be set to the band-
               width of your interface. Does not mean that RED will
               shape for you! Optional. Default : 10Mbit

          ecn  As mentioned before, RED can either 'mark' or 'drop'.
               Explicit Congestion Notification allows RED to notify
               remote hosts that their rate exceeds the amount of
               bandwidth available. Non-ECN capable hosts can only be
               notified by dropping a packet. If this parameter is
               specified, packets which indicate that their hosts
               honor ECN will only be marked and not dropped, unless
               the queue size hits limit bytes. Recommended.

               If average flow queue size is above max bytes, this
               parameter forces a drop instead of ecn marking.

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     RED(8)                 (13 December 2001)                  RED(8)

               With this parameter, traffic that should be marked, but
               is not ECN-capable, is enqueued. Without the parameter
               it is early-dropped.

               (Added in linux-3.3) Sets RED in adaptive mode as
               described in
               Goal of Adaptive RED is to make 'probability' dynamic value between 1% and 50% to reach the target average queue :
               (max - min) / 2

          See tc (8) for some general notes about qevents. The RED
          qdisc supports the following qevents:

               The associated block is executed when packets are
               early-dropped. This includes non-ECT packets in ECN

          mark The associated block is executed when packets are
               marked in ECN mode.

          # tc qdisc add dev eth0 parent 1:1 handle 10: red
           limit 400000 min 30000 max 90000 avpkt 1000
           burst 55 ecn adaptive bandwidth 10Mbit

          tc(8), tc-choke(8)

          o    Floyd, S., and Jacobson, V., Random Early Detection
               gateways for Congestion Avoidance.

          o    Some changes to the algorithm by Alexey N. Kuznetsov.

          o    Adaptive RED  :

          Alexey N. Kuznetsov, <>,  Alexey
          Makarenko <>, J Hadi Salim
          <>, Eric Dumazet

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     RED(8)                 (13 December 2001)                  RED(8)

          <>.  This manpage maintained by bert
          hubert <>

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